Friday, November 30, 2007

France on Fire: An Islamic Viewpoint

For almost two weeks the streets of France have burned in the predominantly Muslim immigrant suburbs of many French towns and cities. The catalyst to such events was the electrocution of two young French men of North African descent on an electric fence as they tried to evade a police stop-and-search in a Parisian suburb. The violence has escalated night after night, spreading to an increasing number of urban centres, while the government struggled to respond.

What must be absolutely clear is that these riots are not a response to an unfortunate and isolated incident. The young people involved are mostly second or third generation immigrants from ex-French colonies in North Africa, particularly Algeria. They did not force themselves on French society or choose to live in the poverty-stricken suburbs of French cities. It was the French invasion and colonisation of their homelands that began the migration process more than a century ago. They were born to immigrant parents as citizens of the French Republic.

The French Republic publicises its founding principles as being ‘Liberté, égalité et fraternité,’ (liberty, equality and brotherhood). However, such idealistic notions have failed to materialize in the lives of North African men. In reality, these were principles upheld amongst the white majority, many of whom did not see themselves as equal to North African Muslim French citizens. Instead, the white majority have vocally rejected Islam, as evidenced by the banning of the Hijab last fall.

There are both subjective and objective accounts of this reality for the young men and women living in the poor suburbs of French cities. It is well known that non-Caucasian French men feel victimised by the police who often use intimidating tactics against them. These men find themselves in the most run-down neighbourhoods with poor public services and very few job opportunities. They feel actively discriminated against in education, employment and law enforcement as well as many other areas of social life. However, due to the French government’s active refusal to acknowledge these problems within French society, there is no obligation for the civil services, universities, private business or the police to keep record of the ethnic origin of those they deal with. Therefore, there is no way of proving whether institutionalised racism exists within these areas. A university, for example, could routinely turn down academically satisfactory students for no other reason than their ethnic origin and it would never be picked up because the French government does not collect any information on it. These young non-Caucasian French citizens feel that they have been discriminated against for decades, but no-one has ever done anything about it.

In addition, they continue to feel unwelcome in France. The French republic has an extremely active and popular nationalist party called “Le Front National”. It is a group that openly calls for French people to reclaim France from the immigrants who they claim have destroyed the country. Since the start of the riots they have held demonstrations displaying the sign, “Love France or leave France”. It is from such hostile sentiments towards “immigrants” that Jean-Marie Le Pen – leader of ‘Le Front National’ – was able to muster a significant degree of popular support during the last presidential elections. However, as the politicians are “slaves of the people” instead of “slaves to Allah”; the mainstream parties have adopted similar platforms to pander to the anti-immigrant attitudes of “the people”.

These problems have persisted for decades. There is a profound sense of injustice and unhappiness amongst the French immigrant communities and they rightfully feel like second-class citizens in France.

Nationalism: An Un-Islamic idea

The Muslims in the West should realize that nationalism is only natural in secular nationalist democracies. Nationalism itself encourages the French to believe that they are different and superior to those who migrated to France from ethnically disparate lands. Moreover, such a phenomenon is not isolated to France, but is a well known problem across Europe and America as well. During the 1960s, the Americans of African descent rioted in a similar manner for similar reasons.

Nationalism is an idea that Muslims must abandon to achieve righteousness. It is narrated that the Prophet (saw) said:

"Whoever calls for `Asabiyyah, (nationalism/tribalism), whoever fights for `Asabiyyah, and whoever dies for `Asabiyyah is not one of us.” [Abu Dawud]

Is Rioting the Answer? Absolutely Not!

The frustration amongst the French rioters is understandable, but rioting is not the solution. Rioting is rather likely to increase the resentment of the indigenous French population against “immigrants” and is unlikely to lead to any type of success or progress. More importantly, this type of rioting is forbidden in Islam and only leads to failure in the Hereafter.

Burning and destroying private property, beating private citizens and shooting at local police is absolutely forbidden in these circumstances. The vast majority of Muslims are well aware that stealing is something that earns the anger of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Therefore, it should come as no surprise that destroying the possessions owned by other people is something that is also Haram. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) revealed (to the nearest meaning):

”Do not misappropriate one another’s property unjustly, nor bribe the judges in order to misappropriate a part of other people’s property, sinfully and knowingly” [TMQ 2:188]

And the Prophet (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:

“Whoever appropriates a handsbreadth of land through falsehood shall be made to carry it, as thick as seven earths, around his neck on Judgement Day.”

Abu Dawud records in his Sunan narrated that Al-Baraa ibn Azib narrated that:

“Al-Baraa had a she-camel which was accustomed to graze the standing crop belonging to the people. She entered a garden and did damage to it. The Prophet of Allah (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wasallam) was informed about it, and he gave the decision that the owners of gardens are responsible for guarding them by day, and the owners of the animals are responsible for guarding them by night. Any damage done by animals during the night is a responsibility lying on their owners.”

If the Muslim farmer is responsible for his animals that do damage to a neighbour’s land during the night, then what about the person who wilfully burns the property of his community and neighbours? This is unacceptable. Will Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) help those who wilfully violate His (swt) commands?

On a side note, it should be clear that the concept of “private property” in Islam is very different than the one that is flaunted by the Neo-Conservatives and other advocates of the Capitalist system. Only by Allah’s leave was the Islamic system able to avoid the extremes of secular thought when it comes to ownership of property. Although the concept of private property exists, it is not an unlimited concept, but rather it is subject to certain constraints. For example, oil cannot be privatized, and is owned by the Ummah, based on the saying of Prophet where he (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wasallam) designated “sources of fire” as a something that belongs to the communal ownership of the Ummah.

Role of Muslims in the West: Ambassadors of Islam

The Muslims in the West have a unique opportunity to offer Islam as a comprehensive system and ideological alternative to the non-Muslims that are our neighbours, co-workers, acquaintances, and colleagues. However, we must first recognize that Islam is not some cultural relic that is associated with the countries of our parents or our birth. We cannot allow ourselves to view Islam as a collection of rituals that one practices in one’s spare time. Instead we must proceed on the path of the Prophet (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wasallam) and his Companions; and demonstrate to the community at large that Islam is the way out of the spiritual, social, economical, and political misery that people face as individuals, as a community and as a nation in the West. Consider the issue of nationalism that was raised in this article. As previously mentioned, the idea of nationalism is indisputably alien to Islam. However, we unfortunately find some Muslims believing that there is no contradiction between Islam and nationalism. In addition, we see with the riots in France and the oppression of the African-Americans in the US, the secular “democratic” ideology has made virtually no progress in bridging the gap between different nationalities and cultures. This is where the opportunity lies for the activist-oriented Muslims living in the West. We must work with the Muslim community to ensure that they hold the correct concepts about Islam, and that they abandon antiquated notions such as nationalism. We must also work with the non-Muslim community to demonstrate to them how the Islamic system works comprehensively, and to eliminate the roots of racism.

