The following is an extract of the draft english translation of an excellent recent book entitled 'Political Concepts' which was published in the Arab world in 2005.
The influence and effect of these peoples in international politics would appear when we examine the great world issues.
1. The Issue of Europe
The issue of Europe is the prime world issue since many centuries. It is related to the great states, balance of power between these states, the world colonial domination, including its military, economic, political and cultural extent. It is of the oldest issues, and most dangerous upon what is called world peace.
It is the oldest world issue because it created in the world what is called international family or international community; where international law was founded because of that. The international family/community consisting of the Christian European states was founded so that Europe can face Islam. However, what is called the sacred alliance was founded to attack Napoleon and to prevent the expansion of France. World War I took place to prevent Germany from taking the oil of the Middle East and to restrict its power. For confronting Germany and preventing it from disturbing the balance of power in Europe, the four great states: England, France, USA and SU agreed to destroy Germany and prevent it from returning again as a great state. To prevent the unification of Europe and strengthening of Germany, there were political manoeuvres that delayed for many years the formation of the EU; besides they delayed the unification of Germany for tens of years. The two superpowers undertook actions for achieving this purpose, whether before or after the détente. At the beginning, France had a role in that, but it turned away from it later on, and it started to endeavour for strengthening Europe through using Germany. England had a role as well in the original plan, though it pretended endeavouring to unify Europe. Therefore, the issue of Europe together with its links is of the oldest issues.
As regarding the fact that the issue of Europe is most dangerous to the so called world peace, this is represented in the conduct and actions of each of France, England and Germany; besides the actions of the SU and America, before their agreement, and the actions of the two superpowers, America and the SU after their agreement, and after the end of détente between them. This was also the case even after the collapse of the SU and the Eastern camp, and after dissolving Warsaw Pact. France, England and America represented the Western Camp before the agreement between the two giants. The issue of Europe at that time represented the settlement of World War II, and it was represented in discussing the future of West Europe as well as Germany. The Western camp adopted the unification of Europe so as to stand in the face of SU; and America was particularly interested in reviving German militarism and founding a strong German army so as to stand in the face of the SU, and create new balance of power between Germany, France and England. The SU represented the Eastern Camp, and it viewed the certain danger against it coming from Europe, and particularly from Germany. Therefore, it challenged the unification of Germany, the unification of Europe, as well the European army and rearmament of Germany. It managed through the cold war, political actions and diplomatic activity to succeed in achieving that. It thus prevented Europe for tens of years from moving one step forward in its issue.
However, after the emergence of the two giants, and through the agreement reached between Khrushchev and Kennedy, the situation has changed. The views of America and SU towards the issue of Germany have unified, and they agreed on one opinion regarding the issue of Europe. This has been manifested immediately at their meeting; because John Kennedy, the American president at that time, gave a statement saying: “The fear of the SU from being military invaded by Europe is justified, for Russia was attacked by Europe twice in history. In the first it was attacked by France at time of Napoleon, and in the second by Germany at time of Hitler. Therefore, it is necessary to have something that safeguards the absence of danger against SU by Europe, such as disarmament of Central Europe, as an example”. This statement unequivocally indicates that the opinion of the SU and America towards the issue of Europe and Germany particularly became the same. After the end of the détente, the opinion of America regarding Europe did not change in terms of controlling and attacking its ambition for independence (from America) and participation in drawing the international politics, preventing it from returning back to its past regions of influence, elimination of its influence in South East Asia and the gulf region, subjugating it so as to remain under the American umbrella of the NATO pact and confronting every European attempt for creating a military force specific to it. This is because when Europe felt the fears of war have become remote after the détente, and after it restored vigour and improved its economy, it started to yearn for participating with the two giants in drawing the international politics and building its policy with America on the basis of participation and equality, rather than on subordination. It also started to work for returning to the regions of its old colonialism, particularly Britain and France, which made America watch closely the activities of Europe. Moreover, America rushed after the collapse of the Eastern camp and the disintegration of Warsaw pact to fill the vacuum that resulted from that in the states of East Europe through building relations with them. This aimed at intercepting the efforts of EU, particularly Germany for expansion towards the east. America retained also the NATO pact, and it opposed and still opposes building of European military force independent from the NATO. As regarding Russia that inherited the SU it does not hide its fear of the EU expansion towards the east; so it strived for having safeguards. However, because of the international situation resulting from the collapse of the SU and the Eastern camp, besides its feeling of its weakness before USA, it did not find escape from coordinating with EU states for reaching agreement over the dossier of East Europe. It also strives through coordination with some EU states to become effective in world politics. This forced it to take a more lenient stance towards EU and its states, different to its situation immediately after World War II, during the détente period, and immediately after that.
As for France, it used to work for unifying Europe and making of it a third force between the two camps, after De Gaulle assumed the authority till he visited USA and met with Nixon in March 1969. So, he worked for strengthening Germany to an extent it does not pose danger to France, and for creating federal union between the states of Europe on condition of safeguarding the sovereignty of France. He endeavoured to distance England from Europe, because he believed England’s traditional policy since old history was to prevent, with all possible means, the unification of Europe. After the resignation of De Gaulle in 1969, and his death one year after that, the French president George Pompidou met with the PM of Britain, Edward Heath in 1971 in long and condensed negotiations, after which Pompidou accepted the membership of Britain.
France and Germany, in particular, still attempt to develop a common European foreign policy, particularly Germany that realises the extent of opposition to its emergence as a German force. So, it tries through coordination with France to emerge as a force within the frame of EU, thus achieving by that most of its special objectives, like expansion to the east. The two states succeeded, during the war against Iraq in 2003, to emerge with one stance opposing the war, which might prepare the environment for making of France and Germany a polarisation axis for a common European foreign policy. The struggle of the two states for founding a draft of a new European constitution and a common European general military staff independent from the NATO is only for making Europe a global power influencing the international politics.
As for England, it tried during the détente period to cement its relation with Germany, and disclose to it the conspiracies of America and SU against the development and strengthening of Germany. After that it decided to join the European Common Market after the long and condensed meeting between Pompidou and Edward Heath in 1971, despite the severe domestic opposition in Britain. Britain started to strengthen itself with Europe in facing the two giants before and after the collapse of the SU, but without showing open enmity to America. This was due to the necessity of the stage, for Europe was still in its first steps to become a global force, and its path was still full of dangers; besides it might not end with the aimed success. Particularly, America is conscious of the objectives of France and Germany, and she tries always to frustrate the French-German plans, because she is the strongest in the international arena and has enough capabilities that help her to accomplish that any time she wants. The policy of Britain today stands on the basis of putting one leg in Europe and another leg in America, where it hunts the benefits wherever it might find them.
This different (national) reality of the European states, particularly the great powers, represents an obstacle before forming a strong unified Europe that can act together in international politics. This view is emphasised by the information that came while preparing this book that the EU made of 25 states has closed its meeting in Dublin on 18/6/2004 without agreeing on choosing a president for the EU, and it postponed the meeting to a next time. Despite the national factor and the capitalist benefit embraced by the EU states, which are the two factors that obstruct a true European unity, the EU became a huge economic force that competes with the American economic force. The Euro started also to compete with the Dollar over the size of international dealings. Despite the conflict between the interests inside the EU and the penetration of its states by America through its strong relations with some of its states, particularly the East Europe states that joined the EU recently on 1/5/2004, the EU started to pose, to a certain extent a hot embarrassment to the American economic plans.
In summary, we can say had the EU been firmly connected, it would have managed to compete with America over the international influence, economically, politically, and to a certain extent militarily. But, it is a loose union, a matter that weakens much its strength. However, this is the nature of any union, where it lacks the force that exists in the unity.
The EU is an economic giant, which America fears of and she does her utmost to shrink its force because it is a genuine competitor to her in the field of economy. AFP agency reported on 19/4/2003 “that USA depends to a great extent on the investments of the EU for balancing her big deficit in the current accounts that exceeded (500) billion dollars in year 2000, according to the report of Fred Birghiston, manager of International Economic Institute, which is a private centre for studies, in Washington”. Ten states have signed in Athens on 16/4/2003 for joining the past 15 states in the EU on 1/5/2004, a matter that makes of Europe the greatest trade area in the world that consists of 450 millions of people.
However, the EU is weak compared to America in the political and military fields; and America succeeds in weakening it through some factors as:
a. She kept the NATO that was supposed to be dissolved since the end of the Warsaw pact led by the SU that was fragmented. However, America insists on maintaining the NATO under the pretext of the protection of European states from Russia and other enemy once needed. This would keep the hegemony of America over Europe. Romano Broody, the head of European Commission said on 19/4/2003 (AFP): “The EU must make its view heard inside the NATO. In that case we would have a pact based on two pillars: a European and An American”. He added: “That will be the true NATO pact, instead of the pact that we used to and which complied with the USA only”. He said also: “We cannot give Europe the responsibility over the budget and leave the responsibility of security to America”.
b. The British policy does not want Britain to melt in the EU and becomes a state like Luxemburg as an example. Therefore, it puts one leg in the EU and another one in America. Thus, its interests meet with the interests of America in one aim which is weakening of the EU: Britain wants to remain controlling Europe, while America does not want Europe to compete with her once EU became a unified force.
c. Most of the states that signed on 16/4/2003 for joining the EU on 1/5/2004 are in the influence region of America, or as Broody said on 19/4/2003: “some of the new EU states have strong relations with the USA regarding security issues”.
d. The increasing control of America over the oil fields gives her hegemony over the EU states that need oil. Besides, the increasing hegemony of America over the rulers of the third world gives her monopoly over the lucrative trade deals and makes her rob the resources of the world, thus depriving European states from such profits.
Therefore, we can say the European balance of power is not holding together to the point that we can say there is no unified European force, rather there are strong states in Europe, led by France, which endeavour to form a block made of other European states with them, thus creating a European force. While Britain on the other side is not concerned about forming a strong European block, rather it wants Britain, which influences Europe.
Thus, the interactions of the European issue, the international relations amongst them, or between them and America, or between them and the other hot issues; all of these interactions drive the rest of Europe to be internationally important. The difference of balances (of force) between them and the conflict of interests and relations makes it a dangerous issue on the so called world peace, whether in terms of its stability or instability.
Therefore, the effect of the European issue on the other five issues and its interaction with them, besides its interlock with them; all of this cannot be overlooked. Thus, it is necessary to view the European issue in a way that agrees with its reality and its importance from the moment when Europe was made of competing states till it became a common economic market, then an EU that tries to have a significant weight in the world. This will be explained clearly when we review all the other issues and their relation with Europe.
2. Middle East (ME) Issue
It is an issue related to Islam and its danger; the strategic location and its control over the communications between Europe, Africa and Asia; the Jewish entity and its being the first line for defending the Western interests; colonialism and its material benefits particularly the oil. Thus, such an issue that is related to Islam, the strategic location, the Jewish state, colonialism and oil, is indeed a very important one, not only for the people of the region and Muslims, but rather for the entire world.
As in regards with Islam, it was and still forms the greatest danger to America and the West. Besides, the region of the ME is considered the natural departure point for the Islamic da’wa to the world. Therefore, it was not strange that America looked at Islam as the prime and sole enemy to her after the collapse of socialism. She used the slogans of terrorism, religious extremism and fundamentalism as a cover to her campaign against Islam and Muslims in this region. She tries, using her utmost to distance the political Islamic movements from authority through using the styles of suppression, repression, torture and containment, which her puppet governments in the region follow. Bush has declared this new crusader war openly against Muslims. John Ashcroft, the American minister of justice said: (Sincerely, terrorism is hidden in Islam itself, and not only in some of those that embrace it). He also said that Allah encourages terrorism in Quran, as he claimed.
