The following is an extract from the draft translation of the arabic book entitled 'Dawa ilal Islam' (Dawa to Islam) by Sheikh Ahmad Mahmoud, published by Al-Waie Publications in Lebanon. I will be posting the sections of the book related to this subject.
Methods contrary to the Shar’ee method
As compared with what we have mentioned about the method of the Messenger (saw) and the importance of emulating it and not deviating away from it, we find there are other approaches adopted by Islamic groups or Muslim intellectuals, which relate to this subject. Regardless of who said it, we must concern ourselves with what has been said. We must undertake a quick examinination of them, removing the veil from them, so that the Muslim does not continue confused and lost in the maze of these approaches, or harbours doubts about carrying the da’wah. In what follows, we present some of the most important approaches.
* Some Muslims say the obligation of working to establish the Khilafah must be restricted to calling the rulers and their entourage
The Mala’a are the chiefs amongst people. The affairs rest in their hands and they are usually around the rulers. If the da’wah succeeded with these people then the societies will easily change to the advantage of Islam, otherwise there will be no change. The matter that leads to such an understanding of restricting the da’wah to the ruling entourage is that the work to establish the Khilafah via the da’wah to ordinary Muslims will result in their humiliation by the ruler. They will be burdened to the extent that they cannot bear, and the Muslim has been forbidden from this, when the Messenger (saw) said; “The Muslim should not humiliate himself.” He was asked: “How can he humiliate himself?” He (saw); “By exposing himself to the affliction he cannot bear.” [Reported by Ahmad, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah]
The one who studies the reality in which calls (for change) arise, he will find they come about in societies that are dominated by injustice, moral depravity, destruction, hardship and adversity. Since all of these aspects are due to not having Imaan in Allah (swt) and in His right of Sovereignty, that is why in the past, the prophets, from amongst whom is our noble Messenger (saw), used to first invite to the Imaan and worship of Allah (swt).
Societies generally, whether in the past or today, are led by the rulers and their entourage. The false creedal concepts, and the laws that arise from them, will be according to their interests. They protect these false beliefs in order to protect their interests and position, and they assume the task of defending and protecting these creedal beliefs. This is what prompted a judicious arab bedouin to make such a profound and correct statement when he heard the da’wah of the Messenger (saw) for the first time; he said; “Indeed, this is a matter disliked by the kings.” The people in these societies submit to these rulers and their entourage, so they are affected more than creating an effect. They submit to the system applied on them even if they hate it. They know removing the injustice of the rulers is costly.
When Allah (swt) sent the Prophets and Messengers, He (swt) would send them to their peoples to show them the truth and guide them to the right path. The ones who would take it upon themselves to respond and lead the opposition would be the rulers and their arrogant entourage.
The Mala’ are the helpers of the rulers. They are the people of interest, the rich and extravagant. They are the leaders and chiefs of the people, who form the political and intellectual medium of the ruler, and he relies on them and seeks their help. They are the people that Allah (swt) described as being at the front among those who stand against the prophets of Allah. This is because their hearts have become filled with the love for money and status, and their interests have become linked to their positions. That is why when the da’wah to Allah (swt) came, they think it conflicts with their interests and positions; so they confront the da’wah and incite the ruler to fight against it and eliminate it. So he gives-in to their advice due to what he bears of evils and sins. Thus a severe confrontation takes place between the prophets of Allah (swt) and those rulers who are surrounded by the Mala’a. The intellectual and political struggle between the prophets of Allah (swt) and the rulers and their entorage, would begin in order to win over the people. The prophets undertake the da’wah to the truth by the truth while they were defenceless, weak, having no power other than the power of the true word, which affects the hearts and minds. The rulers and with them their entourage, would oppose them initially with false arguments such as; it is magical speech, they are stories of old, or that the carriers of the truth are possessed or liars, and the believer in this is just a fool and low. When that does not work they resort to torture, expulsion, arrest and murder. The battle breaks out from all sides between the prophets and their followers, the rulers and their entourage and those who remained on the religion of their kings. It is a law (of Allah) that the Qur’an mentions frequently.
