The following is an extract from the draft translation of the arabic book entitled 'Dawa ilal Islam' (Dawa to Islam) by Sheikh Ahmad Mahmoud, published by Al-Waie Publications in Lebanon. I will be posting the sections of the book related to this subject.
How to establish dar al-Islam (the domain of Islam)
Now we shall go back to defining the actions required by the Shar’a, and the stages that have to be followed for establishing dar al-Islam.
We shall divide the discussion into two sections:
A section which deals with the Messenger’s (saw) method of change.
A section which deals with the method of the group or party in working for change, as an emulation of the method of the Messenger (saw).
The stage of culturing in his (saw) time
When he (saw) was sent, he began to call the people. Some believed in him and others professed disbelief, until Islam became widely known in Makkah, and the people talked about it. The Messenger (saw) initially used to visit them in their homes. He called people to Islam publicly in Makkah, in accordance with His (swt) saying;
“O you (Muhammad [saw]) enveloped (in garments)! Arise and warn!” [TMQ 74:1-2]. He organised them in a bloc on the basis of this deen secretly, which is why his companions used to pray in the valleys, hiding from their people. For the one who newly embraced Islam, he (saw) would send someone to teach him the Qur’an; He sent Khabbab b. Arat to teach Zynab bint al-Khattab and her husband Sa’eed the Qur’an, in the house of Sa’eed. It was the very halaqah (circle) at which Sayyiduna ‘Umar embraced Islam. He (saw) took the house of al-Arqam as the centre of the believing block and as a school for this new da’wah, where he would recite the Qur’an to them and instruct them to memorise it and understand it. The Prophet (saw) continued to conceal and hide this matter, and bring into the structure anyone who believed in him. He (saw) taught him secretly in the house of al-Arqam b. abi al-Arqam until He (swt) revealed;
“Therefore proclaim openly that which you are commanded.” [TMQ 15:94]
At the start, he used to give da’wah to anyone who he noticed had the readiness to accept the call, irrespective of the age or social standing, and regardless of gender or lineage. About forty people - men and women - from different environments and ages joined his group, until Allah (swt) ordered him to proclaim His (swt) deen. Most of them were youths. Amongst them were the weak, strong, rich and poor.
When those Sahaba matured in the culture, and their ‘aqliyyah (mentality) had been moulded and it had become an Islamic mentality, and their (nafsiyyah) emotional disposition also became Islamic and when the Messenger (saw) was satisfied that his block had become a strong block which was able to confront the whole of society, he came out publicly with the bloc when Allah (swt) ordered him.
The Islamic da’wah was open from the day in which he (saw) was sent. The people in Makkah used to know that Muhammad (saw) called people to a new deen and they knew that many had embraced Islam. They also knew that the Muslims were hiding their affiliation to the bloc and their conviction in the new deen. This knowledge implied that the people used to sense the new da’wah and people who believed in it, though they did not know where they gathered, or who the gathering believers were. The Messenger’s (saw) declaration of Islam was not something new. Rather what was new was the appearance of this believing block.
When the following saying of Allah (swt) was revealed to the Messenger (saw):
“Therefore proclaim openly that which you are commanded, and turn away from al-Mushrikeen (polytheists). Truly! We will suffice you against the scoffers. Who set up along with Allah another Ilah (god), they will come to know.” [TMQ 15:94]. The Messenger (saw) proclaimed the da’wah publicly and thus moved from the private stage to the public stage. He (saw) moved from the stage of contacting those in whom he sensed readiness, to the stage of addressing all the people. This was the start of the clash between Imaan and Kufr, and the friction between the correct thoughts and the corrupt thoughts. Thus the second stage started, which is the stage of interaction and struggle; and which was the most alarming amongst all the ages. The house of the Messenger (saw) was stoned. The wife of Abu Lahab, Umm Jameel, used to throw impurities in front of his house. He (saw) was content just to remove it. Abu Jahl threw upon him the uterus of a sheep, which had been slaughtered as a sacrifice to their idols, but he (saw) would bear the hurt. It only increased his insistence and steadfastness in the da’wah. The Muslims used to be threatened and harmed. Every tribe fell upon the Muslims in its midst, torturing and tormenting them because of their deen. Such was the example of Bilal, Ammar, his mother and father, and many others who left the best examples of steadfastness, suffering and enduring torture.