As in regards with the strategic location of the ME and its control over the communications, this results from its existence at the crossroad of the old three continents: Africa, Europe and Asia, besides it controls over the straits of Gibraltar, Bosporus, Aden, Harmuz, and Suez Canal, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea and the Gulf. This is besides its being a crossroad of the raw materials and goods between the three continents.
Its strategic importance used to form a critical point between the Western and Soviet camps before the détente. This is because the ME forms the western belt in the military ring imposed against the past SU. This western belt was the first line of the west for defending ME and Africa in the face of the SU. Therefore, military bases were built in the ME including nuclear bases. There were also many attempts to connect the ME states to military alliances. Besides, many airports and highways were built in it; so it had a great strategic importance. After the agreement between the two superpowers in 1961, it lost its military importance. Therefore, the issue of military alliances in it was ignored, and the nuclear bases were removed. The two superpowers worked together ahead in removing the English military bases, and succeeded in removing the bases in Eden, Libya and east of Suez Canal; besides they tried to remove its bases in Cyprus. Thus, at that time the ME ceased to have a strategic importance. However, after the end of the cold war and the elimination of the SU, the ME restored its strategic importance, particularly for America in facing Russia and Europe. So, America started again to build military bases in the gulf, occupied Afghanistan and Iraq, and declared Bahrain, and then Pakistan and Kuwait as strategic allies.
She recently considered it as the front line for defending the security of USA; and she prepared a plan for it, which she called (The Great ME Plan). Then she adjusted it to (The ME and Africa Plan). She presented it to the G8 summit that was held in June 2004 in C-Land area.
However, the important location of the ME that extends from Morocco at the Atlantic Ocean in the west to Iran and Iraq on the gulf in the east, and from Turkey in the north to the Great African desert in the south, ie it includes all the Arab states in addition to Turkey and Iran, this important location made of it a target for the colonialists and an object for the desires of the ambitious, due to its huge importance in the issue of transportation and communication, not only at this time, but even since the crusader wars till today.
As regarding the Jewish entity planted in Palestine it became the heart of the ME issue and it became a cause for instability, not in the ME but also in the entire world, as acknowledged by the west itself that agreed 90% of the problems of the Islamic world that annoys the west returns to the problem of the existence of the Jewish state in Palestine, ie in the heart of the Islamic world.
As regarding its colonial importance it is the one that caused its affliction and eliminated it as a great state and a global force. It also changed it to a western colony where the western states compete in it over colonialism and hegemony. This is because the oil that exists in it is more than half of the world reserves; besides the raw materials that exist in Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Iran and others form a huge wealth that represents 10 times the wealth of Europe and America, put together. This is the reason of the competition and struggle between the states over it, where the wars of America in the gulf are tangible evidence to that.
Getting these four angles together in one issue, namely; Islam, the oil, the strategic location and (Israel) is enough to make of this issue the most dangerous and most complicated one; to the point it became the focus and the prime issue. So, it is more complicated than the great states can solve it, and more than they can understand it. Therefore, it is a thorny issue and hugely complicated, which the great states have no solution for it; and it will not be solved except by the establishment of the Islamic State (Khilafah).
M E was under the authority and control of Islam and the Islamic state till mid 18th century. Since Berlin conference, ie since late18th century the great European states started their attempt to invade it. So, each of France, England and Italy attacked it; and attack was repeated till the Islamic state was demolished through the destruction of the Ottoman state and the complete removal of Khilafah. Thus, the ME settled down under colonialism, authority and influence of England. Its influence covered all of its states even those that were not colonised like Turkey and Afghanistan. France had only a little part, which was confined to the northern part of sham known as Syria, including its south west coast known as Lebanon. This situation continued till the end of World War II, where France was thrown away from it, and the English colonialism changed into a new other style through concentrating its division and giving a name of a state for each part of it. Therefore, World War II ended while the entire ME was considered a western colony, actually an English colony. Thus, it was considered a part of the free world and part of the western camp, where the eastern camp had no any presence in it. Two factors helped England to solely colonise the ME: The first is the political, economical and international weakness of France. So it could not match and compete with England regarding colonialism in the ME. The second is the insistence of America to follow isolation policy after World War I; so England acted unilaterally in colonising the ME through all 19th century and until mid of 20th century. However, after 1950 the situation differed and radically changed, because colonial struggle started between England and America, which led to what the ME witnessed of wars, military coups, manoeuvres and conspiracies. The struggle went on ups and downs till America managed to take the initiative in the ME, where Britain became so weak that it could not face America openly. It however, acted stubbornly for preserving as much as it could of its colonies; and it endeavoured to have even a partial presence in the region through associating America in her plans as it did in the occupation of Iraq.
Hence, it can be said the struggle over the ME after World War II was effectively concentrated between America and Britain as follows:
The American and British policies regarding the ME after World War II went on through partnership. So, the two states used to meet and review their policies and coordinate their plans and styles. Britain continued allowing America to devour some benefits particularly in terms of the oil of the Arab Peninsular. It also remained to please her at some times; but it used to face her over whatever it considered harmful to its interests.
When the issue of the Jews in Palestine was raised America had the view of establishing a Jewish state in Palestine in order to use it a means for colonising the region. Britain at that time did not take a decision regarding establishing a Jewish state. It was hesitant between making Palestine an entity controlled by Jews and having a Jewish state. It wanted to link that to its colonisation of the rest of the Arab countries. Therefore, it did not decide the matter, so it transferred the issue to the UN. When the UN decided establishing a Jewish state under the pressure from America, Britain remained silent and left the issue for the future time to decide whether the region can accept the presence of a Jewish state amongst Muslims, or this Islamic body will spit it out. Its policy towards the Jewish state continued on the basis of waiting the decision of the future.
As regarding America, it worked hard to concentrate (Israel) and eliminate anything that might obstruct this task. Britain used to oppose her over this issue but secretly. So, this created severe struggle between Britain and America over the presence of the Jewish state.
Moreover, America tried to draw oil pipelines across Jordan, Syria and Lebanon to the Mediterranean Sea, but England obstructed her plan. Because it was old in the region, it was cable to influence all the rulers of the region for they were agents to it. Therefore America found that the only means to change the situation of the region was to apply the same policy she used in South America, which is bringing in military rulers and undertaking military coups. So, it carried out the first military coup in Syria through Husni Za’im who gave concession to America for drawing an oil pipeline, where the pipeline was drawn and thus she overcame the problem. However, England noticed that America wanted to colonise and take the region from it; so it started to ferociously resist that by the political styles and manoeuvres and through the people of the region.
After the military coup of Husni Za’im, the ferocity of the opposition by England to all the American projects, and the change of secret struggle between the two states to almost open one, the diplomatic representatives of America in the ME noticed the threat against the military and economic interests of America in the region. They considered the continuous link between the American policy and the British policy means America will remain, as it was before World War II, just a tool used by England. Where it will only give her a small bait to keep her in the region for defending it, but it deprives her of all the resources of the region, and keeps the entire region under the control of England alone. The authorized American diplomats in the Arab group have noticed that and realised the necessity of introducing fundamental amendments to the direction of Washington policy, and the need of making new adjustments. So, they decided to use cooperation with the people of the region as a basis for the development and improvement of such policy. They however found themselves at the same time before a large set of problems, in addition to the presence of (Israel), and the great hatred and grudge Muslims carry towards it. Therefore, they found it necessary to address these problems before starting serious thinking and before starting changing the region from an English basis to an American basis. So, they called for holding a conference amongst them to discuss this subject. In November 1950 they held their first conference in Istanbul. This was chaired by Mr George Magi, a deputy in the American State Department responsible for the affairs of the ME and North Africa. This conference lasted for five consecutive days. They discussed in this secret conference the most important political, strategic and economic conditions of this region. Their opinion settled that it is not possible for the American policy to be linked to the British policy if America really wanted to change the ME into an American basis and use the cooperation with the people of the region as one of the styles to change this region. They used the rejection of Syria at the time of the president Shukri Quwwatli to give concession for drawing an oil pipeline, and taking that concession through the coup carried out by Husni Za’im as tangible evidence to the validity of their view. Add to that the English carried out another coup at the same year of 1949 by Al-Hinnawi who removed Husni Za’im and thus Syria returned back to the control of English. All of that supported their view that the American policy must be deatached from the British policy if America wanted to work in the region. This conference is considered one of the most important tools to direct the America diplomacy in the Arabic field. It presented recommendations to each of the White House, State of Department, Pentagon and Marine. These recommendations were presented after an important introduction, as follows:
The experience of the recent World War II has proved that the ME is a fundamental basis, where exist all the factors necessary for waging a war against the SU. There is no chance of success in contemplating an attack against the Russian oil fields in the Caucus and depriving the machine of Soviet war from its richest oil revenues through military cooperation with Turkey only. It is rather necessary to found organised air bases in Syria, Lebanon and Palestine, on condition that Iraq and Egypt change to become a big depot that secures supplies of men, arms and provisions to any offence plan that aims at surrounding and sabotaging the Soviet oil fields in Baku and the Caucus, in general.
Moreover, the military campaigns against Greece, Sicily and Italy during the entire period from 1941 to 1944 showed beyond any doubt the importance of the ME in providing and supplying such type of decisive military operations that secured victory for the war of the allies forces and containment of the enemy armies inside the European fortress.
This introduction ended with presenting recommendations that were coined by the agreement of all the delegates in form of four recommendations:
First: Detachment from the British policy in every matter related to the pending issues between it and the Arab world.
Second: Using the support of Arabs’ national demands as a basis of an American policy in the ME.
Third: Support of Egypt regarding its demands from Britain, and encouraging similar movement in Iraq.
Fourth: Abstain from the constant diplomatic and economic support to (Israel) and encourage the UN to executing the project of dividing Palestine into two states, an Arab and a Jewish, besides executing the resolutions of the SC regarding the settlement of Arab refugees on the basis of their return to their homes and compensating those who do not want to return.
It is said that they gave a special recommendation regarding Egypt, where they advised it is necessary that America takes Egypt from Britain and expels Britain from it. This is besides founding a strong authority in it that leads the entire region, because history proved Egypt is the gate of the ME.
These recommendations were submitted to the ruling authority in the USA, where the Democratic Party was in power at that time, who was used to flatter the English. Truman was the president of USA, and he came to power supported by two factors: first is the Jewish influence, and second is the British influence amongst the American circles. Besides, Truman was linked with many obligations towards Britain and towards the Jews as well. Therefore, these decisions were not given the attention the diplomats hoped for them, though they were given some attention at the time of Eisenhower.