Thus we see Sayyiduna Nuh (alaihi salaam) calling his people. The first people to oppose him were the entourage. He (swt) said in Surah al-A’raaf; “Indeed, We sent Nuh to his people and he said: ‘O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other Ilah (God) but Him. Certainly, I fear for you the torment of a Great Day!’ The leaders of his people said: ‘Verily, we see you in plain error’ Nuh said:’O my people! There is no error in me, but I am a Messenger From the Lord of the worlds.’” [TMQ 7:59-61]
Here also Sayyiduna Hud (alaihi salaam), calls his people, ‘Aad. The first to reject his da’wah were the leaders of his people. Allah (swt) says; “And to (the people of) ‘Aad We sent their brother Hud. He said: ‘O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other Ilah (God) but Him. Will you not fear Allah?’ The leaders of those who disbelieved among his people said: ‘Verily, we see you in foolishness, and verily, we think you are one of the liars.’” [TMQ 7:65-66]
When Sayyiduna Salih (alaihi salaam) also called his people Thamud, the first to reject his da’wah were the leaders of the people. Allah (swt) says; “And to Thamud We sent their brother Salih. He said: ‘O my people! Worship Allah! You have no Ilah (god) but Him …’” [TMQ 7:73]; and Allah (swt) said: “The leaders of those who were arrogant among his people said to those who were counted weak - to such of them as believed: ‘Know you that Salih is one sent from his Lord?’ They said: ‘We indeed believe in that with which he has been sent.’ Those who were arrogant said: ‘Verily, we disbelieve in that which you believe in.’” [TMQ 7:75-76]
Similarly, Sayyiduna Shu’ayb (alaihi salaam); when he called his people in Madyan, the leaders confronted him with arrogance. Allah (swt) says; “And to (the people of) Madyan (We sent) their brother Shu’ayb. He said: ‘O my people! Worship Allah! You have no Ilah (god) but Him...’” [TMQ 7:85], and Allah (swt) said: “The chiefs of those who were arrogant among his people said: ‘We shall certainly drive you out, O Shu’ayb, and those who have believed with you from our town, or else you (all) shall return to our religion.’” [TMQ 7:88]
When Allah (swt) sent Sayyiduna Musa (alaihi salaam) to Fir’aun and his entourage, they rejected him and feared those with him, circulated news about him and counselled Fir’aun to kill him. Allah (swt) said; “Then after them We sent Musa with Our Signs to Fir’aun and his chiefs, but they wrongfully rejected them. So see how was the end of the mufsidoon (mischiefmakers).” [TMQ 7:103]; and Allah (swt) said “The chiefs of the people of Fir’aun said: ‘This is indeed a well-versed sorcerer.’” [TMQ 7:109], “The chiefs of Fir’aun’s people said: ‘Will you leave Musa and his people to spread mischief in the land and to abandon you and your gods?’” [TMQ 7:127], “But none believed in Musa except the offspring of his people, because of the fear of Fir’aun and his chiefs, lest they should persecute them; and verily, Fri’awn was an arrogant tyrant on the earth, he was indeed one of the musrifoon (those who commit all kinds of great sins).” [TMQ 10:83]
The Sirah of the Messenger (saw), which is no exception to the Sirah of the previous Prophets, informs us that what made the da’wah slow down, prevented people from hearing it and believing in it was the severe torture and persecution of the believers. The believer would thus fear for being tortured by his people because of his Imaan. The one who wanted to believe would fear that he would have to endure what those who had already believed had endured. The battle between the believers and those who went against them, led by the mala’a, was fought with alternate success. Then the carpet was swept from beneath the feet of the tawaagheet. Then the one who undertook the responsibility of this da’wah will assume the reins of power.
It was mentioned in the sahih of Bukhari on the authority of Ibn Mas’ud (ra) who said; “Whilst the Prophet (saw) was in prostration, and people from Quraysh were around him, Uqbah b. Abi Mu’ait brought the stomach of a camel and threw it on the back of the Prophet (saw), but he did not raise his head. Fatimah came and took it away from his back and made du’a against the one that did that. The Prophet (saw) said; ‘O Allah! Take the mala’a (chiefs) of Quraysh, Abu Jahl b. Hisham, Utbah b. Rabee’ah and Umayyah b. Khalaf, …” Ibd Mas’ud (ra) said (in another report); “I saw them killed on the day of Badr and thrown in the well.”