Some may argue that calling non-Muslims to Islam is difficult considering the climate of racism and bias against Islam and Muslims. However, the reality is that it was never easy to call people to the Deen of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala); even the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wasallam) faced very difficult challenges. Regardless whether it is easy or difficult, it is up to us to work at a grass root level and invite people to the guidance of Allah (swt). We need to engage society and discuss established values and norms. We must illustrate how the secular systems have failed to address the problems of Man. And we must also be confident in Islam and avoid temptations to compromise Islam in order to attract people to it. There are no weaknesses in this Deen; the weakness is in us. We should never forget that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has given us this great gift of guidance; and that truly it is the best thing that we have. As Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has revealed:

“And thus We have made you a most just nation, that you be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger be a witness over you.” [TMQ 2:143]

“You are the best of the nations raised up for (the benefit of) mankind; you enjoin what is right and forbid the wrong and believe in Allah.” [TMQ 3:110]

We should do our best to improve the lives of Muslims and non-Muslims in our communities. With respect to non-Muslims, we need to give them their due that Allah (swt) has ordained and introduce them to the guidance of Allah (swt). Once the Khilafah is established in the Muslim lands, inshaAllah, it will be possible to practically demonstrate the justice of the Islamic social and economic systems, as well as provide opportunities for those who wish to migrate there whether Muslim or non-Muslim. Only an Islamic society can provide the opportunities and progress that humanity is in such desperate need of. Muslims in Canada, alongside their efforts to present Islam as the alternative to the Western way of life, should therefore also actively support the peaceful political movement for the re-establishment of the Khilafah.


Coping with exam pressure & stress - an Islamic perspective

The following is a transcript of a circle given on this subject recently.

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ'I have only created jinn and mankind that they may worship Me.' [TMQ Al-Dhariyat: 56]

Preparations will be in full swing as they lock themselves away from the outside world, lost in the pages of their textbooks, busy reducing their notes for the umpteenth time in a desperate bid to memorise all that had passed over their heads since their courses began. To most of them, achieving the top grades is of paramount importance, in the hope that it will open doors to further education at the most prestigious establishments, or ease them towards the ultimate goal of a high flying job and incumbent top salary, and all that these will lead to in terms of securing the utmost comfort and pleasure in life.

For many students, the importance of exam success has been drilled into their impressionable young minds from the outset of school life, by parents, teachers and peers. It is thus perhaps inevitable that sitting exams has become one of the most stressful times in a young persons life. Sadly, for a few individuals the enormous pressures amount to more than they can bear, pushing them into a state of anxiety, depression or in the most extreme of cases to suicide.

So within the midst of an atmosphere of such immense stresses, the question that arises is how should people cope with the pressures of exams?

In the Capitalist society the pursuit of pleasure through the enjoyment of material pursuits gives meaning and purpose to life. For many who live in such a society, education plays a crucial role in making available such means to the individual and the wider community. It leads to the production of a skilled workforce that can accelerate the material progress, and facilitate the generation of wealth within society; things which are perceived to be vital in ensuring the happiness and well being of all. As a result, a heavy emphasis is placed upon individuals to strive to be successful in exams with the aim of securing the 'fruits' of their hard work; a prosperous career that will be beneficial for the individual and at the same time help to achieve the wider goals of the Capitalist society.

This seemingly endless series of tests firmly establishes exam culture in the minds of students, making these the most appropriate means by which to measure success. The constant need to succeed is perpetuated not only by the relentless testing at every stage of educational life, but also the comparison of results in the form of league tables and prize-giving ceremonies

Why do people get stressed?

When faced with the pressure to succeed the fear of failure can cause considerable anxiety. In some cases the worries about how parents and peers will react to their failure may surpass even their own concerns. With the thought that their entire future life may hinge on the outcome of exams, it is inevitable that some degree of stress will ensue.

For most individuals exams are characterised by a combination of a desire to do well, parental pressure, fear of failure and a wish to get exams over and done with, each of which can contribute to generating the effects of stress. When subject to the force of such intense pressure as seen in the time of exams, the human body begins to express its anxiety through what is commonly referred to as a 'stress reaction.' Some people are reasonably able to handle the pressures, and the most they will ever experience are the physical signs of nervousness such as 'butterflies' in their stomach, dryness of the mouth or palpitations. However the physical symptoms of stress for others can be more taxing- such as fatigue, dizziness, loss of appetite, migraines and nausea. Psychological symptoms can include anxiety, depression, obsessional behaviours and being unnaturally irritable or subdued.

E.g. From Indian Express (25/1/99):

``I want to commit suicide,'' pleaded the voice at the other end of the phone. ``I am going to die now...I don't want to listen to anyone or anything.'' The caller turned out to be a BSc first year student, she had called up a Sarthak helpline volunteer. And it took four hours of convincing before she began to confide in the volunteer.

``I have not prepared for my mathematics paper. My cousin got more marks during the tests. My parents will never accept me if I don't do well. They won't be able to talk to relatives and friends,'' she said. Meenakshi did not want to take her exams.

Parental pressure

Ahana Chakraborty, head of the department of education at Shyamaprasad College, Calcutta, feels that fear of failure brings on stress in students. Brendan McCarthaigh, founder of Students Empowerment, Rights and Vision through Education (SERVE), a Calcutta-based NGO, believes that since social security is non-existent in India, flunking exams is not taken lightly. “It is taken even more seriously in West Bengal, where doing well in examinations is often a prestige issue with parents,” he says. Students are not the only ones — parents who are ambitious for their children feel the stress equally.

In New Delhi, an inquiry into 150 educational facilities in 2005 by mental health group VIMHANS showed that 40 percent of pupils feel overwhelmed by exams.

Sandeep Vohra, psychiatrist at Delhi's Apollo Hospital said: ``From the age of 2, children are [subjected to] competition. The child is estimated by his school marks: if he is good at school, he is a good child, if not he is the failure of the family.''

``A mother committed suicide before the results. She jumped from the third floor because she thought her daughter had not done well,'' [INDIA EXAM STRESS, AFP, 2/8/05]

Even in West - The findings of a survey published in 2001 carried out by the UK Mental Health Foundation showed that 50% of University students showed signs of clinical anxiety and more than one in 10 suffered from clinical depression.

Suicide – Is an increasing reality in India

A separate study by an Indian non-governmental organisation Sahyog showed that 57 percent of the 850 teenagers they questioned suffered from depression and nine percent attempted suicide in 2004. There are even cases of parents committing suicide for fear of their children’s exam results.

Perhaps more alarming is the fact that pupils and students are increasingly turning to hard drugs, resorting to binge drinking and even self mutilation in order to deal with the enormous pressure.

A spokesperson from the University of Sussex Counselling Service observed that he was seeing more students with mental health problems than ever before. "Twenty years ago, when, I started, it was rare to see people who were suicidal, who had issues of self mutilation or who were taking, for instance hard drugs. Now I think that it constitutes 40% to 50% of my workload. I think there has been a major shift and it has the implication that we are working more as a psychiatric outpost than a counselling post."

The consequences of failure

In countries like India education seems like a way out for those who are in economically deprived situation

In an article in AFP in 2005, Andrea Raj, a 36-year-old masseuse, who is trying to ensure she can pay for a tutor for her 15-year-old son, recognises that she may be pushing too hard. She explains that because she stopped her studies at the end of primary school, she has never felt good enough in a society that lays particular stress on academic achievement. ``People treat me like nothing, they treat me like a servant,'' she said. ``I want to push him, I want him to be an engineer. I don't want him to be ashamed the way I was ashamed.'' – This is common feeling

Nonetheless, the less severe responses of the majority of students have considerable negative effects for the individual and society in general. But do drink, illicit drugs or anti-depressants have to be an inevitable outcome? And more fundamentally, will these measures actually help to solve the underlying problems, which lead to exam stress?