However, the American became active in the ME after the mentioned conference of the diplomats. So, America undertook a brave attempt to make peace between the Arab states and (Israel) and to expel England from Jordan and Iraq. The American diplomats made contacts with King Abdullah and negotiated with him for reaching a deal with him. The deal is summarized that Abdullah turns away from England and instead goes along with America. In return, America would give him a free hand for annexing Iraq and Hijaz to him, thus making a state made of Jordan, Iraq and Hijaz, where he annexes Syria and Lebanon to it after that. In return for that he would conclude peace with (Israel), and America would give him the necessary aid and loans for reviving this new state economically. King Abdullah agreed to that and started working to realise this plan. He went to Iraq where he met with Abdulilah and Nuri Said, discussed the matter with them and asked them to work with him. However, these two officials made contact with the British ambassador in Baghdad and disclosed to him the plans of king Abdullah. The English prevented them from working with him; therefore they did not accept his offer but did not stop him, thus leaving the matter pending. The king returned back to Jordan and invited Riyad Sulh (PM of Lebanon) to work with him and help him in the plan. Riyad Sulh accepted that; for it seems he had already changed to the Americans. So, the English killed Riyad Sulh in Amman in his way to its airport while returning to Beirut. One week after that king Abdullah was killed in Al-Quds, inside Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa due to an open conspiracy planned by Glob for killing him. The American ambassador in Amman warned him openly, one day before his killing of the conspiracy; and thus this plan died down. In that year, 1952 American presidential elections took place where the Republic Party won the post, manifested in Eisenhower. He assumed authority at the beginning of 1953, where struggle between England and America intensified, because Eisenhower is known of giving preference to the American high interest in its military and international forms over the Jewish and British pressure. Therefore, the struggle between America and England became ferocious, where America managed to take Egypt from England and then expelled it from Egypt. Earlier to that America made a coup in Syria where she brought to power her agent Adib Sheeshakli. Thus, Egypt and Syria became with America. Since that date all Arab states became an open field for Anglo-American struggle. Many actions took place in it that made of it like a ball that moves from America’s hand to England’s hand, and back again from England’s hand to America’s hand, and so on. This was manifested in many actions that covered Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Most of these actions were in Syria, as being the heart of the region, and it generally influences all Arab countries. Therefore, many political actions happened in Syria, most prominent of which was the frequency of military coups. After killing Husni Za’im in a way that revealed the grudge of England against him, and once his authority ended, England started to strengthen authority in Syria on democratic basis, and to work for annexing it to Iraq as a step towards the creation of Fertile Crescent. Thus, elections were conducted in Syria; a constitution was put for the country, and the People’s Party and National Party dominated the authority and declared in their programs unification with Iraq. America tried to obstruct the efforts of England; but it could not find an opportunity for achieving that except after assuming the authority by Adib Sheeshakli, who initially controlled the authority from behind the screens, and then openly, where he declared himself a president of the republic. Thus, Syria turned to America till 1954 when the English agents, and by the support of Iraq removed Sheeshakli; after which Syria returned to England and parliamentary rule. At that moment England started to promote Baghdad Pact in the region. By 1955 the region entered into violent and ferocious Anglo-American struggle. America started to use Egypt for playing the game of liberation, unity and socialism. Abdul Nasser started to plunge in struggle against the English in the name of America. So, by direction from America he concluded a deal for buying a big quantity of weapons from the communist camp, and he implied to the people he bought these weapons for attacking and eliminating (Israel). This created a huge reverberation in the entire Arab people. He also adopted Arab nationalism, and declared Egypt as an Arab state and recorded that in the constitution of the Egyptian state. He started to call also for social justice and unity. Such actions made the Arab people rally behind him, and he thus became one of the leaders of the Arab world. This was helped by the style used by America to attack England and to create confusion amongst the people of the region. So, despite the bitter enmity between America and SU at that time, she used some styles to attract Russia into the region and make of it an international element in the region and an international factor used against England. Despite the fight of America against communism, she persuaded Jamal Abdul Nasser, the ruler of Egypt of socialism and call for it. Thus, the fact that Egypt purchased weapons from the communist camp was a factor that introduced Russia to the region. Besides, the call of Abdul Nasser to nationalism was a fundamental factor in reviving Arab nationalism after it had almost died. His adoption to socialism that developed from social justice was an effective factor in the spread of left-wing politics and making it dominate the public opinion in the region. Egypt’s adoption of attacking the foreign alliances, particularly Baghdad Pact had great effect in removing the doubt of Nasser’s subordination to America, taking in consideration he used to attack American colonialism. Therefore, there was no more doubt with the entire Arab people that Jamal Abdul Nasser was the great saviour that was sent by Allah to this nation for delivering it from colonialism. So, all the people were devoted to him, except one group that tried to disclose him and attack him. However, their work did not make any effect, whatsoever; so he continued to have full control over the public opinion. Due to this control, the agents of England in Jordan and Iraq, as rulers, became unstable. The agents of England in Syria and Lebanon became in a very unfortunate popular position. Thus, the atmosphere was wonderful for America to work for the elimination of the English; though the region was not aware that such actions were for bringing America into the region to replace Britain. The region should have instead realised that their duty was to eliminate the colonialism of both states: America and Britain, rather than replace one of them with the other.
At this period in time some internal developments happened in Syria that were induced by the rally of the people behind Abdul Nasser. In that period Ba’th Party merged with Socialist Arab Party, which created presence in the army for Ba’th party. The two parties raised the slogan of (unity, freedom and socialism) taht gave them influence on authority, which they took part in it. The two parties found in Abdul Nasser and his call an opportunity for making the people rally behind them and for making obvious steps towards unity and socialism which they wanted. Thus, Syria became controlled by governments dominated by Ba’th party, as a way for avoiding its harm, and for fear of its imagined popularity amongst people. Therefore, Syria was with the English in reality, but it was dominated by the two ideas of unity and socialism, which had influence on public opinion. Then Abdul Nasser nationalised Suez Canal, which was followed by the trio aggression against Egypt that pushed the popularity of Abdul Nasser over the moon. Therefore, the English agents were scared from showing themselves on political theatre, and their voice died down to the point they were hardly noticed.
In August 1957 some army officers met and discussed the authority in Syria, in terms of its orientation towards the west and the infiltration of the western influence in it. So, they decided to hold the authority, but keep ruling, ie the president and ministers in their posts, while the army officers run the affairs and discharge ruling matters. Thus, they actually detached Syria from western colonialism. Before its detachment from the western colonialism, Syria was actually with the English, though apparently it was linked with America because the dominating thoughts were those promoted by Abdul Nasser, namely, freedom, socialism and unity. This is besides Ba’th party, which has the prime word in public opinion presented itself as a friend or ally to Abdul Nasser. Therefore, detachment of Syria from the west was directed against America, though in reality it was directed against the English more than the Americans. Despite that the English remained silent about this detachment and did nothing. As for America it got mad, and started to work with apparent nervousness for hitting the army officers and for restoring it to the domain of the west. Many attempts were undertaken in this regard but they all failed. After the failure of America in solving the problem, Abdul Nasser moved to do that. He sent Mahmood Riyad to Syria, where he worked for making a union between Egypt and Syria, by which Egypt controls authority in Syria. Through this approach America held the rein in Syria, and she started working to expel Britain from Iraq and Lebanon. By 1958 the revolution of Lebanon broke out followed by the revolution of Iraq. Thus, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon and Egypt became in the hand of America, leaving only Jordan for the English. Abdul Nasser continued chasing England in Jordan; so it was about to be eliminated from the entire region. However, England did not despair and continued to work from its basis, namely Jordan. By 1961 England had some forces that work on its side in Syria. So, all the political forces, People’s Party, National Party and Ba’th Party (ie, Ba’th and Arab Socialist parties) worked together against Abdul Nasser and against the unity. Thus, Syria was separated from Egypt, and the English agents assumed the authority there. America also removed Abdul Karim Qasim from the authority in Iraq after he turned away from her and worked with the communists. This resulted in an American regime controlled by the Ba’th party, which started to work to change the situation in Syria and Jordan for annexing them to Iraq. England became scared of that; so its agents in Damascus made a forged coup, and made Ba’th just a cover for the authority. In 1971, after Hafiz Asad went to Egypt and joined the four-state union he returned to Syria with a different face. He was convinced there that he can become a president to Syrian republic though he is from the Nusairiyya Alawi sect. It seemed at that time America was behind it, and it would support him as long as he worked with her. Moreover, Egypt would make its groups there support him; besides Egypt and America would work to remove the obstacles before his appointment as a president to the republic because he is an Alawi. This is because people in Syria do not accept an Alawi rather a Muslim as their president. Thus, America prepared the matter and eased the difficulties after he agreed to go along with her; so execution of that started. He started to work gradually to become president of the republic. He visited the north of Syria and conducted contacts with the masses. When he discovered the people agree with the ruler without an apparent opposition to that, he embarked on that practically. So, Hafiz Asad was nominated for the presidency post, and the day of 12/3/1971 was assigned for referendum. Hafiz Asad became a president of Syria after that, where Syria fell again in the claws of America, and she is still till today.
These are some examples of the Anglo-American struggle in Syria, which is the most prominent aspect of it. As regarding other Arab states, Jordan remained under the control of English because 2/3 of its people are Palestinians; many of them depend on UN rations and the salaries of their sons who work outside Jordan. The other third are Bedouins of east Jordan; many of them depend on the salaries of their sons in the army. Therefore, America did not find the fertile soil she found in Syria. Thus, there was no any political action in Jordan that manifests international struggle except the demonstrations that took place against Baghdad Pact, and the fabricated coup attempt by King Hussein in 1957 which he forged to throw some of Abdul Nasser’s agents outside the country. Therefore, Jordan is not considered to have important political actions related to political struggle, though it is one of the most important places over which there is struggle between America and England due to the amazing wealth it has underground and under Dead Sea water.
As regarding Iraq, despite that Abdul Salam Arif that succeeded the Ba’thists in power had clung to Abdul Nasser’s heels the English agents of politicians and army officers found opportunity to move. So, with little effort they controlled the army and the economic capabilities. Thus, Iraq returned back to the influence of the English. Though America returned back to Iraq at the time of Abdul Rahman Arif, but the people of the English, of Ba’thists and others dominated the authority in 1968, where the influence of the English in Iraq continued till 9/4/2003 when Iraq fell down, together with the regime of Saddam Hussein and Ba’th power in Iraq. Since then Iraq fell under the American occupation.
As regarding Egypt; since Abdul Nasser held its power it became the major American basis, and it still continues till today the important America basis. There were no important political actions in it that can be part of struggle except that which happened little after Abdul Nasser’s death. At that period there were three factors that could return Egypt back to Britain, which were:
Firstly: There was a weak regime in it that was unable to protect itself, not to mention filling the vacuum left by Abdul Nasser.
Secondly: Some movements emerged in Egypt within the army and the people that called for war (against Israel) and expelling the (communist) Russians and called for complete liberation.
Thirdly: There were contacts between the English and Egypt that started with the visit to Egypt by Douglas Hume, foreign minister of England, for attending the funeral of Abdul Nasser. This visit was followed by many of the English through Libya. Then these contacts became official, not only by the visit of Mohammad Hasanain Haykal, but also through official memorandums, and requesting from Egypt openly to strengthen the relations between it and England. Thus, the return of Egypt to England was only a matter of time rather than efforts, due to the unstable position of Sadat at the beginning of his authority. However, America managed to strengthen Sadat in power; and she forged the 1973 war to pave the way for peace with (Israel). This war made of Sadat a hero and helped him to take the initiative. Thus, international struggle inside Egypt disappeared, and it continued as the most important and major American basis till today.