At the beginning, the Kuffar did not show much concern for the da’wah of the Messenger (saw) because they thought his speech was nothing more than the talk of priests and wise men. They thought the people would return to the deen of their fathers. That is why they did not run away from him or condemn him. When he used to pass their gatherings, they would say, “This is the son of ‘Abdul-Muttalib who is spoken to from the sky.” When the Messenger (saw) confronted and opposed them, where he mentioned their gods and disgraced them, and he insulted their minds and charged their forefathers with misguidance; then they declared him as their enemy and united in their opposition, enmity and belligerence against him.
They wished to diminish his status by disproving him in his claim of prophethood. Thus, they inquired about his miracles in a taunting and mocking manner. They said; “Why doesn’t Muhammad turn as-Safah and al-Marwah into gold?” “Why is a book (in written form) not revealed from the sky?” “Why does Jibreel not appear in front of them?” “Why does he not give life to the dead?” Furthermore they became more stubborn. The Messenger (saw) continued calling the people to the command of his Lord (swt). They used many ways to make him turn back from his da’wah, torturing his followers, propaganda and boycott, and other such means, which only increased the Messenger’s (saw) hold on the rope of Allah (swt) and his zeal for the da’wah.
News about the Messenger (saw) and his suffering reached the hearing of the tribes and his da’wah became generally known. Islam was mentioned throughout the peninsula, and the riders spoke about it from one place to another. The Muslims did not have opportunity to mix with the people and speak to them, except in the sacred months when the Messenger (saw) would come down to the Ka’bah and call the arabs to the deen of Allah (swt) and give them the glad tidings of His reward and warn them of His torment and punishment.
The stage of interaction in his (saw) time
The clash of the Quraysh with the da’wah was natural, because the Messenger (saw) had made the group (kutla) public and carried it in a bold and challenging manner. The da’wah by its very nature carries a struggle against the Quraysh and the society in Makkah. It called for the tawheed (exclusive unity) and worship of Allah (swt) and rebellion against everything else, and the uprooting of the corrupt regime under which they were living. He used to insult their gods, attack their cheap life and expose their unjust way of living. He attacked them with the Truth, and they attacked him with propaganda and false rumours. He used to call the people explicitly, he did not equivocate, speak leniently or submissively, nor did he flatter them or come to a compromise with them. He (saw) did all this, despite meeting all forms of hurt, rejection, expulsion, rumours and boycott. The Messenger (saw) managed to reach people, and Islam began to spread.
When his uncle and wife died and the Quraysh’s harm against him intensified, he (saw) set out for Taa’if, seeking the support and protection and wishing they would embrace Islam, but they rejected him in the worst manner imaginable. He came to the situation where he could not enter Makkah without protection. That day he entered Makkah under the protection of al-Mut’im b. ‘Addi. The Quraysh began to harm the Rasool of Allah (saw) even more, and their rejection intensified. They began to forbid the people from listening to him, but that did not detract him (saw) from the da’wah. He began, in the pilgrimage season, to offer himself to the tribes, calling them to Islam and informing them that he was a Prophet sent by Allah (swt), and he asked them to believe in him. His uncle Abu Lahab used to stand up and accuse him of lying, and incite the people so that they did not listen to him. That had an impact on them, such that they would move away from listening to him. Thus, he went to the camp of the tribe of Kinda and he went to Banu Kalb, Banu Hanifah and Banu ‘Amir b. Sa’sa’ah, but not one listened to him. Some of them used to reject him in a disgusting manner. What increased the rejection of the tribes to the Messenger (saw) was that they saw the Quraysh declaring any supporter of the Prophet (saw) as an enemy and helper against it. The people, as individuals and tribes, increasingly rejected the Messenger (saw), such that he was more isolated and the da’wah became more difficult in Makkah and its surroundings. The Makkan society appeared to be steeped in kufr and stubborn opposition. When the affliction on the companions increased, ‘Abdur-Rahman b. ‘Awf with some other companions sought permission from the Messenger (saw) to bear arms. They said; “O Prophet of Allah (saw). We had dignity and power as Mushriks. When we believed, we became humiliated.” The Messenger (saw) forbade them from this when he said:
“Verily, I have been ordered to forgive, so do not fight the people.” [Reported by Ibn Abi Haatim, an-Nasa’i and al-Haakim]
In this manner the Messenger (saw) in Makkah had proceeded in two stages:
- The stage of teaching, culturing, and intellectual and spiritual preparation. It is a stage of understanding thoughts and embodying them in individuals, and structuring around them.