The reality of exams with respect to life

How individuals cope with the pressure of exams is dependent upon their outlook in life. If it is perceived by a student that the life of this world is all there is to live for, then exams can easily become central to their existence. If they consider that their destiny truly lies in their own hands and success or failure is a direct result of their own preparation for exams, then it would be natural for those exams to be the major focal point in their lives. 'Have I revised enough? What will come up in the paper?' 'Will I pass?' These become essential questions, as they deem the course and direction that their life takes depends entirely on their performance.

In the case of many budding non-Muslim academics, who believe in the secular values of Western civilisation, it is easy to see how this can become the case. However, many Muslims have also adopted the same viewpoint, where the prospect of akhirah (afterlife) is perceived as being so far into the future that success in this dunya (the life of the world) takes more importance and thereby becomes a source of much greater anxiety.
Thus exams also become central to their existence with the understanding that success in them is the key to the pleasures of this dunya; thereby obligations of worship of their Creator Allah I, are pushed aside to accommodate them. In this way such emphasis is placed upon exams that duties such as prayer, fasting and dawah are completely suspended for the duration in deference to what is seen as a more pressing need.

In reality exams have to be placed into context with respect to the ultimate purpose of life. For Muslims the purpose of life is to seek the pleasure of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala) by following what He (subhanahu wa ta'aala) has prescribed; to worship Him (subhanahu wa ta'aala) alone. Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala) says,

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ'I have only created jinn and mankind that they may worship Me.' [TMQ Al-Dhariyat: 56]

The Islamic concept of worship is a broad and all-encompassing one. Any action can be made into an act of worship by being aware of the relationship of that action with the Islamic Shari'ah. While studying of a basic level of divine knowledge is considered as an individual obligation on every Muslim, the study of 'worldly' knowledge is considered mubah (permitted). Therefore, studying for exams, gaining qualifications and pursuing a career in fields that do not contradict with Islam are all permitted. However for such pursuits to become the driving forces in people's lives, such that it leads to a compromise in performance of their Islamic obligations is not only haram (prohibited) but also completely irrational.

Al-Mustawrid Al-Fihry related from the Prophet (salAllahu alaihi wasallam) that he said,

ثم يرفعها فينظر بما تخرج ما الدنيا في الآخرة إلا كما يغمس أحدكم اصبعه في اليم'The Dunya, as compared to the Akhirah (the Hereafter), is just like when one of you dips his finger in the sea! Let him see how much (water) it (his finger) will carry.' (Sahih Al-Jami')

To pursue or yearn for a blissful dunya that could be ten years for one individual or a hundred years for another is incomparable when faced with the prospects of a blissful eternity in akhira. The correct view as to how we approach the dunya is beautifully encapsulated in the following saying, which enjoins to 'Work for this world as if you were to live forever, and work for the next world as if you were to die tomorrow.' The meaning follows that if one were to die tomorrow, one would be very intent indeed on erasing all of one's past sins and accumulating as much merit as possible to protect oneself from the hellfire. If on the other hand, one expects to live forever, one would obviously be in no hurry to erect palaces, accumulate wealth or concentrate all energy on pursuing and enjoying the worldly pleasures in the shortest possible time; as one would literally have 'all the time in the world.'

When placed in context with exams, it is simply that the world does not end if exams do not go well or entry to the University you sought does not transpire. With respect to the Day of Judgement, the value of a lifetime spent in pursuing education of a worldly discipline such as science, mathematics or literature, whether it was for the sake of securing a career or just for education in itself, is insignificant when compared to the value of a divine duty such as prayer, fasting or Hajj. It is important therefore to put the notion of exam success in its proper context.

Islamic concepts relevant to exams

Bearing this in mind, there is no prohibition over studying and education with respect to non-religious knowledge. Indeed, such knowledge may in some cases be used for the benefit of the Muslims. Thus, if education is undertaken, then it is important to carry the correct perspective when considering exams. Doing so is the key to preventing worry over exams from being an obstacle to health, well-being and religious integrity.

When faced with exams the correct response of the believers is to turn to the aqeedah of Islam wherein lies the remedy for all anxiety and stresses. The destiny (qada) of every man and woman has been pre-determined by Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala) from the moment we are placed in the wombs of our mothers.

Our provision in this world and how much we earn (rizq), and how long we will live (ajal) are all issues that have been set and given their due measure. Therefore, regardless of which subject or course we choose to study, or what may be our performance in exams, we do not rely on these things to guarantee our future. Rather, the Muslim relies solely upon Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala) for providing everything, from the money he will earn and live with, to the very air that he breathes. Indeed there are many unemployed graduates surviving on the breadline, and many uneducated entrepreneurs living in the lap of luxury.

Therefore the outcome of exams, the professions embarked upon and the salaries earned are all determined according to the will of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala). All that lies in the control of the believer is to exert his utmost best towards preparing for exams as well as to place his reliance upon Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala) (to make tawwakul). Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala) said,

وَمَن يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَهُوَ حَسْبُهُ'Whosoever puts his trust in God, He will suffice him.' [TMQ At-Talaq: 3]

يَتَقَبَّلُ اللّهُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ'Put your trust in Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala) if you are believers.' [TMQ Al-Maidah: 26]

However, it is important to note that relying upon Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala) for the results does not mean that we do not need to work or pursue employment to earn our provision. Nor does it mean neglecting studies, and taking a lazy approach to exam preparation. It is incorrect to feel that preparation is useless, claiming that what Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala) has decreed will come to pass, so therefore study is unnecessary.

On the authority of Anas b. Malik, it is told that a man came riding his camel and he asked, 'Oh Messenger of God, shall I leave my camel untied and trust in God?' He (salAllahu alaihi wasallam) replied,

بل قيدها و توكل

'Both tie your camel and trust in God.'

The correct understanding of this narration is that it is a divine injunction for the individual to have absolute trust and dependence in Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala) alone irrespective of anything else. Before, during and after any action. At the same time all necessary and appropriate preparations for any intended action or endeavour must be taken. So preparation and revision are paramount and the student is accountable for the effort and energy that he or she put into sitting their exams.

In this way, the Muslim who is undertaking exams must acquaint himself with a clear understanding of the basic Islamic concepts - knowledge of the value of this dunya in relation to the akhira, awareness of the ahkam shari'ah - the divine rules pertaining to study and exams, the confidence that Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala) controls the destiny and the outcome of actions, and the observance of the injunction to make adequate preparations for every endeavour. Above all, he should turn to Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala), asking Him (subhanahu wa ta'aala) for success in exams and all of his pursuits.

When armed with this mentality, it is inevitable that the profound faith of the observant Muslims will lead to his experiencing the abating of anxiety, and its replacement with acceptance and contentment with the awareness that Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala) knows best, and is in control of all affairs.

Sabr & Shukr

These same concepts will also allow the believer to face the results of exams with the correct approach. If Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala) in His wisdom has chosen failure as the result, the believer's trust in Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala) will give him the strength to greet his result with sabr (patience) as Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala) says,

بوَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ فَإِنَّكَ بِأَعْيُنِنَا"And be patient with your Lord's decree, for surely you are in Our sight." [ TMQ At-Tur: 48]

«إنَّ الله عز وجل إذا أَحب قوماً ابتلاهم فمن صبر فله الصبر ومن جزع فله الجزع»The Prophet (saw) said: ‘When Allah ‘azza wajalla loves a people he tests them. The one who is patient will be granted the patience. The one who shows anguish will be given anguish.’ Reported by Ahmad via Mahmud b. Labeed.