As regarding the states of North Africa, Morocco entered under the American control when it got its independence at time of Mophammad al-Khamis. Algeria became under American influence through Ahmad bin Bella. However, this did not last long, because Mohammad al-Khamis died and his son Al-Hasan ascended to the throne and moved with the English. Regarding Algeria, the English concocted a coup against Ben Bella by the help of King Al-Hasan and through Mohammad Khayder. So, they attracted to them Tahir Zubiri and Abu Madyan who undertook a coup that removed Ahmad Ben Bella. Thus, America was removed from Algeria, and England got the influence there. As regarding Libya and Tunisia, America could not enter any one of them, and nor generate any political actions in any one of them. Rather the English influence remained stable in them, and they did not take part in the Anglo-American struggle. As regarding Yemen and Gulf states, they all, to the exclusion of Saudi Arabia submit to the English influence. There is no struggle in the proper sense in them except in Yemen, where the English influence there is exposed to harassments from America, together with ups and downs. In Saudi Arabia, America managed to attract some the members of the royal family there, while England still has its people in the royal family as well. The Anglo-American struggle in it goes on via the personalities of the family. When Fahd ben Abdulaziz assumed the authority for example, Saudi Arabia became to proceed in the domain of the American policy. If this situation changed, where one of the people of England ascended to the throne, like Abdullah, the current Crown Prince, Hijaz and Najd will return to the British influence, and so on. America however tries since the explosions of 11/9/2001 to cement its influence in Saudi Arabia away from the fluctuation of the Royal family members, through changing the model of authority in it. The news reports show this is under study by the policy makers in Washington.
The Anglo-American struggle in the Arab countries continued ferocious during the fifties and sixties of last century. The Palestinian issue remained the heart of this struggle. The British concluded in 1964 that there is no possibility for the region to accept a foreign state inside it, and the experiment of establishing a Jewish state in Palestine is a failure. They found it is better to establish a secular state on the model of the Lebanese state by reviving the project of the White Paper which Britain issued in 1939 and made it the basis for the settlement of the issue. It reviewed this with the Jewish leaders who were convinced of the idea. Bourqeebah, the leader of Tunisia undertook a visit to Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, where he presented the mentioned British plan to the Arab leaders and some of the Palestinian people. He took their agreement to the plan and thus Britain started its attempt for executing it. However, America and through Abdul Nasser managed to frustrate the plan by its fierce opposition to it.
This shows that the ME issue was supposed to be, from an international aspect an issue of struggle between the people of the region and the colonialist states as it happened with America when she expelled colonialism and formed the USA. And as it also happened with China after World War II, where it expelled the Japanese colonialism and foreign influence, and established a communist state of a distinguished situation in the world. This is natural for every colonised country that has international and local capabilities to liberate itself from foreign influence and develop itself into a state of international weight. However, unfortunately this was not the case with the ME issue. It was rather an issue of severe struggle between America and Britain over the colonialism and exploitation of the region, so as to create new tight restrictions that prevent the people of the region from even thinking in liberation and emancipation. Struggle between America and Britain continued in the seventies and eighties of last century, but with less force.
By the collapse of the SU at the beginning of the nineties of last century, and after the success of the American invasion to Iraq, besides her control over Kuwait and the Gulf region, the force balance in the world changed. America started to draw a new map to the region, where the British would be a secondary player in the region. They became unable to struggle with America; and their level and weight declined. So, they were forced to work through using weak scheming and intrigues. They were also obliged to depend on EU for pushing their plans that were in origin pale like Oslo accords which they tried to use to bypass America. However, America managed to change them into other courses that serve her objectives. Britain was also obliged to acknowledge the failure of its secular state project; so it declared its termination and accepted the American project that dictates the formation of an Arab Palestinian state beside the Jewish state. Arafat, PLO chairman officially abandoned the concept of the secular state in the Palestinian National Conference (PNC) held in Algeria in 1988. Since that date, he officially announced his acceptance of the concept of two states in all the international circles. King Hussein was also obliged to reluctantly announce the legal and administrative separation between the West Bank and the East Bank of Jordan River, and acknowledged the necessity of establishing the Palestinian State.
Thus the project of the secular state has failed officially and practically. The only project left is the American one, which is the establishment of the Palestinian state beside (Israel). This project became an international request adopted by the UN, EU, and Russia in addition to America. This international quadric group consisting of these four sides was formed to support the concept of establishing the Palestinian state beside (Israel) through the view presented by Bush that is called Road Map. America is not currently concerned, about the implementation of the Road Map (RM) because this year of 2004 is her year of elections and she wants to use this project for only keeping the region preoccupied with it. America used to preoccupy the region with a project after a project till the time becomes suitable for realising her interests. At that moment the Jews will surrender to America’s command when she asks them seriously to execute her plans. This is because they cannot reject her orders if these orders were delivered seriously to them, particularly they realise America aims to fulfil her interests from these projects presented to the region, taking into consideration the interest of the Jews as well.
As Britain was forced to go along with America regarding the concept of the Palestinian state, she also went along with her in the invasion of Iraq and removal of its agent Saddam Hussein in order to preserve some of the gains that keep it as a great power by an American discretion.
America managed also to push strongly her influence alongside the British influence in all the Gulf States, Yemen and Jordan. She also managed to compete with the British and French influence in North African states and Turkey. Thus, America has the true domination over the states of the ME that exceed 24 states. However, Britain is obliged to run behind America for obtaining some crumbs and for disturbing secretly some of her plans without daring to present openly its own plans for competing with the American plans in the region, as it used to do that before. Therefore, it can be said the open struggle between the two states has finished since the end of last century till today. It changed into a style of partnership and deals, crowning America as the leader of the region that has the biggest share. Britain, on the other side plays the role of the maid of honour so as to remain in the lime light. This is because the capability of Britain currently, rather the capability of the entire EU to imposing settlement plans for the region, is weak. Therefore, we see Britain and the EU states jump over the projects of America and function work with them. Neither Britain and nor the EU are capable to execute any thing without an effective role by America. However, we cannot say the role of Britain in the region has finished; rather its feeling of greatness and of being a great state still exists; besides its political shrewdness has not ceased. Moreover, its agents still have a breath, ie the force of Britain is still hidden, where it emerges from time to time.
As regarding France, it still strives to have some influence in Algeria, Tunisia and Lebanon. This is due to the presence in these states of many people educated with French culture, after it completely lost its influence in Morocco and Mauritania.
(Israel) has arranged its policies in compliance with the American interests, and it merged itself completely in these interests particularly at the time of the neoconservatives in the administration of Bush, junior. It warmly and quickly rode the current of defending these interests. So, America protected its reputation as a great regional state in the region, and considered defence of the existence of (Israel) as defence of America herself; and so it remained the spoiled child that his father does not like to annoy.
The rest of Arab rulers went to the extreme in America’s service to the point of slavery. So, they lost any credibility they had with their peoples, which led to being disdained by their (western) masters who went to the extreme in humiliating them and pressing for more concessions from them. Thus, they became easy tools in the hand of their enemy, where they replace them when they wanted, as it happened with Saddam and might happen with others. Therefore, they lost the support of their peoples, and remained in power by the support of their masters as well under their mercy. Their position became worse, because they became exposed to gunfire from both of their peoples and their masters, as if they are put between the hammer of their peoples and the anvil of their masters. Thus, the ME region is susceptible to explosion at any time and has great likelihood for the birth of true Islamic state; the signs of its emergence are quite obvious for eyes to see.
3. Far East Issue
The case in the Far East (FE) differs from the issue of the ME. This is because though it is an issue of strategy and colonialism, but its situation differs completely from that of the ME. Taking the issue of the Indian Subcontinent as one by itself in this century, there are five peoples in the FE, which are people of China, people of Japan, people of Korea, people of Indochina, and people of Indonesia, where each one of them has its own issue. Before discussing the partial issues of the FE, we talk generally about its whole issue. It is considered important strategically to USA and Russia. It stands at the borders of USA from the Pacific Ocean side, where there are two powers that might pose danger to America, which are China and Japan. Besides, these two powers can pose danger to Russia as well. Its issue is thus considered strategic from this angle. This explains why America endeavoured to have forces in the FE so as to remain in it, even before it was attacked by Japan in Pearl Harbour in World War II. After that, the FE became important to America from strategic point of view. This explains that her warships and military planes remain continuously moving in the region. Philippine is considered an American basis before World War II till now. Therefore, she gives great attention to this region so that she protects herself from its potential danger. As regarding Russia; due to its being neighbour to this region without presence of oceans that separate between them as the case with USA, it does not take military precautions towards it, though it strengthens its borders with China and tries to keep good and friendly relations with Japan.
As regarding the colonial aspect, it was almost limited in the past to England, France, Holland and Portugal. This is because though America imposed her authority over Philippine and it almost became her colony, she did not take part in colonialism outside the new world when colonialism spread in the nineteenth century. Therefore, it is safe to say England, France and Holland were the states primary involved in colonising the FE, while Portugal joined that just in a small part. England has occupied Hong Cong at the south east coast of China. It also occupied Malay, Singapore, the northern part of island of Borneo, Burma and Ceylon; this is beside the occupation of India. Its whole policy was based on holding to all of these colonies. When the western camp was one unity before the agreement between the two superpowers, the policy of Britain differed from the American policy in the FE despite Britain’s extreme need to America for helping it in holding to its colonies. Britain used to look to China as market to its trade; therefore it did not consider China’s presence in the eastern camp a danger to its presence in the FE. Thus, it did not find a justification for attacking and having friction with China. It rather wanted this region to remain quite and stable, because any movement in that region would cause its worry about the colonies.
Therefore, it resisted the movements undertaken by Indonesia in its struggle for expelling Holland. On the other side it was amicable with China, recognised it and opened the door of trade with it; besides it opposed America regarding the policy of the FE. All of that was for the purpose of preserving the colonies, for they were not only a market for its goods, they were rather rich with raw material used by Britain alone, which existed firmly in it and exploited it since the past. Therefore, its position in the FE revolved around maintaining any form of its colonialism of this country and keeping its influence in the region.
As regarding France; it restored Indochina after World War II, which consists of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. This is considered the richest and biggest among France’s colonies, because it was the greatest source of French wealth due to the rich raw material of this colony. However, France could not hold on to this colony, because China overpowered them from one side, and America from the other till it was forced to abandon and leave the entire colony. As regarding China, it founded and supplied the past liberation movement in Vietnam, known as (Viet Mina). This revolution managed to defeat France till it forced it to withdraw from most of Vietnam. France was defeated militarily and politically to the point it completely withdrew from the colony. As regarding America, it wanted to take Indochina colony from France. It pretended to helping France, but at the same time it secretly encouraged the revolution, leaving France to have hope in survival by the help of the western camp, particularly America, and despair of victory over the revolution. Finally, Geneva conference was held, which discussed the issue of Indochina. It resulted in withdrawal of France from the colony, and America took its place in Laos, South Vietnam and Cambodia, while China took its place in North Vietnam. Thus, China supported the state of North Vietnam that became independent and later on annexed South Vietnam, leading to the complete elimination of France from the region.
As regarding Holland, America encouraged the Indonesians to revolt against Holland. They undertook a severe revolution that was supported by both the SU and America despite their contradiction. England took the side of Holland against the Indonesians, who finally defeated Holland militarily. They raised the case to the UN, where America supported them, and thus UN declared independence of Indonesia. Holland left Indonesia, holding only to West Iriana. However, Indonesia chased it by the support of America till it expelled it from it. Thus, Holland got out of the entire region, without having any colonial presence left to it there.
As regarding Portugal, it used to occupy Gowa in India. When India saw Holland thrown out of the region it took heart to expel Portugal. So, with encouragement from England and America it occupied Gowa and threw Portugal from it, where Gowa became a part of India.