- The stage of spreading the da’wah and the struggle. It is a stage of transferring the thoughts to a driving force in society, which pushes it to apply them in the mainstream of life, so that the masses believe in them, understand them, convey them, and struggle in the path of their application.
As for the first stage, it is a stage of calling people to Islam and culturing them with its thoughts, teaching them its rules, structuring in a block those who are able to do so, on the basis of the Islamic ‘Aqeedah. It is the stage of secret structuring in the da’wah, where the Messenger (saw) did not slacken from the da’wah, but proceeded to culture those embracing Islam with the thoughts, gather them in dar al-Arqam and mould them into the structure. Each day their Imaan increased and the relationship between them strengthened. Their understanding of the reality, of the task they were to undertake, increased. Thus, they prepared themselves to sacrifice in the path of the da’wah, until this da’wah became firmly implanted in their hearts and minds. Islam flowed within them like the blood that flowed in their veins; they became Islam, walking in the streets. That is why the da’wah could not remain trapped within them despite their hiding, secrecy of their structuring, and their desire to conceal their meetings. They began to discuss with those whom they trusted, and in whom they felt a readiness to accept the da’wah. In this manner, the people felt their da’wah and presence. Thus the da’wah passed the starting point. It became inevitable the da’wah should take off. There were attempts to make it take off and address all the people. With this the first stage came to an end, which is the stage of secret structuring and culturing that builds this structure.
Then another stage began, which is the stage of interaction and struggle. By making the people understand Islam - so they respond and turn to it - it mingles in their hearts, or they reject and attack it - thus clashing with its thoughts. From this clash, the kufr and corruption are defeated, Imaan and goodness are established and the correct thought prevails. Thus interaction started and the struggle took place between one thought and another, between Muslims and Kuffar. It began when the Messenger (saw) started to spread the da’wah to all the people in a public, bold and challenging manner. The verses started to come down upon the Messenger (saw) regarding the da’wah to Tawheed, campaigning against the thoughts of idolatry and polytheism, and criticising the following of the fathers and forefathers without scrutiny. They started to come down regarding the attack on the corrupt transactions; they attacked the corrupt trade and cheating in the weights and scales. The Messenger (saw) began to speak to the people as groups, and asked them to embrace Islam and support him. The dispute between the Quraysh and the Prophet (saw) increased. The da’wah started to add collective culturing to the concentrated culturing by halaqaat (circles) in houses, valleys and dar al-Arqam. It transferred from calling those in whom some goodness was perceived, to calling all the people. This collective da’wah and culturing had an effect on the Quraysh. Thus, their hatred intensified and they felt the danger drawing closer to them. They began to take serious steps to oppose the da’wah, after a period in which they paid no attention to Muhammad (saw) or his da’wah. Thus, the affliction and oppression increased. However, this collective da’wah had an effect on the da’wah itself. It made all the people hear the word of Islam, and the call to the deen of Allah (swt) spread amongst the people of Makkah. People entered into Islam, both men and women. The collective da’wah had the effect of transferring it to a wider horizon; though this took its carriers to hardship, torture and enduring all types of suffering. The hearts of the leaders of Quraysh flared up in rage when the Messenger (saw) attacked the injustice, cruelty and enslavement that prevailed in Makkah, and also when he exposed the conditions and actions of the Kuffar. This stage was the most difficult of stages for the Messenger (saw) and his companions.
If transferring from the cultural stage to the stage of interaction was the most delicate of stages because it requires wisdom, patience and precision in the way of acting, then the stage of interaction was the most difficult of stages. This is because it needs one to be brave, frank and challenging without giving any regard for the results or circumstances. In this stage the Muslims would be tempted away from their deen. The Imaan and the strength in bearing the hardship would appear in this stage, as well as their sincerity at the moment of confrontation.