It has been narrated by Abu Malik al-Ash’ari (ra) who said the Messenger of Allah (saw) said:

«... والصبر ضياء ...»‘…patience (sabr) is light.’ (Muslim)

When we face difficulties, we must accept this is from Allah (swt) and know that he will reward us for that and remove our sins

Abu Hurayrah and Abu Sa’eed that the Prophet (saw) said:
«ما يصيب المؤمن من نصب ولا وصب ولا هم ولا حزن ولا غم، حتى الشوكة يشاكها، إلا كفَّر الله بها من خطاياه».
"No fatigue, nor disease, nor sorrow, nor sadness, nor hurt, nor distress befalls a Muslim, even if it were the prick he receives from a thorn, but that Allah expiates some of his sins for that." (Agreed upon)

Conversely when granted success the response should be to receive it with abundant praises and thanks to Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala).

Suhaib reported that Allah's Messenger (salAllahu alaihi wasallam) said:

إِلاَّ لِلْمُؤْمِنِ إِنْ أَصَابَتْهُ سَرَّاءُ شَكَرَ فَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُ وَإِنْ أَصَابَتْه عَجَبًا لأَمْرِ الْمُؤْمِنِ إِنَّ أَمْرَهُ كُلَّهُ خَيْرٌ وَلَيْسَ ذَاكَ لأَحَدٍ
ضَرَّاءُ صَبَرَ فَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُ
'Strange are the ways of a believer for there is good in every affair of his and this is not the case with anyone else except in the case of a believer for if he has an occasion to feel delight, he thanks (God), thus there is a good for him in it, and if he gets into trouble and shows resignation (and endures it patiently), there is a good for him in it.' (Sahih Muslim).

As preparation draws to a close and exam papers are about to be opened, anxiety and stress will be a natural response for many. However with the knowledge that the outcome lies with the will of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'aala) and that the purpose of life is not subject to these exams, Islam has given the believer a way of relief from the excesses which are so often seen to accompany those who undertake exams in the pressured environment of a secular, Capitalistic society.

In the concluding ayahs of Surat ul Fajr(89) Allah addresses the tranquil soul as He will on the Day of Judgement:

يَا أَيَّتُهَا النَّفْسُ الْمُطْمَئِنَّةُ (27) ارْجِعِي إِلَى رَبِّكِ رَاضِيَةً مَرْضِيَّةً (28) فَادْخُلِي فِي عِبَادِي (29) وَادْخُلِي جَنَّتِي

“O tranquil soul, return to your Lord, pleased and pleasing to Him. So enter among my slaves, and enter my Paradise.” [TMQ 89:27-29]

The tranquillity on that day will only be a result of the tranquillity of appreciating the true meaning of life on earth and linking that to our conduct in life’s affairs.

Abu Ismael al-Beirawi

Thursday, November 29, 2007

Palestine: Abbas's cowards kill Khilafah activist

In Hebron, 36-year-old Hisham Baradi died in hospital of a gunshot wound after Palestinian police shot him in cold blood. According to reports riot police and other security forces moved in on members of Hizb ut-Tahrir as soon as they left mosques in the cities of Ramallah, Nablus and Hebron aiming to march in demonstrations. The demonstrations were planned against the treacherous Annapolis Conference attended by Abbas and Arab leaders. May Allah (swt) give the brother jannah and give patience to his family and brothers. Truly the victory of Allah will come and it will not be delayed by a single second, with the will of Allah.

Click here for Video of Hebron demonstration and pictures:

These disturbing videos show the extent to which Abbas PA forces are willing to go to make their settlement of treachery a reality. Members and supporters of Hizb ut-Tahrir on Wednesday 28th November while mourning the martyr, were confronted again by the PA forces who opened fire at the crowd, wounding 30 people, and arresting more. The shabab were defiant wal hamdulillah in front of the cowardice of those masked armed forces. There has been a lot of support with the demonstrators from everyone across Palestine.

Interview with Sheikh Issam Ameireh Palestine

Following the brutality of the Palestinian Authority during the peaceful protests organised across the West Bank as well as Gaza, which lead to the death of one member of Hizb ut-Tahrir, interviews Sheikh Issam Ameireh of Al-Quds. He discusses the events of Tuesday as well as the remorseless attitude of the police during the burial of the shaheed.


Wednesday, November 28, 2007

Multiple demonstrations in Pakistan for Khilafah

The following are links to descriptions and pictures of multiple recent demonstrations throughout Pakistan calling for the return of the Khilafah:

Demonstration by students against emergency (Islamabad)

Students from different universities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi organized a protest today (16 November, 2007) at Education Chowk, H-8 Islamabad against the imposition of Emergency rule in the country. The students rejected the current democratic system and dictatorship both and demanded a new system. The participants also wanted the new solution to be from Islam. Hundreds of students from different universities and colleges gathered at the venue and chanted slogans against General Musharaf’s Emergency Rule and in favour of the Islamic System of governance.

They held banners and placards, demanding a change of leadership and a change of system. The banner read "No to Musharaf, No to Emergency Yes to Islam, Yes to Islamic System". The participants were holding placards saying “Talaba ka peygham, Islami nizaam”, “Islam ko laao, Musharraf ko hataao”, “The solution lies in Islam”, “We reject current democratic structure and capitalism”, “Ummah calls for Islam”, etc. The protest was organized by volunteers from different universities and was a culminating event for a Petition Signing campaign, which was aggressively carried out in different universities and colleges of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The petition, which was signed by thousands of students, rejected the imposition of emergency rule, by General Musharaf and the agenda which his government has been presenting to the masses. The Petition also rejected the political leadership, both opposition and ruling as incompetent and corrupt and demanded that not change of faces but change of system should take place. The Draft of the petition is as follows:

We the students of Islamabad and Rawalpindi unanimously reject the imposition f Emergency rule by President General Pervez Musharaf.
We also reject the agenda presented by President General Pervez Musharaf, his cronies and the political leadership of Pakistan, may it be ruling or in opposition.
We are fed up with the present corrupt and incompetent leadership.
We are fed up with the current system.
We neither want current democratic structure nor dictatorship; we rather want a new system, where a change of policies takes places and not just the change of faces.
We reject the demonizing of Islam by the government under the pretext of extremism.
We believe that the solution to the problems which Pakistan faces today lies in Islam.
We want a new system which should be the Islamic System of governance.


Demo near Lal Haveli (Rawalpindi) titled "Uproot Musharraf, Bring Back Khilafat"

Near Lal Haveli, Hizb ut-Tahrir (Wilayah Pakistan) held a demonstration titled "Uproot Musharraf, Bring Back Khilafat". The protest is held in the wake of the emergency declared in Pakistan by Musharraf and in this volatile political situation, Hizb ut-Tahrir is calling the people of power to rise up and overthrow Musharraf and to support in establishing the Khilafah which is what the Ummah is yearning for. The speaker said that the Ummah now does neither need dictatorship nor democracy but a third alternative system that is sent by Allah (swt) and which was implemented by Rasoolullah (SAW) and the Khulafaa Rashideen after him. The whole protest went peacefully (as seen in the videos) and at the end, the protesters dispersed peacefully.


Anti-Musharraf Demonstration in Saddar (Karachi)

A demonstration was held by Hizb ut-Tahrir Wilayah Pakistan rejecting Musharraf's toeing to American policies. Shehzad Sheikh, the Deputy Spokesman of Hizb ut-Tahrir in Pakistan, addressed the demonstration saying that Musharraf has put 90,000 Pakistani troops on the Pak-Afghan border in order to help America stabilize its occupation of Afghanistan. This demonstration was one among the series of Anti-Musharraf demonstrations held all over Pakistan by Hizb ut-Tahrir.