Makkah did not have only one ruler, with his entourage, but there were many Mala’. Those were the people who opposed the da’wah of the Messenger (saw) and tried to divert the people away from it.
The Prophets were sent to their peoples whilst Muhammad (saw) in his da’wah was sent to the whole of mankind.
When the entourage of Quraysh displayed the greatest amount of rejection and obstruction, this does not mean that the da’wah was restricted to them. The Messenger (saw) invited the society without discrimination. His da’wah did not discriminate between the rich and the poor, or between the master and the slave; to the point that the Messenger (saw) was even mildly rebuked for frowning in the face of Ibn Umm Maktum, who was a poor blind believer. He (saw) was anxious to invite the leaders with whom he had met, hoping that they would profess Imaan or those behind them would profess Imaan. This mild rebuke by Allah (swt) of His Messenger (saw) does not prevent the concern for inviting the leaders; rather it only prevents discrimination. The da’wah to the leaders is the same as the da’wah to the masses, in terms of the request.
The Sirah even mentions that when the Messenger (saw) used to invite leaders and chiefs, he did not just invite them just because they are chiefs and leaders; rather he used to invite with the aim that those ordinary people behind them would profess Imaan. This is why the da’wah used to include everyone.
Also, there were people who responded to the Islamic da’wah who were not considered leaders of their people; people like Bilal, ‘Ammar and his mother and father. The same goes for Suhayb and Salman, who were not from the leaders of Quraysh. The same applies to ‘Aamir b. Fuhayrah, Umm ‘Abees, Zunayrah, an-Nahdiyyah and her daughter and the slavegirl of Bani Mu`mil. All of them were slaves freed by Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) and those people were from the early Muslims.
The Messenger (saw) initially used to invite those in whom he sensed some goodness. Later he invited all the people. The young and the old used to respond to him. The commoner and the nobleman from his people also responded.
There is no restriction in the subject of the da’wah; it rather includes all the people, and conducted by the method followed by the Messenger (saw), so that we achieve what the Messenger (saw) achieved in terms of establishing the dar al- Islam.
* Some Muslims say that ibaadah (ritual worship) is what is required and not the work to establish the Islamic State
They also say that the Messenger (saw) called people to the worship of Allah (swt) and did not call people to the establishment of an Islamic State; or that the central issue is the worship of Allah (swt) and not the Islamic State; or that it is not important to establish an Islamic State, but it is important to worship Allah (swt). These are their views; or something of the same nature.
To respond to this objection we must define the reality of ibaadah and how it is acheived.
Allah (swt) created mankind to worship Him. Thus, ibaadah is the objective for which Allah (swt) created the human beings. The meaning of, “Laa Ilaaha illallah” is the following: there is none to be worshipped except Allah (swt), and anything other than this is false and must be rejected and man must testify to this. “Muhammad rasoolullah”, means that the worship and obedience should be according to what only Muhammad (saw), the Rasool of Allah, has brought and man must testify to this.
Thus, ‘ibaadah (worship) is only for Allah (swt) and it cannot take place, except as legislated by Allah (swt) of what was brought only by the Rasool of Allah, and this is an origin that must be realised in every action or statement in our life.
Hence when the Muslim undertakes an action in this life to achieve a need for himself or a value which is in the reality of life, he moves solely for the motive of satisfying his needs and instincts, which can be satisfied in more than one way.
Satisfying this in the Shar’ee way, and restricting oneself to it, and linking that with the belief in Allah (swt), makes the action of the Muslim a worship.
Since behind every action there is the satisfaction of a desire or need, and mans needs are related to many areas, it is natural that the actions of man will cover all aspects of life.
Thus, ‘ibaadah is that man should direct his actions according to the orders and prohibitions of Allah (swt), and this must be done based on the belief in Allah (swt) only; this leads to the comprehensiveness of ibaadah which encompasses all of man’s actions.