In this manner the Messenger (saw) proceeded with his Sahabah to bear the suffering, injustice and suppression. Amongst them there were those who migrated to Abysinnia, fleeing with their deen, whilst others died under the torture, and others bore the suffering. They continued like this for an adequate enough period of time to change the society of Makkah. However, the severity of the affliction prevented this from happening. The Arabs and many others took the stance of onlookers and did not take a single step towards Imaan, because they tried to avoid angering the Quraysh. The work to transfer the da’wah to the third stage, which is the stage of implementation of Islam, moved outside of Makkah, whereby the Messenger (saw) started seeking the Nusrah (support) and protection from the tribes, so that he could clarify to the people what their Lord had revealed to him.
The Rasool (saw) offers Islam to the tribes
When Abu Talib, the uncle of the Messenger (saw), and the Messenger’s wife Khadijah (may Allah be pleased with her) both died in the same year, the misfortune for the Messenger (saw) became greater due to their death. The Quraysh had reached the point of inflicting harm on the Messenger (saw), which they never did before the death of his uncle, to the point they threw dust on his head. The Messenger (saw) used to say;
“Quraysh did not do anything more hateful to me, except after Abu Talib died.” [Sirah of Ibn Hisham]. When Abu Talib died, the Messenger (saw) went to Taa’if seeking the support and protection of its people. He went to a group of people from the Banu Thaqeef, who at that time, were the leaders and chiefs of the Thaqeef. He spoke to them about supporting Islam and standing beside him, against anyone who opposed him from his people. They rejected his offer and transmitted the news of his arrival to his people, even though he asked them to keep this visit secret. He was not able to enter Makkah, except under sanctuary.
The Messenger (saw) used to stand at the doors of the homes of tribes, saying;
“O such and such tribe. I am the Messenger of Allah sent to you. He orders you that you worship Allah and do not associate partners with Him; and that you should leave anything else from these idols, and believe in me and trust me. Protect me until I can clarify what Allah has sent me with.” [Sira Ibn Hisham]. His uncle Abu Lahab, used to stand behind him, answer back to him and reject whatever he said. None of them accepted. They used to say: “Your people know you better and they do not follow you.” They talked to him and argued, and he talked to them and invited them to Allah (swt) saying:
“O my Lord! If you had willed, they would not have been like this.”
It was mentioned in the Sira of Ibn Hisham; Az-Zuhri narrated that the Rasool of Allah (saw) went to Kinda in their place of residence (at Mina) and offered himself to them, and they rejected him. He also narrated that he (saw) went to the homes of the Banu Kalb and they did not accept his offer; and that he went to the homes of the Banu Hanifah and asked them to give him support and protection, but their response was the ugliest from amongst the Arabs. He also came to Banu ‘Amir b. Sa’sa’ah and invited them to Allah (swt), and offered himself to them. One man amongst them, known as Bayharah b. Firas said: “By Allah! If I could take this young man from the Quraysh, I can surely conquer the Arabs.” Then he said: “What do you think, if we give you bai’ah on your matter, and then Allah makes you victorious, will we have the power after you?” The Messenger (saw) said:
“The power belongs to Allah and He will place it where He wills.” Bayharah replied: “Are we to expose our throats to the Arabs in defence of you, and then when Allah makes you victorious, the power should go to someone else. Then we have no need for your power.”
The Messenger (saw) remained like this. Whenever the people gathered in the pilgrimage season, he (saw) would come to them and invite the tribes to Allah (swt), and call them to Islam. He (saw) offered to them himself, and whatever he (saw) brought from Allah (swt) of guidance and mercy. No sooner did he (saw) hear of the coming of an Arab person of reputation and prestige, he (saw) would turn to and invite him to Allah (swt), and offer what was revealed to him (saw). The tribes whom the Messenger of Allah (saw) visited, invited and offered himself to them, though none of them responded, their names are the following:
1 Banu ‘Amir b. Sa’sa’ah 2 Muhaarib b. Khasfah 3 Fazaarah 4 Ghassan 5 Murrah 6 Hanifah 7 Sulaym 8 ‘Abas 9 Banu Nadhr 10 Banu al-Bukaa 11 Kindah 12 Kalb 13 al-Harith b. Ka’b 14 ‘Uzrah 15 al-Hadaaremah
This list is according to what Ibn Sa’d mentioned in his “at-Tabaqaat” (The Generations).