Demonstration in Katarian Market (Rawalpindi)

A demonstration was held by Hizb ut-Tahrir Wilayah Pakistan in Katarian Market, Rawalpindi. The demo was a part of series of demonstrations being held these days against the despotic dictator Musharraf and in favour of the establishment of Khilafat in Pakistan. Hizb ut-Tahrir is rallying the Ummah against the two man-made systems, Dictatorship and Democracy, and to bring back the Khilafat that was implemented by Rasoolullah (sallallaho alaihe wasallam) and the Khulafaa Rashideen after him and the later Khulafaa after them till 1924 CE.


Demonstration in I-9 (Islamabad)

A demonstration was held by Hizb ut-Tahrir Wilayah Pakistan in I-9, Islamabad. The demo was a part of series of demonstrations being held these days against the despotic dictator Musharraf and in favour of the establishment of Khilafat in Pakistan. Hizb ut-Tahrir is rallying the Ummah against the two man-made systems, Dictatorship and Democracy, and to bring back the Khilafat that was implemented by Rasoolullah (sallallaho alaihe wasallam) and the Khulafaa Rashideen after him and the later Khulafaa after them till 1924 CE.


Demonstration near Karachi Co. (Islamabad)

A demonstration was held by Hizb ut-Tahrir Wilayah Pakistan in G-9, Islamabad (near Karachi Co.). The demo was a part of series of demonstrations being held these days against the despotic dictator Musharraf and in favour of the establishment of Khilafat in Pakistan. Hizb ut-Tahrir is rallying the Ummah against the two man-made systems, Dictatorship and Democracy, and to bring back the Khilafat that was implemented by Rasoolullah (sallallaho alaihe wasallam) and the Khulafaa Rashideen after him and the later Khulafaa after them till 1924 CE.


Demonstration in Abdullah Market (Rawalpindi)

Hizb ut-Tahrir Wilayah Pakistan held a demonstration in Abdullah Market, Rawalpindi urging people to work for Khilafah. The speaker stressed to the people that Musharraf's rule has put Pakistan in the severest of disaster to the point of almost no return and the only way people of Pakistan can find relief is by bringing back the system of Rasoolullah (sallaho alaihe wasallam) i.e. Khilafat. Only Khilafat will solve comprehensively all the problems that the Ummah is facing today due to dictatorship as well as democracy which are both systems that implement "man's will". The difference in both is that in dictatorship only "One Man's will" is implemented whereas in democracy "342 men's will" is implemented. Only the system which implements "Allah's will" can take the humanity out of the whirlwind which the world faces and this system is the system of Khilafat. The demonstration ended peacefully with dua.


Rally from "Dawn" to "Nawai Waqt" (Islamabad)

Hizb u-Tahrir Wilayah Pakistan held a rally outside newspapers' offices in Islamabad demonstrating against the biting rule of Musharraf. The rally started from the office of the daily newspaper "Dawn" and ended at the office of Urdu newspaper "Nawai Waqt". The participants of the rally chanted slogans "Khilafat ko lao, Musharraf ko hataao" (Establish Khilafah, Uproot Musharraf) and "Hizb ut-Tahrir ka peygham, Khilafat ka nizaam" (Hizb ut-Tahrir's message, the system of Khilafah). At the end of rally outside Nawai Waqt's office, the participants made dua that Allah (swt) give them victory in bringing back Khilafah and uprooting Mushrraf so that the plight of the Ummah may end.


Demonstration in Qissa Khani Bazar (Peshawar)

A demonstration was held by Hizb ut-Tahrir Wilayah Pakistan outside the famous Qasim Ali Khan mosque in Qissa Khani Bazar, Peshawar. It stressed that the deal between Musharraf and Benazir has been sponsored by America and Britain and it's objective is to prolong the colonialist control over Pakistan through one system or the other. That is, dictatorship and democracy are both used as tools by the colonialist powers to further thier agenda throughout the world and the same is being done with Pakistan. The problems faced by Pakistan have remained whether democracy or dictatorship ruled Pakistan. So the only way the people of Pakistan can get out of this ditch is to establish the system of Khilafat and uproot both dictatorship and democracy.


Monday, November 26, 2007

Refutation of Gadaffi & others who reject the Sunnah

The following is an extract from the draft translation of the Arabic booklet entitled 'Communique from Hizb ut-Tahrir to Colonel Gadaffi' issued on 7 Shawwal 1398 AH, 9 September 1978 CE. Following a meeting that took place between him and a delegation from Hizb ut-Tahrir lasting 4 hours.

Bismillah ir-Rahman ir-Raheem
Colonel Gaddafi,
As-salaamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakaatuh.

Hizb ut-Tahrir is a political party whose ideology is Islam. It works to resume the Islamic way of life, and works to carry the Islamic Da’wah by Jihad, through the establishment of the Islamic state. It adopts political work as its method. Since accounting the rulers is one of the political actions Hizb ut-Tahrir undertakes, we intended to issue a leaflet refuting the address you gave last July in the Maulai Muhammad Jaami’ masjid in Tripoli, on the occasion of completing the 100th recitation of the Qur’an. On that occasion you announced that the Ahadeeth mentioned by the tongue of the Messenger are of doubtful authenticity, and that this is because they were compiled two hundred years after the death of the Messenger (saw). You also mentioned that disputes broke out amongst the Muslims at that time, and during that period an endless number of false and fabricated Ahadeeth emerged, and were ascribed to the Messenger (saw). You said that the extent to which this occurred was best illustrated by the fact that every group, from the Muslim political groups who were engaged in fighting, tried to use the Ahadeeth as evidence, to show that from an Islamic point of view their position was the correct one. Hence, we find sixty types of conflicting and contradictory Ahadeeth. You gave an example of a conflicting Hadith regarding ‘Ali b. Abi Talib, who has been promised Jannah, even though he is included in the meaning of the following hadith;

((إذا التقى المسلمان بسيفيهما فالقاتل والمقتول في النار))

“When two Muslims clash with their swords then the killer and the killed both go to the Fire.” There is a contradiction here. Ali raised his sword in the face of a Muslim; so how can one hadith say he will go to Jannah, while according to another hadith he will go to the Fire? You gave another example of a contradiction by quoting a hadith about ‘Aisha that says:

((عائشة ناقصة عقل ودين))

“Aisha is deficient in mind and Deen”, while another hadith says;

((خذوا نصف دينكم من فم عائشة))

“Take half your Deen from the mouth of ‘Aisha.”

This is a clear contradiction. From this you have concluded that it is not allowed to take Ahadeeth, because according to your contention, you cannot be sure whether they are authentic or fabricated Ahadeeth. Therefore, you have declared that the Sunnah cannot be taken, and also that it is not permitted to take it, because the Muslims are in disagreement over it. Therefore, you concluded that we must confine ourselves to the Qur’an, because that is what the Muslims agree upon.

We reiterate; the Hizb’s intention was to issue a leaflet. This action is in accordance with the obligation of accounting the rulers, as it exposes the error and danger of your view and its contradiction with Islam; it is supported by clear detailed evidences. The call for the rejection of the Ahadeeth is not espoused by anyone other than the enemies of Islam; those who endeavour to put doubt in Islam, and try to denounce and defame it, in order to destroy and finish it. However, the Hizb preferred to delay the publication of a leaflet and decided to contact you directly and verify what has been attributed to you. It also intended to discuss this matter with you, on the basis that this meeting and discussion is a political work undertaken by the Hizb.