When you say to a Muslim “worship Allah”, it does not mean that you are only instructing him to pray, pay zakah, make hajj or undertake things the fuqaha (jurists) have placed under the category of ‘ibadaat (worships). It means that he should obey Allah (swt) in everything He (swt) has commanded and refrain from everything He (swt) has forbidden.
Thus, the Imaan in Allah (swt) is the origin of actions. The worship is for the sake of directing all the actions on the basis of belief in Allah (swt). Therefore, the whole deen is ‘ibaadah, and ‘ibaadah means submission. The meaning of submitting ourselves to Allah (swt) is to worship Him and humble ourselves to the order of Allah, the All-Knowing and All-Aware, and we submit ourselves to Him (swt) with contentment and submission.
That is why part of worshipping and obeying Him (swt) is, enjoining the ma’roof and forbidding the munkar, and engaging in Jihaad in His path against the people of kufr and nifaaq (hypocrisy), establishing Allah’s deen in the life of the Muslims, spreading the da’wah between all people and protecting the Muslims; just as it is also in the prayer, Zakah and qiyaam (nightly devotional prayers).
Worshipping of Allah (swt) includes all actions of man, which the Muslim undertakes according to the reality in which he lives. If the reality is that the Muslim does not pray then calling him to pray is a call to worship, and inviting him to fast is an invitation to worship, and inviting him to buy and sell according to the Islamic Shar’a is an invitation to worship Allah (swt). Since Imaan in Allah (swt) is the origin of every worship, then calling people to prayer or fasting must be preceded by provoking the Imaan in the person who is given da’wah, and making this Imaan the impetus for commitment and the controller of actions.
Likewise for calling people to the establishment of Islam and ruling by what Allah (swt) has revealed, which are from the orders of Allah (swt) and they must be obeyed. They are undertaken by the one who believes in Allah (swt). The invitation to these orders must be preceded by the invitation to believe in Allah (swt). This is what will realise the worship of Allah (swt) in this matter.
Since the Muslims today live under kufr systems whose rules are not derived from Allah (swt), and the Muslim cannot live an Islamic way of life under them; then the call to establish the deen represents worshipping of Allah (swt), to which attention should be drawn and efforts spent.
Thus, we are obliged to link our call to Allah’s (swt) worship with the problems of this age, which are all reflected in the call to resume the Islamic way of life. Then the worship of Allah (swt) will be achieved in the most complete manner. Therefore, the call for the establishment of the Islamic State is a call for the establishment of the deen which is ‘ibaadah, and is a call for ‘ibaadah. This is because it is an order from Allah (swt) in whom we believe; the Muslim who ignores this is complacent in the worship of Allah (swt).
Therefore, the manner in which this issue has been presented by those people is wrong, because it seems to imply that working to establish the Khilafah contradicts with ‘ibaadah. Holding such an opinion is an attack on part of the Qur’an by another part, which the Muslims have been forbidden from doing.
* Some others say the Sirah of the Messenger (saw) has not been verified
This means we are not bound by texts that are not authentic. As a consequence, we are not required to act upon it. They think this is an evidence for their opinion (as opposed to it being an evidence against them) of not emulating the actions of the Messenger (saw) in Makkah, when he worked to establish the Khilafah.
In response to this view we say that the Sirah is a compilation of reports and incidents, which require examination and authentication. Since it relates to the actions of the Messenger (saw), it is part of the Wahy (revelation). Hence, the Muslims must be concerned with the Sirah of the Mustafah, just as they are concerned with the Qur’an and Sunnah. His Sirah in Makkah constitues the actions he undertook whilst he was there, and which led to the establishment of dar al-Islam in Madinah. Neglecting the Sirah will incur sin on those able to verify it for not doing that, and it will incur sin upon Muslims for not encourageing those who had the ability to verify it.
It is very strange indeed, that those who make such a claim are from the people who usually concern themselves with the reporting and checking of ahadith. They put forward this view as if they are exempt from working to establish the deen. They cite this view, thinking that they have scored an important and conclusive point.