The response of the people of Madinah
The Rasool of Allah (saw) continued inviting the tribes to Allah (swt) and offering himself to them every year - in Majannah, ‘Ukaz and Mina, - to protect him (saw) in order to convey the Message of His Lord, and hence for them would be Jannah. Not a single tribe of the Arabs responded to him, he (saw) was harmed and vilified until Allah (swt) wished to make His deen victorious, support His Prophet (saw) and carry out His promise. Thus He (swt) led him (saw) to this tribe of the Ansar. He (saw) ended with a group of them who were shaving their heads. He (saw) sat with them, invited them to Allah (swt) and recited the Qur’an to them. They responded to Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw) and thus rushed and professed Imaan, and believed in the Prophet (saw). Then they went to Madinah and invited their people to Islam; henceforth people started to embrace Islam.
In the pilgrimage season next year, twelve men from the Aws and Khazraj of Madinah who had embraced Islam came and met him (saw) in al-’Aqabah; this was the first meeting of al-’Aqabah, where they gave him the pledge of the women (bay’atun nisaa). The Messenger (saw) sent with them Mus’ab b. ‘Umayr in compliance with their request. He (saw) ordered him to recite the Qur’an to them, to teach them Islam and give them understanding of the deen. He was known as al-Muqri’ (The Reciter) and he resided with As’ad b. Zuraarah. Then it happened that Usayd b. Hadayr and Sa’d b. Mu’adh professed Imaan. They were both leaders of their people. When the latter embraced Islam he said to his people; “How do you see my position amongst you?” They replied; “We see you as our master and the best in opinion, and on the right path as a leader.” He said; “Your men and women are prohibited from speaking to me until you believe in Allah and His Messenger.” By the time of evening, not a single man or woman remained in the house of Abdul Ash-hal who had not become Muslim.
The pledge (bai’ah) of al-’Aqabah
Then Mus’ab returned to Makkah. Some of the Muslims of the Ansar went out for hajj with their people, the Mushriks, who were making the pilgrimage. They made a pledge with the Messenger (saw) at al-’Aqabah in the middle days of tashreeq (4 days, starting from 10th Dhil-Hijjah). They came to the Prophet (saw) and he (saw) met them, and they consisted of 73 men and 2 women. He (saw) had only his uncle with him. As’ad b. Zurarah said; “‘Al-’Abbas, the uncle of the Messenger (saw), was the first one to speak. He said; ‘O people of Khazraj. You have called Muhammad to that which you have invited him. Muhammad is the most dignified of people from his clan. By Allah! Those amongst us who believed in him, as well as those who did not, protected him because of lineage and honour. Muhammad has rejected all the people in favour of you. If you are a people of power, patience, experience in war and ready to face alone the enmity of all the arabs, who will fight you united; then decide what you want and carry it out, and do not disperse except after you agreed publicly and unanimously, for verily, the best speech is the speech that is honest.’
They said; ‘We have heard what you have said, but speak O Rasool of Allah and choose for yourself and your Lord what you like.’
The Messenger (saw) spoke, he recited the Qur’an and invited the people to Allah and encouraged them to embrace Islam. As regards his Lord, he stipulated that they worship Him and associate none with Him. Then he said;
‘I invite your allegiance, on the basis that you protect me as you would protect your women and children.’” [Ibn Hisham]. As’ad b. Zurarah Al-Bara’ b. continues to narrate; “Ma’rur took his hand to give the pledge and said; ‘Yes, by the One Who sent you in truth a Prophet, we shall protect you as we protect our women and children. Thus we give our allegiance, O Rasool of Allah. By Allah we are men of war and people of arms, which we have inherited, to leader from leader.’