Thus, the only colonial powers left in the region were England and America. England was assured of its presence in the region before the agreement of the two superpowers (USA and past SU). After their agreement and the change of the international situation, England became worried about its colonies and it became threatened of danger. This is because America started her attempts to drive England out of the region so as to take its place through a new style of colonialism under the concept of elimination of colonialism and giving independence to peoples, which was adopted by UN. She thus started to harass England and force it to give independence to the peoples. England employed artful means to avoid that pressure, so it set up a union made of north of island of Borneo, Sarawak, Sabah, Malay, and Singapore as a federal state called Malaysia. Thus, it changed the form of colonialism and remained of control over the country. America immediately stirred Indonesia against it, where it made demand over Borneo and started to attack Borneo, Malay and Singapore through raids by rebels. It started also to incite the people for revolting against England. This led to a semi-military state between Indonesia and Malaysia that was called encounter policy, which continued for many years. When the two superpowers came to an agreement between them, one of the issues they agreed to was to eliminate the military bases from the world, and to expel England from the FE. This led to increasing the pressure over England in the FE; so it decided to abandon the basis of Singapore and withdraw its military forces from east Suez and from the FE. It also embarked briskly upon resisting Sukarno that led to the encounter policy, through using its agents in Indonesia. Then America accepted removing Sukarno from power and brought some of her other agents in the army, led by Suharto. After England’s withdrawal from the basis of Singapore, the latter was separated from Malaysia, which remained consisted of North Borneo, Sarawak, Sabah and Malay.
After these operations, the region went through some quietness, where actions were confined to attacking China. It seems that part of the general agreement between the two superpowers in the FE was elimination of Britain completely and leaving no presence to it there. It was expected the two superpowers would eliminate the English presence there after concluding the issue of China. However, the events hastened, America returned to accelerate the tension with the SU immediately after the end of Vietnam War, China surrendered to the demands of the two superpowers and America thought that through the admission of Malaysia into the economical projects and the regional organisations it will be able to replace England in Malaysia. All of this prevented that from happening till now; so Britain still enjoys some influence in the FE.
As regarding America, she is linked with Philippine by semi-colonial treaties that are so much similar to the colonial treaties that linked each of Egypt, Jordan and Iraq and others with Britain. Though Philippine was not an American colony theoretically, but practically it is so. After America succeeded in expelling Holland from Indonesia, she tries to replace it, but the Indonesians resisted that for many years, and rejected to expel a colonialist to allow another. So, America started to create obstacles to Indonesia, and set up revolts against it; besides it remained silent about the attempts of infiltration by England into Indonesia through the agents, and encouraged the emigration of Chinese to Indonesia as well as insertion of communism into it. Due to these harassments, the rulers of Indonesia submitted to the pressure, so they accepted the American loans, and the military aid. Thus Indonesia came under the American control, and became dependent on her since the time of Sukarno. After the agreement of the two superpowers (USA and the past SU), the position of America in Indonesia became stronger, and she thus became the dominant force in it, particularly its control over the army and the economies of the country, a matter that still continues till today.
Besides Indonesia, America controlled most of Indochina after expelling France from it and South Korea after Korean War. She still tries to replace Britain in its colonies in the FE after expelling it from there. If America succeeded in that then the issue of the FE will change from an international issue to an America ranch.
This is the situation generally in the FE. As regarding the peoples of the FE, they are intellectually below the level of the peoples of the ME. However, the concept of liberation from colonialism that spread in the world little before and during World War II spread there much more, after it has influenced the peoples of this region more than it did to the peoples of the ME. This is because this concept was brought by the communists and it is part of the struggle of communism against capitalism. Therefore, this concept has streamed strongly from the SU through China to the peoples of the FE and incited these peoples. This explains the fact that the people of Indochina revolted against France before and after World War II; besides the people of Indonesia revolted against Holland before and after World War II, as well as the people of Korea embraced the communist thought, which had influenced it. Even the people of Malay, North Borneo and Singapore revolted against the English. As a result of these revolts Indonesia won its independence and expelled Holland; North Vietnam became a strong state, and England was obliged to create the union of Malaysia. All of this happened due to the concept of liberation from colonialism that prevailed in the region.
America and Britain realised that; therefore they do their best that their influence in the region does not appear in the old colonial form, rather in form of economic, political and cultural relations, as well other similar treaties. Thus, their influence will apparently look like international relations rather than colonial dictations.
There are still two remarks in the FE issue:
First: It is that which USA raises regarding North Korea and the elimination of its nuclear weapon.
Second: It is the growing Islamic expansion in the region, particularly in Indonesia and Malaysia.
As regarding North Korea, America raised it to create a hot issue at the borders of China. This is because the fixed policy of America in the region is to encircle China with strong states or hot issues that keep it preoccupied by itself. This is in order that it does not have ambitions outside its borders, otherwise it would compete for control and influence on the interests of America. America would not hesitate to unify Korea as she did to Vietnam to create strong states around China if she could do so, as she does with India regarding China.
Therefore, it is expected America will continue in stirring the issue so that it continues burning without a chance of quietness, on condition she keeps China busy with the problem, rather than to be a problem to America alone. Therefore, she endeavoured to associate the states of the region in the issue of Korea; so the meetings were held in six fold: America, North Korea, China, Russia, Japan and South Korea.
Creation of hot problems inside China or at its borders is a constant trend in the American policy. She chooses for that the right opportunity, where she stirs that sometimes through India or through internal provocation under the name of human rights, or through warming the environment with Korea at the borders of China, or otherwise. She seeks every possible opportunity in this regard. That opportunity came at the right time when America was planning for attacking Iraq after she finished her war against Afghanistan. The excuse of war against Iraq was weapons of mass destruction (WMD), in which Iraq and Iran are accused of possessing them, where the two countries are Muslim. In order that America does not appear she is against WMD when owned by Muslims, but does not bother if owned by others, Bush found it a suitable opportunity to raise the issue of the nuclear weapons of North Korea. So, he added it to both of Iraq and Iran in the axis of evil as it came in his statement in January 2002. This is in order he is note accused that he attacks Iraq just because it is a Muslim country that possesses WMD, as he claimed. Rather America adds other communist states in the axis of evil together with Iran and Iraq. However, the objective was attacking Iraq as it came in the testimony of Collin Powel to the Congress two weeks after the speech of Bush about the axis of evil. Powel said regarding Iran and North Korea: “There is no plan to start war against these states…and we do not have a plan to attack North Korea or enter into dispute with Iran”.
Therefore, it is not expected America would intend to escalate the situation to the point of military actions for solving the issue of WMD in North Korea.
As regarding the growing Islamic expansion, it is the apprehension to the great states, particularly America, and the west generally. This apprehension keeps them sense the danger represented in Islam and Islamic resurgence. This is particularly there are more than 250 million Muslims that live in that region. Indonesia is the largest Islamic country; besides it is the fourth country in the world in terms of its population, ie it comes immediately after China, India and America.
Indonesia and Malaysia can create an enormous force in the region, which is not less than the influential great powers in the region, if the two countries adopted Islam as an ideology and a system of life. Besides, it is possible the two countries can communicate with the rest of the Islamic world with the presence of this scientific advancement in the technology of communications and transportations.
This emphasises the causes that make of the FE an international issue.
4. Issue of Central Asia
The issue of Central Asia (CA) differs from that of the FE and the ME. Though it is geographically connected with the ME and cannot be separated from the FE, it is different from them in terms of the type of colonialism and influence present in it. Therefore, it is different in terms of the type of struggle and its objectives. Besides, CA region was until the collapse of the SU a part of it. Struggle over CA and Caucus did not start except after the collapse of the SU; therefore the parties of struggle in it are different to the sides of struggle in the ME and the FE. As regarding the difference in terms of the objectives of the struggle, this is because the objective of America from the struggle is expelling Russia from its areas of influence, besides its containment through reducing its field of activity by expelling it from the states of Caucus and CA.
Therefore, this issue emerged after 1991, when the SU disintegrated, and 15 new republics were formed at its ruins, 5 of which are of Muslim majority and lie in CA. These are Uzbekistan, which is the biggest and most important, then Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Kyrgyzstan. These four republics speak a language close to Turkish, while the fifth republic is Tajikistan, which speaks Persian.
These five republics are linked geographically and in population. They, together with the (Islamic) western part of China connected to them, are called Turkistan (East Turkistan, for the Chinese section, and West Turkistan, for CA part). These five republics are located east and north of Caspian Sea, where China is at east occupying East Turkistan, Russia at north, Caspian and Russia at west, and Afghanistan and Iran in the south.
Before indulging in the details of the struggle we must have a look at the strategic importance of CA and Caucus. From strategic aspect, the region is considered an extension to Russia inside Asia until the ME. There are no natural borders that separate Russia from this region, so there are no seas or oceans between them. This is the same case regarding China; so it is considered the back door to China. Since most of its population are Muslim, China is scared of their influence upon Muslims inside China, in East Turkmenistan. Because of this strategic importance, America put her plans since the collapse of the SU to enter the region and contain Russia, from one side, and put siege around China and prevents it from infiltrating into its neighbours, from another side.
America succeeded in realising some of her objectives, so it established military bases in Uzbekistan after its ruler yielded to her with disgrace and humiliation. Under the name of war against terrorism, she managed to make military coordination with Tajikistan, and economic and cultural cooperation with Kyrgyzstan. She tries to extend that to Kazakhstan, and still attempts to infiltrate in the remaining states in the region and grapple them from Russia. In Caucus, it also managed to remove Shevardnadze and replace him with a government ally to her in Tbilisi. This represented a strong blow that threatens Russia in the depth because this removed the barrier between the bases of the NATO pact in Turkey and the Russian borders, by the presence of a government ally to America in Georgia.
As regarding the colonial issue, CA and particularly the area of Caspian Sea is rich in oil, besides the region is also rich in many precious minerals like gold. This region is considered like the region of the ME of the richest regions in the world in natural resources and wealth that tempted the American capitalists (businessmen) and pushed them to spend their utmost for inserting the huge companies into the region under the name of investment. As it is the case with the ME, the colonial issue is considered one of the most causes of its misfortune, besides it is the main cause of struggle over it.
As regarding colonialism in CA and Caucus, it started since 18th century, at the worst European imperialism era. At that time Russia seized those wide areas in CA and Caucus from the Ottoman state and Safawite state and annexed them by force to Caesarean Russia. After the Bolshevik revolution, Russia continued to hold to CA and Caucus with fist iron, and did not give any opportunity for any other state to interfere in them. However, after the collapse of the SU, and the weakness of Russia, America was encouraged to enter the region, rather to attempt removing the Russian influence. This is because America considers herself the only inheritor in the world after the collapse of the SU and the elimination of the Eastern Camp, as she considered herself the inheritor of the western colonialism after World War II, when the SU existed. So, she considered herself inheritor of SU after its collapse. America is spellbound by arrogance and haughtiness, so she considers herself more entitled of the world. She thus endeavours to subjugate the world states to her influence through expelling the great powers, including Russia from their colonies and areas of influence.
Russia tried to inherit the SU in CA and Caucus; so it hurried to restructure the republics of the SU after its collapse through forming the commonwealth of the independent states, or (Independent Community of States) that is consisted of the states of past SU. It also maintained the federal form of Russia so as to retain wide areas of Caucus under its authority, such as Chechnya, Ingush, Dagestan and others.
America’s attempts have succeeded in Uzbekistan and Georgia. She also succeeded in occupying Afghanistan that has direct borders with CA. She has as well declared her policy of strategic allies in Asia where she declared Pakistan as a strategic ally; and she makes her preparations to consolidate her position in CA after she occupied Iraq. Moreover, the American companies became powerful in producing the oil and minerals in CA and Caucus. Despite these entire achievements, political struggle is still at its beginnings, and the conclusion of the struggle to the advantage of America is still early. This is because though the region is vital for America, it is the lung with which Russia breathes, and it is its gate to other regions in the world. Therefore, it is not easy for Russia to withdraw from it. Hence, it is unexpected from Russia to evacuate the entire region in the foreseeable future.