Have those Muslims forgotten that they are commanded, like any other Muslim, to work to estbalish the Islamic State? This makes it obligatory upon them to study, examine and check the Sirah. If the reality has prompted them to check prophetic ahadith regarding partial Shar’ee matters, an effort for which they are thanked; and they have exerted great effort and spent a lot of time in this path; then how much more incumbent is it upon them to spend time and effort once they realised that the issue relates to the estbalishment of the deen?
The Sirah books are not at a point where all their reports must be neglected, just as they have not reached the point where all their narrations have to be taken.
The field of historiography in which the Sirah writers worked did not depend on the strict accuracy of the methods of the Muhaddithun (compilers of ahadith). Nor were they as strict with regards to establishing the trustworthiness of narrators and transmitters, the correctness of what they transmitted, excessive brevity (contraction) and reluctance in transmission.
This made the scholars of hadith or those involved in verification look at the Sirah writers as complacent. The truth is that the science of hadith requires what the Muhaddithun and scholars of ahadith have investigated in themselves and in their transmissions.
The science of Sirah demands this in one of its aspects, which relates to the biography of the Messenger (saw) and his companions. As for the other aspect, which does not relate to the Messenger (saw) and his companions, then the leniency does not impair this knowledge. The incidents are many and numerous and the days pass quickly, the Sirah writer or historiographer is not able to encompass all the incidents if he wishes to rely on the method of the Muhaddithun. Hence, the biography of the Messenger (saw) is one of the most important things the Muslims should be concerned with, because it containes the reports about the Messenger (saw) regarding his statements, actions, consent and attributes. All of these things are part of the legislation just like the Qur’an. The Prophetic Sirah is one of the constituents of legislation; that is why it is considered part of the hadith. Whatever has been authentically narrated from the Prophet (saw) is considered a Shar’ee rule because it is from the Sunnah. Not to mention that following the Messenger (saw) has been commanded by Allah (swt). He (swt) said; “Indeed in the Messenger of Allah [Muhammad (saw)] you have a good example to follow.” [TMQ 33:21]. Thus, to give attention and pursue the Sirah is a Shar’ee matter.
The methodology of transmitting the Sirah in the early days used to rely on the narration of reports. The historians began to transmit it verbally. The first generation, which witnessed the actions of the Messenger (saw) and heard about them, began to narrate them to others. The generation that came after transmitted it from the first generation. Some of them put them in writing in a miscellaneous manner as we can see in the books of ahadith even today. By the advent of the second century we saw some scholars beginning to compile the biographical reports and put them together, and they wrote this down by mentioning the name of the transmitter and the person from whom he transmitted the report, exactly as it was done in the narration of the hadith. Hence, the scholars of hadith and those who scrutinise the isnaad (chain of transmission) were able to know the acceptable and authentic Sirah reports from the ones which were weak and rejected, by knowing the narrators and the chain of transmission. This is what is relied upon when citing something from the Sirah when it is authentic. The issue is not one of establishing a new discipline; rather it requires seeking the accuracy and correctness in the statements and actions of the Messenger (saw). However, there are some concerned people who checked the Sirah. The group or party that emulates the example of the Messenger (saw) in establishing the deen must check the texts that it relies on as evidence for its action.
Furthermore, the books of Sirah, despite their disagreements, agree together (just like the books of hadith and as the Noble Qur’an has indicated) on the stages and actions of the da’wah. The Noble Qur’an has clarified many of the details of the da’wah, in a manner that is sufficient to throw a clear light on the correctness of what has been transmitted about it. The Noble Qur’an has mentioned many things that clarify what is required, and in an accurate manner.
For example, the Messenger (saw) embarked upon attacking the false creeds and opposing the idols, atheism, Judaism, Magians and the Sabians. The Qur’an has indicated this in many ayaat. The Messenger (saw) attacked the customs and traditions when he attacked the live burial of girls, a she-camel let loose for free pasture (waseelah), idol sacrifices for twin births in animals, and divining with arrows. He (saw) opposed the rulers and he mentioned them by name and description, and exposed their plots against the da’wah. The group must adhere to all of these things. Its adherence will be to the origin of the action and its general meaning, and not according to its details, means and forms. Thus, the group will oppose the erroneous thoughts, incorrect concepts and attack the customs and traditions that deviate from Islam in their reality. It will stand up against the rulers, expose their conspiracies, clarify the thoughts and rules of Islam and call the Ummah to adopt them and work together with it to establish it in their life.