While Al-Bara’ was speaking, Abul-Haythami Ibnul-Tayhan interrupted him and said; ‘O Rasool of Allah, we have ties with other men (meaning the Jews) and if we sever them, perhaps when we have done that and Allah will have given you victory, you will return to your people and leave us?’ The Rasool of Allah (saw) smiled and said; ‘No, blood is blood, and blood is only paid for by blood. I am of you and you are of me. I will fight against those whom you fight, and make peace with whom you make peace.’” [Sira of Ibn Hisham]
As’ad b. Zurarah continued to narrate; “Hence they said, ‘We gave pledge to him (saw) that we would be ready for any loss to our wealth, or slaughter of our noble ones., Then al-Bara said; ‘Stretch forth your hand, O Rasool of Allah.’ Then all seventy of them placed their hands on the hand of the Prophet (saw), and give him the bai’ah. When the people gave the bai’ah and had finished, Shaytan screamed at al-’Aqabah with the most distant voice and could be heard, ‘O people of al-Akhashib (meaning the Quraysh), would you like that Mohammed and the Sabians (who turned away from their deen) gather on your fight?’ Allah’s Messenger (saw) said;
‘Bring out to me twelve leaders that they may take charge of their people’s affairs like the Hawariyyoon (disciples) of ‘Isa b. Maryam – And I am responsible for my people.’ They produced the nuqabaa (chiefs from both tribes). This is how the bai’ah took place in this atmosphere of pure Imaan. To the point that al-’Abbas b. ‘Ubadah said to the Messenger (saw); ‘By the one who sent you in truth! If you so wish, tomorrow we shall turn against the people of Mina with our swords.’ The Messenger (saw) said;
‘We have not been commanded to do this, so go back to your riding camels.’” [Sirah Ibn Hisham]
The hajj season came to an end, and the people left Makkah, which had become enraged when the news about the bai’ah reached them. Ibn Sa’d reported in his “at-Tabaqaat” on the authority of ‘Urwah who narrated from ‘Aishah, that they said; “When the seventy people left Rasool Allah (saw), he felt that Allah (swt) had made for him a protection, and a people of war, readiness and support. However the test increased upon the Muslims. So the companions of the Rasool of Allah (saw) complained of this, so he (saw) gave them permission to make Hijrah. Then the Messenger (saw) informed them that he had been informed of the land they would be migrating to; this was Yathrib (Madinah), and whosoever wanted to leave then let him go there. He (saw) said; ‘I saw in my sleep that I was emigrating from Makkah to a land of palm trees. My mind went to al-Yamamah or Hajar, but it appeared to be the town of Yathrib’” [Narrated by al-Bukhari and Muslim]
Indeed, the attempts to attain the Nusrah from the tribes, and the first and second bai’ah, all indicate that the Messenger (saw) wanted an entity that had power and protection to support this deen. The matter was not restricted just to carrying the da’wah and enduring harm. It went to the point where there should be a power by which the Muslims could defend themselves. Rather it extended much further than this, to the point of establishing the nucleus which would be the cornerstone and main support in establishing the Islamic State, and the application of Islam in society, which would carry the universal message to mankind and carry alongside it the force that would protect Islam and remove from its way all the material obstacles that stand in the way of its propagation. The Hijrah took place and it involved the abandonment of wealth, homeland, spouse and family. The Hijrah to Madinah was completely different to the Hijrah to Abysinnia.
The Hijrah to Abysinnia was emigration of individuals fleeing for their deen and for the fear of being tortured. Allah (swt) made the Hijrah an escape for the Muslims who had been oppressed in Makkah, so that they may change their circumstances and not be under the hammer (of oppression); rather their souls may take rest and prepare to again carry the da’wah in a strong and active manner. It did not form one of the steps of the method where the muhajiroon would work to carry the da’wah from abroad, and through cooperation with the regimes to whose lands they emigrated to, so as to overthrow the regime in their land of origin.
The Hijrah (migration) to Madinah
However the Hijrah to Madinah formed a transition of the da’wah from the stage of discussion and patience, to the stage of implementation after the establishment of the entity, ie the Islamic State. It is movement from dar al-kufr to dar al-Islam, which the Messenger (saw) estbalished in Madinah. There he (saw) would convey Islam in a completey different manner, which would be done through a State that rules by Islam, applies it and calls for it with evidence and proof, and carries it by the force that protects the da’wah from the forces of evil and tyranny.
When the Messenger (saw) arrived at Madinah he (saw) was received by a great number of its people. The first thing he (saw) did was to build a mosque; the mosque was a place of salah (prayer) and consultation, and it was used to manage the affairs of the people and settle the disputes. He (saw) began to prapare the atmosphere of Madinah for war; he (saw) set up expeditions for which he (saw) appointed leaders and sent them outside Madinah; he (saw) signed treaties with the Jews. In general, the Messenger (saw) in Madinah had started to assume the role of a ruler; a head of state.
This is what the Messenger (saw) did until the dar al-Islam was established; so, from his actions, what are we obliged to follow?