In order to understand the American strategy in CA, it is necessary to examine the statements of the American officials and their agents in the region and its surrounding:
At the beginning of this year of 2004, Prevez Musharraf offered a concept that his country becomes a route to trade and energy pipelines between three regions, which are: CA, South Asia (India) and West Asia (Middle East), benefiting of the midpoint location of his country between these three regions. Islamabad built a chain of huge sea ports at Arab Sea linked with a net of highways on the American model that extends to Afghani borders.
Powel gave a brief about these projects in his statement before the committee of American Senates responsible for military expenses in 27 March 2004, where he said: “the region of Caucus, CA, West Asia and South Asia provides many opportunities once linked with a net of trade and transportations…However, this is possible in case we managed to impose security and safety”. He added saying: “Pakistan studies this matter, and it reshaped its structure and sea ports (….) and we will continue building highways in Afghanistan by the help of our partners of Saudis and Japanese”.
The American diplomatic movements point to convince the region to have (military, political or economic) alliances that start from the Pakistan-Afghani borders and pass through Tehran and Kabul. This would pave the way for redrawing a map of strategic alliances in its centre. Some political sources in Islamabad give predictions of possible new alliance between the two military establishments in Washington and Islamabad that goes beyond fight against terrorism. There is talk about American visions for establishing an Asian (NATO) led by America on the model of the European (NATO). This would include the traditional allies of Washington in the region together with new allies for Washington in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It would aim at building a regional order that provides security and military protection for the net of energy pipelines and thus prevent any Chinese or Russian influence.
Moreover, contradiction between the positions of Washington and Moscow emerged regarding the problems related to the past Soviet republics. This emerged during the visit to Moscow by the American Secretary of State, Colin Powel in 26/1/2004. The American ambassador in Moscow declared before the visit that Powel intends to discuss with the Russian side the issues related to the past Soviet republics. He pointed out that one of the most important objectives of the visit is represented in finding “common points” between the Russian and American sides in past Soviet space. The American ambassador agreed there are “certain problems” that encounter the settlement of the relations between the two sides in the region. At the time Moscow denied the presence of so called “a deal” between the two sides to divide the influence in the region, America sources pointed to the presence of “problems” that encounter the relations between the two countries regarding addressing this subject. It seems the escalation of debate over this matter came at the same time of leaking some news by western media about some arrangements for concluding a Russian-American “deal” that aims at dividing the influence in the past Soviet region. Some Russian analysts considered the words of the American ambassador in Moscow a pointer to an agreement between the two sides.
It is well known that Moscow expressed its worry of the increasing American influence in many of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) particularly that related to the American military presence in the republics of CA and Georgia. This is in addition to what is considered direct American intervention in the arrangement of the internal situations in states like Georgia.
Under the shadow of Powel’s visit, some Russian politicians demanded discussing this subject with the American secretary. The head of foreign affairs committee in Russian parliament, Constantine Kotsacheve called for adding the subject of the American military presence in the region to the agenda of the visit.
All of this indicates America is still at the first step of the road in CA and Caucus; and the American plans have not gone beyond the first step. This is because the struggle in the region is still new, for the region, till recently was considered a monopoly to the SU. However, the struggle over the region involves threats to the vital interests of Russia as well as regional threats to China. It also represents strategic interest to America for realising her plans in remaining the only superpower in the world, which requires throwing Russia from its areas of influence and containment of China. All of this makes of this issue one of the important international issues, where struggle over it goes beyond the regional boundaries.
Moreover, there is another factor that makes of this region focus of attention to the states that have regional and international influence, thus making of it an international issue. This factor is represented in the return of this region to its Islam after it has been prevented of it by force during the communist era that extended to about seventy years. People returned back to their deen in a remarkable speed; not only to the worships (ibadat), but they rather started to yearn, in an amazing degree to be governed with Islam and for the system of Khilafah. So, “Hizb ut-Tahrir” managed to attract to its call for “Khilafah” within few years many thousands of men and women, whose iman was wonderful, and they were ready to face hardships without fearing the blame of any body for the sake of Allah.
However, their rulers who belong to the past era were not pleased with this strong return to the roots, so they exercised persecution and torture against their people. They sought for that sake the help of the Russians, American and British, and even the Jews to prevent the return of political Islam to power. The local intelligence forces moved and cooperated with the Russian, American and British intelligence forces to contain this sweeping Islamic expansion in these countries. Thus, they used the means of suppression and prosecution as well as the styles of raising doubts and vagueness about Islamic thought, besides the styles of praising and colourful portray of the secular thought. However, Islam has settled in their hearts, it is on increase daily and these satanic styles would not turn the people away from their Islam and Iman. The west realised the self possession of Islam of the hearts of these people and its change into a kindling inspiration. Robert D. Kaplan, an American expert in the affairs of the third world says: “In the middle of Asia… in this part of the world, Islam will become, due to its unlimited support to the oppressed and the tyrannized more attractive. This deen which is on constant increase globally is the only deen ready to encounter and strive”.
The region became one of the important fortresses of Islam. It represents the upper part of the Islamic crescent that extends from Indonesia and Malaysia in South East Asia and reaches the ME. The possibility of connection between this region and Pakistan and Iran geographically sends dangerous threats to the Russians and Americans that a huge and nuclear Islamic state might emerge in this widely extended region. Therefore, one of the reasons of the American occupation to Afghanistan is to have a close supervision over this region, particularly its rulers do not belong to the ummah and they are in their way for departure.
The danger that arises from the expansion of the Islamic movements in these countries was the reason for holding routine conferences by these states with each of Russia and China to ward off the dangers coming out of this region. Most of which was conference of Shanghai that put as its priority the danger of so called Islamic fundamentalism, together with Islamic movements.
Thus, the abundant wealth in this region and its strategic location to Russia and China, besides the ambitions of America and the growing Islamic resurgence in it; all of these connect together to make of CA an important international issue.
5- Indian Subcontinent Issue
The issue of Indian subcontinent is old, but it did not appear as it is today in the past, and nor it was one of the main world issues. The factors that emerged recently in this issue and changed it to a great issue are three: Islamic expansion caused by issue of Kashmir, the growing power of China in the region, and the entry of India and Pakistan to the club of nuclear powers.
As regarding the Islamic expansion, it became difficult to dominate over it. Therefore, one of the causes behind the invasion of Afghanistan by America was conducting a new crusader campaign to attack Islamic movements that support Muslims of Kashmir. Particularly, the power of Muslims emerged obviously in 1999 when the Islamic militia, and by support of Pakistan attacked Cargill heights at the Pakistan-Indian borders in Kashmir heights. They almost defeated the Indian army and liberated Kashmir had not Nawaz Sherrif, past Prime Minister and his Chief of Staff at that time, Pervez Musharraf betrayed them and withdrew the attacking forces in compliance with the orders of America.
This incident particularly rang the bell of danger with the Americans, and made them give much attention to the growing power of Muslims in the region. Therefore, they put pressure on their agent, the current Pakistani president, Prevez Musharraf to attack and fragment the Islamic training camps in Pakistan, under the excuse that the fighters against India in Kashmir come from Pakistan, and under the pretext of being terrorists.
America put also pressure on Pervez Musharraf to withdraw his political support to the Islamic issue of Kashmir. He responded to these American demands and declared his waiver to the right of people of Kashmir to self determination. Then the negotiations indeed started in Islamabad between the state of India and the state of Pakistan to settle the issue of Kashmir bilaterally. These negotiations started off from the agreement of the government of Pakistan of the right of Hindus in Kashmir. So, they negotiate over this Hindus right to give it legitimacy rather than to eliminate the Hindus occupation to Kashmir.
The purpose of America from putting pressure on her agent, Prevez Musharraf regarding the question of Kashmir is not only for attacking the growing Islamic power in Pakistan, but also to create balance of power in the region. She does not want India to be busy with dispute with Pakistan, which will leave China the only power in the region. She rather wants cooling down the matters between India and Pakistan so that India can challenge China while its western borders with Pakistan remain secured. Therefore, India and Pakistan were merged in the block of (SARK) of South Asia. This would create a big force capable to confidently face China. If struggle continued between India and Pakistan, India will be unable to face China or be in balance of power with it, particularly after China became a growing economic power and the first demographic power in the world. This is beside it has a permanent seat in the Security Council and it is an old nuclear power. So, based on all measures it is a growing force. In addition it did not fall in the error committed by Russia, ie it preserved its internal solidity. The Chinese leader, Husiwabung who renovated China after Mao Tse Tang said: “The great danger Gorbascheve committed was his allowance to the political freedom before renovating the economy”.
Thus, America started to give account to the growing China. She wants to keep busy in the region by creating a power that stands in its face. Therefore, America is concerned about ending the dispute between India and China so as to give her attention to China. This explains the silence and acceptance of America of possession of nuclear weapons by both India and Pakistan. She rather helps India particularly to possess developed weapons and facilitate its obtainment of its needed weapon technology. The evidence to this is that America prevented (Israel) from selling to China the developed radar Falcon planes, though it allowed their sale to India. In addition, America entered herself in pacts of strategic partnership with India, ie it deals with it as it deals with (Israel), though it is not a western state, and nor an Anglo-Saxon state.
This is the most prime element in this issue, which is the Islamic expansion, the Chinese expansion and the nuclear expansion. Therefore, America put down her strategy in the region on the basis of containing the Islamic expansion as well as the Chinese expansion, counter balancing the power of China through bringing stability to the region and removing the causes of struggle in it, so that it becomes a great homogeneous force equal and in balance with the power of China.