The accounting that Islam obliges is not built on a Fiqhi discussion or an intellectual discussion that deals with one of the foundations of Islam. Rather, it is a political action. The discussion is not merely to discuss, clarify and disapprove; rather it is for implementation. It is one part of looking after the affairs, which the Hizb undertakes in any Muslim country. Libya is a Muslim country belongs to all Muslims and is not solely for the people of Libya; just as Makkah, Madinah, Cairo, Amman, Al-Quds, Baghdad, Ash-Sham, and other Muslim countries belong to all Muslims and not solely to its inhabitants. Thus, we have come to Libya based on this view, that it is our country, because it is an Islamic land and we are Muslims who carry Islam.

Our coming here is also based on our view the issue of the Muslims. The true reality of our view is that the real issue of the Muslims is the issue of Islam. It is the vital issue of the Muslims, which is a life and death issue. Hence, the issue of Islam is the fundamental issue of the Muslims. There are many problems such as; the re-unification of the Islamic lands into one entity; the removal of the impostor entities that exist in the Islamic world—which the kaafir western states have established as the guardians of western interests, and the problem of Palestine and its resolution through the destruction of Israel. All these problems are peripheral to the original issue and fundamental problem, which is the issue of Islam and its return to life. This is because Islam will not return to life except by establishing the Khilafah and by appointing a Khaleefah, to whom the Ummah will give the Bay’ah (pledge) to hear and obey, in accordance with the Kitab (book) of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (saw).

The establishment of the Khilafah together with the application of the rules of Islam means that all the feeble entities in the Islamic world will be destroyed and become part of the Khilafah state. This is because Islam prohibits Muslims from being more than one entity, just as they are forbidden from having more than one ruler.
Thus, the noble Messenger (saw) said;

((إذا بويع لخليفتين فاقتلوا الآخر منهما))

“If the Bay’ah is given to two khulafa’aa then kill the latter of them.”

((من جاءكم وأمركم جميع على رجل يريد أن يشق جماعتكم فاشدخوا رأسه بالسيف كائناً من كان))

He (saw) also said; “The one who comes to you while your affairs are united under one man and wishes to break your unity strike his head off with the sword whoever he is.”

This is what drove Ali b. Abi Talib to fight Mu’awiyah and the people of Ash-Sham. This is because they did not do what the rest of the people had done, i.e. they worked to break up the unity of the Islamic State.

The establishment of the Khilafah means solving the problem of Palestine via the destruction of Israel. This is because the Islamic state is established on the basis of the Islamic ‘Aqeedah and it applies Islam. Its primary task after the implementation of Islam is Jihad. Islam obliges the State to declare Jihad, liberate Palestine, and destroy Israel and throw the Israelis and Zionists out from every inch of the land of Palestine. This is because the Khilafah State believes that Islam obliges the Muslims to liberate the land of Palestine from the hands of the enemy. Similarly, the rest of the problems are peripheral to the primary issue of the Muslims, and that is the issue of Islam. When the primary issue of the Muslims is solved, then the rest of the issues will also be solved.

It is because of our view – that the issue of Islam is the fundamental issue of the Muslims – and from this perspective, that we felt it necessary to approach you and hold this meeting with you. This is because your rejection of the Sunnah and your declaration that you do not observe it has the propensity to affect the basis of the Muslims. This is because the prophetic Sunnah is one of the foundations of Islam. Just as the Qur’an is a foundation, so too is the Sunnah. Therefore, this issue is a fundamental in our view and the view of the Muslims. It isn’t a trivial issue that does not befit a political party working to establish the Khilafah and take the reigns of power from America and Russia, in order to become the number one state in the word as it was in the past. It is such a significant issue that we felt it necessary to send a delegation to discuss this issue.

Hizb ut-tahrir sent a delegation to meet you in accordance with a previous agreement with your embassy. The meeting took place between the delegation of the Hizb and yourself in Tripoli, on the night of 27th of the blessed month of Ramadhan on the blessed Laylatul Qadr (Night of Power). Although the meeting was protracted, going on for 4 hours continuously, the Hizb has decided to send you this written communiqué that deals with the matter in detail with clear and cogent evidences, whilst also refuting some of the points that came up during the discussion. We shall begin with the subject of Sunnah and clarify the following matters.

Firstly: Definition of Sunnah
Sunnah in the Arabic language is used to mean path or way. He (swt) said;

﴿قد خلت من قبلكم سنن فسيروا في الأرض﴾

“Many similar ways (sunanun) were faced by nations (believers and disbelievers) that have passed away before you, so travel through the earth...” [TMQ Aali-’Imraan: 137]

This linguistically refers to paths (sunanun).

The poet Khalid al-Huzli said;

“Do not regret a path (Sunnah) you have taken. The first one to accept a path (Sunnah) is the one who takes it.”

As for the definition of Sunnah in the Sharee’ah, it came with two meanings;

Sunnah refers to the opposite of Fard; in this sense it means the Naafilah (optional good action) transmitted from the Prophet (saw) such as the Nawaafil in the Salah.

Sunnah is also the opposite of Kitab (the Qur’an al-Kareem). In this sense it means that which has been attributed to the Prophet (saw) by way of saying, action or consent. This is the meaning that is intended in this subject. In this sense, it is a foundation and evidence just as the Qur’an is a foundation and evidence.

Second: The Legitimacy of Sunnah

There are numerous evidences that place the acceptance of the Sunnah as a foundation and source on par with the acceptance.

He (swt) said:

﴿وماينطق عن الهوى. إن هو إلا وحي يوحى﴾

“Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. It is only an Inspiration that is inspired.” [TMQ An-Najm: 3-4]

This means that what the Messenger (saw) utters in conveyance (of the message) is not from his whims and desires; rather it is divine revelation and nothing else. This is because the presence of the word of exception ‘illa’ (istithnaa’) after the word ‘in’ has the meaning of restriction. In other words, what he utters is restricted to divine revelation from Allah and not from his whims and desires.

﴿إنما أنذركم بالوحي﴾

He (swt) said; “Say (O Muhammad); ‘I warn you only by the divine revelation.’” [TMQ Al-Anbiyaa’: 45]

Thus, the Messenger (saw) is a warner and giver of glad tidings of everything he has brought. The ayah has restricted what he warns with to the divine revelation; and he does not warn with anything else, i.e. he does not warn with anything from himself.

﴿إن يوحى إلي إلا أنما أنا نذير مبين﴾

He (swt) said; “It is inspired to me, that I am only a plain warner.” [TMQ Saad: 70]
This means that Allah (swt) revealed to him that he is a warner and he clarifies what has been revealed. His clarification of what has been revealed in the Qur’an is via his sayings and actions alone, i.e. the Sunnah.

﴿إن أتبع إلا ما يوحى إلي﴾

He (swt) said; “I only follow that which is revealed to me.” [TMQ Al-Ahqaaf: 9]

This means that he did not undertake an action or follow a particular way in guiding the people to the truth unless Allah revealed it to him. These Ayaat are Qat’i (definite) in thuboot (authenticity) and in dalaalah (meaning) in clarifying and restricting what the Messenger (saw) brought to the people, what he warned them with, and what he called the people to, and what he uttered whilst conveying the Message. All of these things came from Allah’s divine revelation, and this is not open to any other meaning or interpretation.