We are obliged to emulate the life of the Messenger (saw); to proceed as he proceeded. Since the work to establish the Islamic State is an obligation, then following the path followed by the Messenger (saw) takes the same hukm. This is because the hukm of his explanatory action is of the same hukm of obligation as the explained matter. He (swt) said; “Say (O Muhammad [saw]): ‘This is my way: I invite unto Allah with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follows me.’” [TMQ 12:108]
Therefore, we must divide our work into two roles or stages, as the Messenger (saw) did:
- The stage of culturing and establishment.
- Stage of interaction and struggle.
In the first stage, we are obliged to do the sort of actions the Messenger (saw) undertook. This is done by generating the concentrated Islamic culture, in those accepting to carry the burden of the da’wah, and building in them a distinct Islamic personality. This takes place by forming the enlightened Islamic ‘aqliyyah (mentality) and the good Islamic nafsiyyah (disposition). This is achieved through the concentrated halaqaat (circles). Just as the Messenger (saw) used to do, where he used to call those in whom he felt a readiness to accept the da’wah, regardless of their age, status, gender and origin, and they were brought into the structure on this basis. So we continue to do that until the following become realised in this growing block:
- The maturity in the culture, such that their mentality and disposition are moulded according to Islam. Thus, they become capable of confronting the corruption of society.
- They cannot accept the da’wah to remain trapped within them. Hence they begin to propogate whatever they know. They start this with those in whom they find goodness, and then expand the da’wah.
- That the people perceive their da’wah, presence and gathering.
When these three things exist, as they existed in the first companions of the Messenger (saw), then we can move to the second phase or stage.
In this stage we are obliged to make the da’wah public, as the Messenger (saw) did, and we must confront the existing societies and challenge their thoughts, traditions and systems and demonstrate their corruption and clarify the alternative true Islamic thoughts, concepts and sytems. We are obliged to call the people, as the Messenger (saw) called the people, with frankness, courage and force. We do not yield and neither do we surrender. We do not flatter or compromise, and we give no regard for the customs, traditions, religions, ideologies, rulers or the mobs. We must carry the da’wah so that the absolute sovereignty is for the Islamic ideology, regardless of whether the people agree with it or not, and whether it went along with their traditions or contradicted them, and whether the people accepted, rejected or opposed it. We just stick to the ideology and have patience, until the people are changed according to it. Since the leaders will stand as an obstacle to the da’wah, just as they did in the time of the Messenger (saw), that will necessitate the group engages in political struggle aginst them. This will take place by exposing them and their moves, loyalties and conspiracies, and by attacking them just as the Messenger (saw) did in his own time. See the Qur’an attacking Abu Lahab by name when He (swt) said; “Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab, and perish he! His wealth and his children will not benefit him! He will be burnt in a Fire of blazing flames!” [TMQ 111:1-3]. This was despite his honour and status in the tribe of Bani Hashim. Similarly, the Qur’an threatened the chief of Bani Makhzum al-Waleed b. al-Mughira when He (swt) said; “Leave Me Alone (to deal) with (the creature) whom I created (bare and) alone! And then granted him resources in abundance.” [TMQ 74:11-12]. Until His (swt) saying; “Soon will I cast him into Hell-fire” [TMQ 74:26]; and when He (swt) spoke about him in Sura Nun; “Violent (and cruel) with all that of doubtful birth” [TMQ 68:13]; and when He (swt) spoke of Abu Jahl; “Let him beware! If he does not desist, We will drag him by the forelock; A lying, sinful forelock!” [TMQ 96:15-16]
In our conveying of the da’wah, the desire to guide people must appear as it used to appear in the da’wah of the Messenger (saw); where he, in this stage strived to explain to the people the ideology of Islam so that it may become their ideology, and so that his aim may become their aim. In other words, we want the people to adopt - through conviction - what we convey to them.
Just as the rejection, obstruction, lies, expulsion, propaganda and boycott happened to the Messenger (saw); they happen to us today, as well.
Just as the Sahabah felt the need to carry arms and requested the Messenger (saw) to give them permission to fight, and he (saw) forbade them by saying; “I have been ordered to be forgiving, so do not fight the people.” In the same way, we must abstain from carrying arms, and using them for the sake of attaining power, before seeking the Nusrah.
Just as the Messenger (saw) sought the Nusrah to move to the third stage, which is the stage of power and ruling; similarly, we are obliged to seek the Nusrah (material support) to acheive the establishment of the ruling through it, as we understand from the action of the Messenger (saw).