The Messenger (saw) faced all of this unarmed and defenceless without taking sides (with any), compliance (with others’ wishes) or accepting any compromise. He refused all the offers of attraction or threat, and remained patient without deviating from the order of his Lord. The Qur’an has informed us of this, so this is a guidance for the group during its work.
The revelation of Allah’s (swt) order to the Messenger (saw); “So proclaim what you are commanded with” indicates that before the ayah was revealed, the issue of the public proclaiming of the da’wah did not exist, rather it was secret and hidden, which is the stage before the public proclamation.
And His (swt) saying; “So that you may warn the mother of towns and what surrounds it” [TMQ 6:92], is a command of extending the da’wah outside of Makkah. The Qur’an’s mention of the Muhajireen and the Ansar is a proof for the existence of Hijrah and Nusrah.
Therefore, the Qur’an is the first guide. The books of hadith are overflowing with the reports of the Muslims during the Makkan period. Bukhari, for example, mentioned under the heading; “How the Prophet (saw) and his companions were treated by the Mushriks in Makkah.” He cites the hadith of Khabbab b. al-Arat when he came pleading to the Messenger (saw) to pray to Allah (swt) to give the Muslims the victory. He also mentions the Messenger’s (saw) du’a against the chiefs of Quraysh. He also mentions the severe mal-treatment he (saw) received from his people when he went up to Taa’if. We find the same things narrated in the other books of hadith. Therefore, we do not stand before an order that we have to perform without having its texts.
It is worth mentioning here that the Sirah writers were themselves reliable and trustworthy, which other scholars have testified to.
- Ibn Ishaaq (85-152 AH) wrote a book called, “al-Maghazi” (the military expeditions). Az-Zuhri said about him; “Whosoever wishes to learn about the Maghazi (military expeditions), let him refer to Ibn Ishaaq.” Shafi’i said about him: “Whosoever wishes to be an expert in the maghazi, he is totally dependent on Muhammad b. Ishaq.” Bukhari also mentioned him in his Tareekh.
- Ibn Sa’d (168- 230 AH) and his book, “at-Tabaqaat” (the generations). Al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi said of him: “Muhammad b. Sa’d for us is one of the people of trust, and his hadith indicates his truthfulness for he examines most of his narrations.” Ibn Khillikaan said: “He was honest and trustworthy.” Ibn Hajar said about him: “He was one of the great, reliable huffaz (people who had memorised ahadith) and critics.”
- At-Tabari (224-310 AH) he has a book entitled, “History of the Messengers and Kings” (tareekh ar-rasool wal-mulook) in which he followed the methodology of isnaad (chains of narration). Al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadi said about him, “He was knowledgeable about the Sunan (ie hadith), their lines of transmission, the sound hadith from the spurious, the history of people and their news.” For the majority of hadith, he wrote the Tareekh according to the methodology of the Muhaditheen. He has compiled a book of hadith entitled; “Tahzeebul athaar wa tafseel at-thaabit ‘an Rasoollullahi (saw) minal akhbaar” – “Revision of the reports and elaboration of the proven news about the Rasool of Allah (saw).” Ibn ‘Asaakir said about it, “It is an amazing book, in which he spoke about every authentic hadith of the Messenger of Allah (saw).”
- Similary, Ibn Katheer and az-Zahabi are considered to have great expertise regarding hadith.
* There are some Muslims who think bearing arms against the rulers today is a method for change that we are obliged to follow
They cite as evidence the hadith of “evil rulers” whom the Messenger (saw) has ordered to challenge with arms if they did not establish the rule of Allah (swt).