Therefore, these Ayaat indicate that whatever the Messenger (saw) brought by way of speech, actions and consent (the Sunnah) is divine revelation from Allah like the Qur’an.

It is well known that the Messenger (saw) was asked about many issues and he used to refrain from answering, whilst he waited for divine revelation. When the divine revelation came down he conveyed what had been revealed.

As for the Shar’ee evidence that indicates the obligation of following the Sunnah, i.e. what has been ascribed to the Messenger (saw) in terms of speech, actions and consent, this has been mentioned in The Noble Qur’an clearly and explicitly in a definite manner which is not open to any other interpretation or explanation.

﴿وما آتاكم الرسول فخذوه وما نهاكم عنه فانتهوا﴾

He (swt) said; “And whatever the Messenger (Muhammad) gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it).” [TMQ Al-Hashr: 7]

Since the word ‘maa’ (whatever) mentioned in the ayah is a general expression, it means it is obligatory to follow everything the Messenger (saw) has brought; that is the Qur’an and the Sunnah. It is also an obligation to desist from anything the Messenger (saw) has forbidden, whether the prohibition was mentioned in The Noble Qur’an or the Sunnah.

﴿ومن يطع الرسول فقد أطاع الله﴾

He (swt) said; “He who obeys the Messenger (Muhammad), has indeed obeyed Allah.” [TMQ An-Nisaa: 80]

This ayah makes obedience to the Messenger (saw) and Allah (swt) equal. Obedience to Allah is classified as Fard (obligatory) and so is obedience to the Messenger (saw). It is not possible to obey the Messenger (saw) unless one follows everything he brought and unless one follows everything that has been reported from him (saw) in terms of sayings, actions and consent.

﴿فليحذر الذين يخالفون عن أمره أن تصيبهم فتنة أو يصيبهم عذاب أليم﴾

He (swt) said; “And let those who oppose the Messenger’s (Muhammad’s) commandment beware lest some fitnah (disbelief, trials, afflictions, earthquakes, killing, overpowered by a tyrant, etc.) befall them or a painful torment be inflicted on them.” [An-Nur: 63]

This ayah warns those who disobey the command of the Messenger (saw), i.e. what he (saw) has brought, otherwise they will be afflicted by the fitnah, meaning the test or a severe punishment. This is explicit in forbidding disobedience to the Messenger (saw), and warning those who go against his command that they will be punished, tested and afflicted.

﴿وما كان لمؤمن ولا مؤمنة إذا قضى الله ورسوله أمراً أن يكون لهم الخيرة من أمرهم﴾

He (swt) said; “It is not fitting for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision.” [TMQ Al-Ahzaab: 36]

This means it is not right or acceptable that a believer, male or female, should follow other than what Allah and the Messenger have commanded. The judgment of Allah is according to that which He revealed in the Qur’an, and the judgment of the Messenger (saw) is according to that which came in the Qur’an and that which has been reported from him (saw), in terms of speech, actions and consent, i.e. his Sunnah.

﴿فلا وربك لا يؤمنون حتى يحكموك فيما شجر بينهم ثم لا يجدوا في أنفسهم حرجا مما قضيت ويسلموا تسليما﴾

He (swt) said; “But no, by your Lord, they can have no (true) faith, until they make you (Muhammad) judge in all disputes between them, and they find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and they accept (them) with full submission.” [TMQ An-Nisaa: 65]

Allah (swt) makes an oath, that they would not be considered true believers unless they make the Messenger (saw) the judge in all their disputes. They also would not be considered true believers unless they accept the Hukm (verdict) of the Messenger (saw) without feeling unease in their hearts regarding his Hukm; and unless they openly and secretly submit to his Hukm. This is a clear negation of the true Imaan of the one who does not accept to refer to the Sunnah of the Messenger. It is also a negation of the (true) Imaan of the one who does not completely accept every single Hukm that comes from the Prophet (saw). In other words, to be a true believer one must adhere to what comes from the Messenger (saw) and completely submit to it without any doubt or unease.

﴿أطيعوا الله وأطيعوا الرسول﴾

He (swt) said; “Obey Allah and obey the Messenger (Muhammad).” [TMQ An-Nisaa: 59]

This is an explicit order to obey the Messenger (saw) regarding his every saying and action.

﴿إن كنتم تحبون الله فاتبعوني يحببكم الله﴾

He (swt) said; “Say (Muhammad to mankind); ‘If you (really) love Allah then follow me, Allah will love you.” [TMQ Aali-’Imraan: 31]

The noble ayah has linked the love of Allah with following the Messenger (saw) in everything he has brought, whether it is a saying or an action, i.e. following his Sunnah and adopting it.

All these noble Ayaat are explicit and clear in obliging the Muslims to follow the Messenger (saw) in everything he brings, and in realising that the obedience to the Messenger (saw) is obedience to Allah. Since obedience to Allah is obligatory then obedience to the Messenger (saw) is also obligatory. This is based on understanding that obedience to the Messenger (saw) is part of obedience to Allah (swt), and disobedience to the Messenger (saw) is part of disobedience to Allah.

Thus, all the above Ayaat establish that the Sunnah of the Messenger (saw) is divine revelation from Allah (swt), and it is obligatory to follow it just like the Qur’an.

The Sunnah practically clarifies, explains and elucidates that which is contained within the Qur’an; it is also a source for legislating new rules. As for the evidence that the Sunnah clarifies, explains and elucidates, He (swt) said;

﴿وأنزلنا إليك الذكر لتبين للناس ما نزل إليهم﴾

“And We have also sent down unto you (Muhammad) the Reminder and the Advice (the Qur’an), that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them.” [TMQ An-Nahl: 44]

﴿فإن تنازعتم في شيء فردوه إلى الله والرسول﴾
As for the evidence that it is a source for new laws it is the saying of Allah (swt); “(And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger.” [TMQ An-Nisaa: 59]

Referring to Allah means referring to The Noble Qur’an. As for referring to the Messenger (saw); during his lifetime this happened by referring to him, and after his death it means referring to what was reported from him in terms of his sayings and actions, i.e. referring to his Sunnah. The word ‘tanaazau’ (dispute) mentioned in the ayah is a mutlaq (absolute) word, whether it occurs in understanding the Qur’an, extracting Ahkaam or in solving disputes. Referring to the Sunnah includes the absolute meaning of Sunnah, whether it is a saying or an action, and whether it is an explanation, a clarification or a new legislation.

Therefore, the Sunnah of the Messenger (saw), whether by saying or action is the same as the Qur’an in terms of the obligation to believe in it and take it as Shar’ee evidence. The obligation of adhering to the Kitab and Sunnah is emphasised in an authentic hadith He (saw) said;

((تركت فيكم ماإن تمسكتم بهم لن تضلوا كتاب الله وسنتي))

“I have left amongst you the book of Allah and my Sunnah which if you hold onto them you will never go astray.”