6- Issue of Africa
The issue if Africa is new that did not emerge in international arena except after 1960. It is an issue of colonialism only; because it is an intellectually backward country, and has many raw material resources, and an imaginary agricultural and animal wealth. When the colonial powers rushed in late 18th century and in 19th century for colonialism, the African continent was one of the places they invaded. Each one of these states occupied as much as it could. There was no fierce friction between the states over their colonialism, so most of the colonial states settled in Africa, and the entire continent became occupied by Europe. There were in it colonies for England, France, Spain, Holland, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Belgium. However, England had the lion’s share in it, followed by France, Belgium and then Portugal. These eight colonial states continued to control their colonies in Africa till the end of World War II. When the UN convention was coined, some clauses related to elimination of colonialism were inserted in it. However, these clauses were put in a way that makes the elimination of colonialism gradual. Therefore, the great powers did not come to discuss elimination of colonialism in Africa except after 1960. Before that some of the colonies were put under mandate power, such as the Italian colonies as an introduction to eliminate colonialism in them. Besides, some political actions existed as introductory steps to eliminate colonialism. Some of the most important political actions were the concept of active neutralism, conferences of active neutralism and neutrality (non-partiality). The concept of active neutralism was originally English given by Churchill, PM of Britain to the English agent, Nehru. He asked him to declare it as policy to India, and to promote it amongst the states in Asia. England did that because it saw its entire colonies in the FE and Asia under threat from America and Russia (SU). Russia (SU) was inciting the people of these colonies to liberate themselves from colonialism, as it has seen the happenings in Indonesia. America as well put pressure on England to give independence to its colonies, where America would attract these colonies after giving them independence through giving them loans and sending them experts. As regarding the concept of independence, England is experienced in using it as a means for changing the style of colonialism. So, it gave independence to some of its colonies, made them independent and formed of them so called British Commonwealth. Therefore, it did not fear much from the concept of independence; it rather preferred it and manipulated it, because it knows how to use it for consolidating its colonialism. However, it used to fear of the control of America over the independent states through the loans, aid and experts. It thus used the thought of active non-alliance (neutrality) and gave it to Nehru to use it for encountering America and Russia (SU). Indeed, Nehru started the call to the concept of active neutrality and made remarkable activity. Russia understood the significance of this concept, so it preferred it and started to use it. This is because if an independent state took a neutral position, then there is a hope for separating it from the west. As regarding America, its politicians differed regarding it. Some of them preferred it because it helps America to attract the neutral states to her side for accepting loans and aid. Some others opposed it because it helps communism to enter these neutral states. However, Nehru went on calling for active neutrality and began to look for physical actions that represent the concept. So, he made contact with China and called for the concept of holding a conference by the neutral states. China agreed to that immediately; and a committee was set up to prepare for the conference. The committee started to contact some of the states that were colonies before their independence and called them to active neutrality. Indonesia was a member in this committee, and it did not proceed with America at that time, but feared this might be considered going with communism. It seems it tried to seek the opinion of America, which encouraged it. This is because Eisenhower was in power and he supported the concept of neutrality. Therefore, Indonesia rushed into the concept and recommended holding the conference in Indonesia and in Bandung specifically. The entire committee agreed to that, and thus the conference was actually held in 1954 in Bandung. Each of Russia (SU), China, England and America tried to use it. However, the conference came out with a result that pleases Russia (SU), China and America, by taking resolutions that call for liberation. England was not happy, because it wanted it to discuss the active neutrality only, or be dominated by this subject. America made a huge use of the conference, for she made Tito, Sukarno and Abdul Nasser adopt this conference and this concept strongly. They stuck with Nehru, the agent of Britain, the original preacher of the concept, and started to use this as a means for calling to liberation from colonialism and campaign against the colonial powers. They directed their efforts primarily to Africa; so by 1960 the concept worked in Africa and thus new agents to America emerged in it. Struggle moved since then to Africa, and America started to seriously attempt to expel the colonial powers from Africa and replace them. She started to put pressure on these colonial states to give independence to the colonies. She had before that, in 1954 kindled the revolution in Algeria, and established agents to her; besides it made Egypt and Arab countries support this revolution, which had a remarkable effect on the colonial powers for giving up their colonies. As regarding England, which is experienced in the meaning of giving independence, it gave within a short period independence to many colonies. So, new states emerged, such as Zanzibar, Tanganyika, Nigeria, Uganda, Union of North Rhodesia, South Rhodesia and Nyasaland, beside others. France was hesitant, but after De Ghoul saw the quick change of the situation in the world he followed the plan used by Britain. So, he gave independence to many colonies bringing in the states of Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Senegal, Gabon and others. As regarding Belgium, it used to occupy Congo, which is the treasure of Africa and contains the greatest amount of Uranium, which is fundamental in manufacturing nuclear bombs. Therefore, it was not easy to give independence to Congo, particularly England used to dominate over the companies that used to run the mines in Katanga, one of the provinces of Congo. Therefore, giving independence to Congo represented a great problem. However, America put pressure on Belgium till it gave independence to Congo, and it thus became an independent state. This enraged England; so it pushed its agent, Mois Tshombe who declared independence of Katanga. The case was then raised to UN, which sent an international force to restore Katanga. The UN General Secretary at that time, Mr Hammershold went to the region but England prepared a plan for him and killed him. Struggle between America and England intensified there for many years till America dominated the country, established a government puppet to her and expelled Tshombe from it. Thus, the issue of Congo settled, though for a while. During that period England was worried about the Union of North Rhodesia, South Rhodesia and Nyasaland. So, it broke the union and gave independence to Nyasaland under the name of Malawi, to North Rhodesia under the name of Zambia, and attempted to put South Rhodesia in a situation that keeps its colonialism over it. But, because America continued to chase it regarding it, England later on gave independence to it under the name of Zimbabwe.
America succeeded in taking off the states of the African Horn, the states of the Great Lakes, namely Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi from France. However, she failed to rob Chad from it in the late nineties. The matter was settled to the advantage to the French agent, Idris Dbi after he defeated the forces of Hussein Habree whose loyalty was not settled. He used to ally with France, but America attracted him, a matter that pushed France to strongly support its agent Idris Dbi, who managed to take over the authority.
Colonel Idris Dbi was one of Habree’s men and a strong ally to him. He assumed the post of General Commander of Chad military forces till April 1989, led Habree’s forces in the battles of (Fialargo) in 1983, and succeeded in the evacuation of the Libyan army from Chad. However, a tribal dispute broke out that led Dbi to take part in an unsuccessful coup attempt with his ally Hasan Jamoos after Dbi was removed from his post in April 1989. He fled after that to Sudan where he set up the National Movement for Salvation, which contained an alliance between two tribes, opponent to the government of Hussein Habree, namely Zaghawa and Hijara, which live in the Chad-Sudan territories. Colonel Dbi had strong relation with France, and he is the son of the French military establishment; besides he went through a military course in the military school in Paris in 1958. Therefore, the victory of Dbi and the defeat of Habree was a great blow against the American influence and strengthened the French influence; for France restored through this the initiative by blocking the way of the growing American influence.
By the arrival of the neoconservatives to authority in the USA, USA started new styles to invade African continent. She is no more content with stirring domestic wars and crises and supporting revolt movements for defeating the agents of Europe and replacing them with her agents in African states. She rather added to these styles the style of direct military intervention, as it is reflected in the defence and foreign policy of the American administration. It embarked upon attempting to establish military relations and treaties with many of the states in north, west and centre of Africa under the name of fight against terrorism. This implies the direct American military intervention will play a basic role in the struggle over Africa in the coming period; this is besides the other styles. Thus, it can be said the coming period will witness a more ferocious struggle in Africa. America has established and still establishes military bases to her in north, west and east of Africa so as to use these for supporting the revolt movements and as a means of pressure upon the local governments for the purpose of expelling all European states, particularly England, from the remaining colonies. However, because of the interwoven European interests in Africa, the coming period will be sanguine and harsh in Africa, particularly there are only material accounts and plunder of natural resources in it. Thus, struggle in Africa is between the colonial states, and it therefore became an international issue, and still continues to be so. Hence the issue of Africa is one of the international issues.
Thus, struggle over Africa between the great powers intensified since the sixties of the 20th century. Therefore, America and Russia (SU) had influence in the continent beside the influence of the European colonial states. Due to the weakness of Russia (SU) and the absence of an old colonial presence to it in Africa, it was obliged to get out of it when it left Angola in the eighties of last century. Besides, the remaining small European colonial states went out of Africa, leaving only Britain and France behind. These two colonial states kept their influence under the framework of British Commonwealth Organisation, and French Francophone Organisation. America used her entire weight in a frenzy competition with Britain and France for dominating over Africa; a matter that drove the British and French to defend the interests of Europe in Africa through coordination between them and arranging common visits by their two foreign ministers to the different African states.
Struggle is still going on in Africa between these three states, and it is still represented in domestic wars that exceeded twenty. The most apparent areas of struggle till now are the happenings in Sera Leon, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Somalia, Uganda, Congo, Rwanda, Burundi and Sudan.
This black continent has been afflicted with bloody military disputes because of this colonial struggle. These exceeded in the last years 26 disputes amongst more than 30 states. These fabricated disputes contributed to the increase of the debts of this continent over 370 billion dollars, which represent 65% of the total national income of the entire continent. Because of these disputes, more than 30 million mines were planted in 18 states, which represent one quarter of the total mines planted in the entire world.
It is worth mentioning that struggle between the western colonial states over Africa changes sometimes to deals and agreements between the great states as it happened in the American-British agreement to separate South of Sudan from its north, and the American-French agreement in Ivory Coast. However, the economic and political competition between the states remains the dominant mark.
Thus, international struggle over colonialism moved to Africa, so its issue became international, and it is still international. This is because though England, America and France agreed to one form for gathering Africa under one bond they named Organisation of African Summit, and then African Union (AU), the struggle inside and outnside this summit and union still exists between the states, particularly between America and England. Once the division of the world into two camps came to an end, and America turned to remove the European states, particularly Britain from their last colonies, specifically in Africa, it became noticed that America tries to infiltrate to the African states under the name of war against terrorism so as to make contact with the armies of these states. America has established and still establishes military bases to her in north, west and east of Africa so as to use them for supporting the revolt movements and as a means of pressure over the local governments for the purpose of expelling all European states, particularly England, from the remaining colonies. However, because of the interwoven European interests in Africa, the coming period will be sanguine and harsh in Africa, particularly there are only material accounts and plunder of natural resources in it.
Hence the issue of Africa is an international issue.
These are the great issues in which political actions take place. However, this does not mean political actions do not occur except in these issues; it rather means the most prominent aspect of struggle between the states is these issues.
Struggle between the states at time of peace is manifested in using political actions that might be associated with military actions as was the case in Vietnam, and recently in the ME (Kuwait, Iraq and Afghanistan). It might not be associated with military actions as was the case in Africa before, in Rhodesia and South Africa, and recently in Tunisia and Libya. Since this struggle only takes place for the sake of a question or an issue, and these six issues are the most important issues that created competition between the states, therefore we advanced them as examples to the political actions. Otherwise, political actions could take place in other than these issues; they even might exist without struggle. As long as there are states that compete with each other, and conspire against each other, then they have to undertake political actions against each other. This might be for setting international traps to another state to fall in them; or it might be for weakening the other state; or it might be for strengthening itself, or otherwise. There are so many examples for that. As an example is the concept of disarmament, which was inserted into the League of Nations and England used it as a means to weaken France. So it put pressure on France to execute this concept, and it itself pretended it started to cut down its weapons. France believed in that and started really to cut down its weapons and limited its armament activity. This was a plot from England to weaken France before it and before Germany. Therefore, France could not stand up in the face of Germany in World War II, and it collapsed horribly and quickly. Its adoption of the concept of decreasing armament had great effect in that.
When World War II took place, Russia (SU) worked actively in China and established a strong communist party and supported it for taking power in China. America used to support the regime there at that time, but then she started to support Chan Kai Scheck. At the beginning she made him associate the communists with him till they became powerful and have weight. But they separated from him and started to fight against him. She used to support Chan Kai Scheck openly and provide him with funds and weapons, though in limited form. She also used to support the Communist Party, but secretly; besides she contained the activity of Chan Kai Scheck. She continued to proceed with secret steps, though concentrated in a way that led to the victory of the communists and their take over of authority in entire China. Chan Kai Scheck was thrown away and contained in island of Formosa (current Taiwan). Chan Kai Scheck used to notice that and be surprised of it. He did not conceive America worked to make China a communist state. He rather thought that was due to the American ignorance, and they did not understand the situation. However, it was discovered later on that America put a plan for making China a communist state. This was for making it stand in face of Russia (SU) and for fragmenting and destroying the communist camp. Indeed, the American plan succeeded, though this came after 20 years. Thus, this is a political action undertaken by America, and it is considered of the great international traps.
Likewise, after Europe came out of World War II, destroyed, poor and threatened by Russia (SU), it threw itself in the arms of America and sought her help. America rushed to help it and thus set up Marshal Plan. The American aid flooded to Europe, where this aid was economic material, weapons and experts. Through this aid, America entered into partnership with the companies. She encouraged the educated people to migrate to America, and connected the economy of Europe with the economy of America. After few years Europe became dependent on America and under its shade. The economies of Europe became generally possessed by the American companies. Thus, the American help to Europe was a conspiracy to link it with her, to take its educated people and in order to participate in its economies.