In response to this understanding, whose advocates we respect even though we disagree with them in this opinion, we say; the examination of the manaat of the hukm, (the reality for which the rule was revealed to treat) uncovers the correct understanding. The hadith deals with the ruler - the Imaam in dar al-Islam - who has been given a legitimate Shar’ee, bai’ah. Thus, he became an Imam through the bai’ah of the Muslims. The land that this Imaam ruled was dar al-Islam, ie it was ruled by Islam, and its security was in the hands of the Muslims. The Muslims in this instance are ordered to obey him. If the ruler happened to exceed the bounds with regards to what Allah (swt) has revealed, and began to openly rule by kufr laws, even if it is one hukm that has not even a semblance of an evidence (shubhat daleel), then the Muslims are commanded to overthrow him by arms. Contemplate the meaning of the following hadith, which is the subject of our discussion, and this will become clear. It has been narrated by ‘Awf b. Maalik al-Ashja’i who said “I heard the Rasool of Allah (saw) say; ‘The best of your leaders are those that you love, and they love you; you pray for them and they pray for you; and the worst of your leaders are those that you curse and they curse you.’ They said; ‘Should not then we fight against them.’ He (saw) said; ‘No; as long they establish the Salah amongst you.’” [Reported by Muslim]. What is meant by the establishment of the Salah is the application of the Shar’ee rules by way of “baab tasmiyatul kul bi ismil juz’a” (meaning the whole by mentioning a part).
As for the ruler of dar al-kufr, his reality is completely different. He is not the Imaam of the Muslims, though he is their ruler, and he has not been appointed in the lawful manner as the Shar’a stipulates, and he never committed himself to establishing the Islamic rules in their life, even though it was an obligation upon him.
When we look also at our reality, we find that it is not enough to bear arms in the process of change. The issue has gone beyond the changing of the ruler to the issue of ruling by Islam. So who will undertake its responsibilities? It requires statesmen and an Islamic political medium. The issue of ruling by Islam is not easy, such that any military leader can undertake it, however competent he may be militarily, and however sincere he may be to Islam. It requires experiance, understanding, pursuance, and a distinguished Shar’ee understanding. The method of the Messenger (saw) ensures all of this:
- It ensures that the extraordinary Muslim politician and leader is produced, who has years of experience spent in carrying the da’wah before the establishment of the Islamic State. He knows the tricks and deception, and cunning of the Kaafir states such that he is not deceived. He will then be able to protect the state and develop the state to the role befitting its position amidst the other states of the world as a guiding and guided state, and a righteous Khilafah on the way of the Prophethood.
- It will ensure the production of sincere Shabaab who will carry the burden of the da’wah before the establishment of the State, such that they, with others of the Muslims who are concerned about the matters of the da’wah, form the Islamic political medium, and from them will come the walis (governers), Ameer of Jihaad, ambassadors and those who carry the da’wah to the people in other states.
- It will generate the popular base, which will embrace Islam and the state and protect it.
- It will ensure the well trained people of power, whose strength will increase when the people stand by their side and not against them, especially when they realise that the ruler, the ruling apparatus with him and the power which he depends on is a force for them, that undertakes what Allah (swt) has imposed on them in terms of applying Islam and strengthening the deen.
Furthermore, the armed work requires money, weapons and training. This will overburden the movement, hence it will be tempted to resort to others for assistance. This is the first step to failure. The Muslims have tried out this path, and it caused them much harm. Not to mention that the expression “try out” is itself erroneous.
When we say that carrying weapons is not the Shar’ee method of change, this is not to spare those unjust rulers who do not care about the Muslims at all. Rather, it is to spare some of our sincere brothers in the deen, we wish to unite their efforts in the required Shar’ee work. We remind them of the fact that the Messenger (saw) forbade his companions in Makkah from using weapons when he said; “I have been ordered to forgive, so do not fight.” [Sirah Ibn Hisham]. Furthermore there is the revelation of His (swt) saying; “Have you not seen those who were told to hold back their hands (from fighting) and perform the Salah, and give zakah, but when the fighting was ordained for them...” [TMQ 4:77]
In this manner, we find many corroborative Shar’ee evidences, which confirms following the method of the Messenger (saw) in the da’wah. Any addition, omission, change, alteration, or modification will have a bad effect on the da’wah, group and the Islamic Ummah. Thus, we have insisted on the importance of the proper study of the Shar’a and the method of the Messenger (saw), in order to achieve the best emulation of the Messenger (saw). It is for Allah (swt) to show us the right way.