Another example is that Germany came out of World War II inflicted by wounds and its industries destroyed; so America rushed to its help. However, America knew an important point regarding the set up of industry in a state. A state would not be truly an industrial state internationally unless it made the military industry the basis of its industry, and built its entire industry on the basis of military industry. If industry was restored in Germany on this basis, then it will quickly return as a great power. Therefore, America rushed to Germany and adopted programming of its industry. She did that on pure economic basis rather than military one. It was built on investment basis rather than military industry basis. So, she inserted the American companies in Germany for that purpose and built in the industry with American funds. Thus, through this policy she hit Germany as a military state. This created huge factories in Germany, and the economies of Germany improved from industrial aspect. Germany thus became from economic aspect wealthier than before World War II, and the world watched how Germany rebuilt its industry in fabulous speed.
However, in reality and through this industry Germany has committed suicide and will never come back again unless it revised its industry and changed it from the basis and built it on the basis of military industry. It will not also progress economically unless it expelled the American companies and funds from the country. This form of aid America provided to Germany is a political action that is considered an international trap, and instead of helping it, it rather hit it.
Another example is that when Castro, the leader of Cuba contacted the communist camp and sought the help of Russia (SU), America did not bother though the principle of Monroe prevents all states from thinking in invading America. When Russia (SU) started to supply Castro with weapons, America remained silent, though this was considered in the norms of the states as direct intervention with weapons in America. America’s silence was not out of fear and nor of ignorance, particularly Cuba is so close to her. It was rather deception to pull the feet of Russia (SU) in the new world so as to widen the Russian range in a way that makes it unable of protecting it; it would rather weaken its position and strengthen America against it. Therefore, there were many politicians; even some Russian saw what Russia (SU) has done in Cuba was stupid. Had not the two superpowers reached an agreement in Vienna, the expansion of Russia (SU) in America would have brought it disaster.
It is not correct to say America was annoyed of it, and a war was about to break out because of it had not the Russians acted sensibly and drew the nuclear missiles which they built in Cuba. This is because the warning of war Kennedy directed to Russia (SU) over the issue of missiles in Cuba and their withdrawal after that by Khrushchev was a forged process that came through an agreement between the two sides. As one of the agreements reached between Khrushchev and Kennedy was removal of the American nuclear basis in Turkey and the nuclear basis present in Cuba. America could remove her basis from Turkey without much noise because Turkey would not be harmed of its removal and nor it will cause misunderstanding between Turkey and America. However, the removal of the nuclear basis from Cuba by Russia (SU) willingly would mean abandoning the defence of Cuba. This would provoke all the communist states and Cuba particularly; besides it would create misunderstanding between Russia (SU) and Cuba. Therefore, there was a need for a style to remove the basis without affecting Russia (SU) in the sight of the communist states. Hence, they agreed America forges a cause to create international tension that leads to its removal. Kennedy chose for that style a time he used for his advantage. When he saw England mobilizing its forces in Eden and Beejan to intervene in Yemen against Egyptian army for throwing it out of Yemen, and saw England had really started a brawl with the Egyptian army and tried to attack it from Beejan, he raised the issue of the nuclear missiles in Cuba and created international tension, so England and France feared of the break out of a world war. Then England retreated from intervention in Yemen, and Khrushchev pretended he retreated and he was ready to withdraw his basis from America if America withdrew her basis from Turkey. Kennedy showed he is ready to discuss the matter, and thus the nuclear basis was removed from Turkey. This is the reality of the issue; it is fabricated to justify the removal of the Russian (SU) basis from Cuba and to scare England.
The evidence that the silence of America about the build up of the nuclear basis by Russia (SU) in Cuba was a deception and an international trap is that which happened in Greece after World War II, when the communist revolution broke out in it. Tito at that time proposed to Stalin that Yugoslavia would interfere against Greece and establish in it a communist state that joins the communist camp. Stalin realised the risk involved in this proposal, and explicitly said to Tito: Do you want us to establish a basis at the Mediterranean Sea against the strongest and richest state in the world? Can we protect this basis? All that we can do is to muddle America. We cannot take Greece from America, for this is beyond our capability and will never contemplate in its like.
Another example is that when World War II broke out Hitler feared Turkey might enter the war on the side of England, ie on the side of the allies. He knew the ruling group in Turkey, the group of Mustafa Kemal known as People Party proceeded with England and acknowledged it favour upon them. Therefore, he knew it is easy for the English to involve them in war to their side. He therefore feared Turkey might enter war against Germany, so he wanted it to stand neutral. This is because he knew Turkey’s entry in war against him would harm him in three aspects; the first is that Turkish people are brave and braver than the English, braver than the French and braver than the Russians. So, their entry in war on the side of the allies will create considerable force to them. The second is that Turkish people are Muslim, so their entry in war makes the sentiments of Muslims, Arabs and non Arabs against Germany, which has effect in world propaganda. The third is that the location of Turkey is strategically excellent. If she remained neutral it would be a fortress at the North West front, thus preventing the entry of the allies into Europe and representing a powerful barrier that protects him from being attacked from back. It is because of that he endeavoured to keep Turkey neutral. Therefore, he sent his most skilful men, Fon Papin as ambassador of Germany to Turkey to accomplish this task by keeping Turkey neutral and preventing her from entry in war on the side of the allies. This is because her entry in war against the allies was unlikely and unexpected. Therefore, the concern of Hitler was that Turkey does not enter in war on the side of the allies. So, he sent his best men for this task. In order to hide his purpose he made the task of Fon Papin as to attempt bringing Turkey to the side of Germany, and to try convincing her to enter war on the side of Germany and against the allies. Therefore, the allies endeavoured from their side to keep Turkey neutral. Their ambassadors worked hard for this objective, while Fon Papin worked openly to take Turkey to the side of Germany. This approach encouraged the allies to make sure Turkey remained neutral. Through this political game and by the genius of Fon Papin Hitler succeeded in keeping Turkey neutral through the war time, though it was easier for the allies to invade Germany from the side of Turkey by winning Turkey to their side. However, they did not do that lest they would open that front and in desire of keeping Turkey neutral so as to protect that front by her neutrality. Such a political action is considered of the powerful actions at time of war.
These are some examples of the political actions, which the states undertake against each other in international struggle and political field. These are for designing international traps, for weakening other states, or as political manoeuvres, or the like. These actions take place in the general political field as well as in the struggle that goes on in the six issues. These are usually confined in one point and between the two or more states involved in the struggle. However, their occurrence in general way makes their international effect greater. Therefore, the politician must not restrict his mind to the important issues and the international actions involved in them. He must rather widen his vision by making it contain every political action undertaken by any great power. When the politician examines political actions he must not divest them from their own circumstances and nor generalise them. He must rather link every action with the circumstances that surround it and the environment that encloses it. So, it is invalid that he takes the action detached from its conditions and circumstances. And nor it is proper to generalise the issue, compare other actions with this action or dispose actions in a logical order to conclude logical results. He must rather avoid that and stay away from it, because logic and analogy are very dangerous to political understanding. This is because actions in life differ from each other and do not resemble each other. Rather every action has its own conditions and circumstances. Therefore, the politician must link the action with its related political information, and he must examine it within its own circumstances and surroundings. Then he can reach the most possible correct understanding of it. There are abundant examples that illustrate this, because the daily incidents that take place in international field and in the actions of the great powers are full of such examples. However, every action is linked with its origin, which is related to the policy of the state, to the international situation, or the situations of the states. Every action has also its own circumstances and its own surroundings that are not shared with other actions. As an example, in April 1969 North Korea attacked an American spying plane in the Far East. America was upset and the National Security Council held a meeting, but the president Nixon took a decision that USA does not intend to revenge for the plane. Instead, the spying planes and ships took protection against any future attack. However, North Korea captured a spying ship in 1968, where America was upset and the National Security Council held a meeting, and the president Johnson gave statements of warning and threat; besides the seventh navy in the Pacific Ocean moved towards Korea. When America noticed its threats and war of nerves did not materialize it resorted to the negotiation and friendly means till the crew of the ship was released. These are two similar incidents, where a small state like Korea interfered with a great state like USA by hitting her plane and killing its pilots and capturing her ships including their crews. Why America took different stances in the two incidents? Is it due to difference of people? It might be so. Is it because the threats did not materialize? It is possible as well. However, it seems the circumstances of the ship were almost normal, and China was preoccupied with the Cultural Revolution; therefore threats would not possibly lead to danger. The conditions of the plane on the other side were abnormal, where Russia (SU) was mobilising its huge ground and air forces in central Europe together with its navy forces in the Mediterranean Sea. At the same time China was in a position it wants to show itself to the world after the Cultural Revolution, and it started a brawl with Russia (SU) for prominence. Had Nixon threatened Korea, it was possible that China might respond, which might lead to friction and more tension. England might use that as a means for provocation against the eastern camp. Therefore, it was not proper for America to make any threats and nor war of nerves. This explains the silence of Nixon.
Thus, the circumstances of the two incidents were different and accordingly the measures were different.
Another example is when Nixon made a visit to Europe immediately after assuming his presidency post. He claimed then he would seek the views of his allies before contacting Russia (SU) regarding the crisis of the Middle East. His statement could have been assumed true if there were no other circumstances that stand to be a better cause of the visit. Through examination, it was discovered England was making contacts with the European states for rallying them behind her regarding the crisis of the Middle East. It wanted to convince them to stand on its side against Russia, even if this led to a world war against the eastern camp. This was a very dangerous situation; and this forced Nixon to visit the European states immediately after assuming the presidency post and before undertaking any action. So, his visit to Europe was for dispersing its states from England.
Russia (SU) as well invaded Czechoslovakia at end of 1968 and associated Warsaw Pact with it, where all of them joined it except Romania. The armies of the alliance entered Czechoslovakia under the pretext of maintaining communism and protecting the communist state and the communist party from possible western assaults. That might be true. However, the conditions of the incident are more dangerous than a communist party and maintenance of communism. This is particularly it was only a matter of interpretation of communism by the leaders of the communist party. By examining the conditions at that time it appears the Russian (SU) navy present at the coasts of Egypt became under threat from England. England was mobilising its forces in the Mediterranean Sea. (Israel) might attack Egypt, which would oblige Russia (SU) to interfere under the pretext of protecting communism. Then England might rush to attack Russia (SU). Thus it became necessary to prepare for war and prepare the means of supplies.
The arrival of supplies from Russia (SU) through Gibraltar at time of war is not feasible besides it is a long way. Therefore, it was necessary to find a passageway to the Mediterranean Sea, which is close to Egypt. For that purpose, Russia (SU) mobilised two million soldiers and three thousand war planes together with nuclear weapons in central Europe. It also prepared Warsaw Pact to participate in the war. Thus the alliance entered Czechoslovakia openly to intimidate England through mobilising its forces in central Europe ready to cross Yugoslavia and Albania reaching the Mediterranean Sea in case Russia (SU) involved in war with England. Hence entry in Czechoslovakia under the pretext of maintaining the communist state aimed at threatening England and preparing for war, and for putting Warsaw Pact in readiness to enter war.
This is the way of linking political actions with their origin and within their circumstances and surroundings. They have to be understood at the day they happened and not the day before, taking notice of the developments and changes within the same day, even the same hour. One must not remain standstill at a time even if it was only one hour or even minutes before. He must rather move with the time and understand matters and actions according to the last moment noticing what is going on of matters and actions at that time.
These are the main world issues, and these are the great states that influence international politics. This is also the way of linking the political actions with their origin and placing them within their own circumstances and surroundings, besides understanding them at their own time, within the day or hour, due to the quick change and motion of events.