Therefore, it is obligatory to take the Qur’an and Sunnah together, and it is not allowed for a Muslim to restrict himself to the Qur’an and leave the Sunnah. It is also not allowed to say, we will compare the Sunnah with the Qur’an, so whatever agrees with the Qur’an we will take it, and whatever does not agree with the Qur’an we will not take it or act upon it. Nor it is allowed to say we take the Qur’an because there is no disagreement over it amongst the Muslims, while we leave the Sunnah because there is no agreement over it amongst the Muslims. This is not allowed because it is an abandonment of the Sunnah and abandonment of what Allah (swt) has obliged us to take. The Messenger (saw) has warned us regarding this in an explicit hadith; it is as though he (saw) pre-empted the existence of the view that you, Colonel Ghaddafi espouse, and what has been advocated previously by the enemies of Islam who are plotting against it and working to destroy it. It has been reported from the Messenger (saw) that he said;

((يوشك رجل منكم متكئا على أريكته يحدث بحديث عني , فيقول بيننا وبينكم كتاب اللّه فما وجدناه من حلال استحللناه وما وجدناه من حرام حرمناه ألا وان ما حرم رسول اللّه مثل الذي حرم اللّه ))

“A man from among you is about to recline on his bed and say regarding a Hadith from me; ‘Between us and you is the Kitab of Allah; what we found as Halaal we will allow and what we found Haraam we will forbid. Nay, what the Messenger of Allah has forbidden is like what Allah has forbidden.”

((يوشك أحدكم أن يقول: هذا كتاب الله ما كان فيه من حلال أحللناه وما كان فيه من حرام حرمناه، ألا من بلغه عني حديث فكذب به فقد كذب الله ورسوله والذي حدثه))

It has also been reported that he (saw) said; “One of you will be about to say; this is the book of Allah, what is Halaal in it we will allow and what is Haraam in it we will forbid, Indeed, the one to whom my speech has reached, if he belied it then he has belied Allah, His Messenger and the one who reported it.”

Thirdly: The Hukm of the one who rejects the legitimacy of Sunnah and refuses to take it

All the Ayaat cited above establish and confirm the Sunnah, i.e. that all the sayings and actions of the Messenger (saw) are divine revelation from Allah. They confirm and establish the obligation of taking the Sunnah of the Messenger (saw), whether they are his (saw) statements or deeds, and the obligation of adhering to them in all affairs of life. All these Ayaat are definite in meaning and authenticity.

Therefore, rejecting the legitimacy of the Sunnah of the Messenger (saw), his actions and sayings, and considering them as an invalid source for Ahkaam whilst accepting the Qur’an alone is deemed an open disbelief (kufr suraah).

Restricting oneself to taking the Qur’an and refusing to take what has been mentioned in the noble Sunnah is also an open kufr (kufr suraah). It is the view of those who have left the fold of Islam and the view of the enemies of Islam who have worked and are still working to destroy Islam and remove it from existence.

This is because it is considered a rejection of the Ayaat that are definite in meaning and authenticity that prove the Sunnah of the Messenger. They prove that whether it is his (saw) sayings or actions his Sunnah is divine revelation from Allah, and they establish the obligation of following the Sunnah of the Messenger (saw) is just like the obligation of following the Qur’an. Holding this view is undoubtedly belief in a part of The Book and rejection of a part. Allah (swt) says;

﴿أفتؤمنون ببعض الكتاب وتكفرون ببعض فما جزاء من يفعلُ ذلك منكم إلا خِزْيٌ في الحياة الدنيا ويومَ القيامة يُرَدُّونَ إلى أشدّ العذاب﴾

“Then do you believe in a part of the Scripture and reject the rest? Then what is the recompense of those who do so among you, except disgrace in the life of this world, and on the Day of Resurrection they shall be consigned to the most grievous torment.” [TMQ Al-Baqarah: 85]

Fourthly: The position of the Sunnah with regards to the Qur’an

The relation of the Sunnah to the Qur’an is that it explains it. It elaborates the ambivalent text (Mujmal), specifies the generality of it (‘Umoom), restricts its absolute text (Mutlaq), adds a branch to an origin, or brings legislation that the Qur’an has not stated. This is manifested as follows.

a) Elaboration of the ambivalent text of the Qur’an

The ambivalent text (Mujmal) denotes a word or text whose meaning (Dalaalah) is unclear, i.e. its intended meaning is ambivalent. For example, the obligation of Salah, Zakaah and Hajj has been mentioned in the Qur’an in an ambivalent (Mujmal) form, as the manner of performing the Salah and the Hajj is absent. Also absent is an elaboration on what things Zakaah is obliged upon and how much the obligatory Zakaah is. Thus, the Sunnah has clarified how Salah is to be performed; the number of rak’aat, its timings etc. The Sunnah has also clarified the rites of Hajj; it has also clarified the things on which Zakaah is obligatory and the nisaab (minimum amount) at which its payment becomes obligatory. It has been reported that the Messenger (saw) did not impose the Sadaqah (Zakaah) except in six things; wheat, barley, dates, raisins, maize, camels, cows, sheep, gold and silver. Jihad has also been mentioned in the Qur’an in an ambivalent manner (Mujmal). Then the Sunnah clarified how it should be executed. It clarified what comes before, after and whatever is related to it, in terms of relations (with other states).

b) Specifying the general text (‘Aamm) of the Qur’an

The general text (‘Aamm) is the expression that includes everything to which it is applicable, such as ‘Muslim’, ‘your children’, and ‘men’. The Qur’an contains such general texts; and the Sunnah specified these general texts. For example;

﴿يوصيكم الله في أولادكم للذكر مثل حظ الأنثيين﴾

“Allah commands you as regards your children’s (inheritance); to the male, a portion equal to that of two females.” [TMQ An-Nisaa: 11]

This ayah is general in letting sons inherit from fathers i.e. allowing every son inherit from his father. So the Sunnah specified this general text and excluded the Prophets from this rule. The Messenger of Allah (saw) said;

((نحن معاشر الأنبياء لا نورث ما تركناه صدقة))

“We, the Prophets, do not leave in inheritance, what we leave is Sadaqah.” Therefore, children of the Prophet do not inherit from him. The Sunnah has specified the inheriting person as other than those who murder their inheritors (fathers). The Messenger (saw) said;

((لا يرث القاتل))

“The murderer does not inherit.” Thus, the Messenger (saw) prevented the son who killed his father from inheriting from him.

The Qur’an mentioned the following;

﴿الزانية والزاني فاجلدوا كل واحد منهما مائة جلدة﴾

“The woman and the man guilty of illegal sexual intercourse, flog each of them with a hundred stripes.” [TMQ An-Nur: 2]

This is general and inclusive of anyone who commits Zina, whether married or not. Then the Sunnah came and specified this rule to the unmarried people, and obliged that the married people (who commit Zina) be stoned. “Maa’iz committed Zina so he was stoned.”

In the Qur’an, the following was mentioned;

﴿فاقتلوا المشركين﴾

“Then kill the Mushrikûn [Polytheists].” [TMQ At-Tawbah: 5]

This is a general text regarding every Mushrik, whether from the people of the book or from the Mushrik Arabs or others. Then the Sunnah came and specified this by the saying of the Messenger (saw) regarding the Majoos of Hajar;

((سنوا بهم سنة أهل الكتاب غير آكلي ذبائحهم ولا ناكحي نسائهم))

“Treat them like the people of the book, but don’t eat their slaughtered meat and do not marry their women.”

c) Restricting the absolute text (Mutlaq) of the Kitab

The Mutlaq is the term that is unlimited in its application. The word ‘Raqabah’ (meaning ‘slave’, but literally denoting ‘neck’) applies to all slaves whether they are believers or kuffar, and the word ‘Dinaar’ applies to the Iraqi, Libyan or Kuwaiti one.
In the Qur’an we find Ayaat that are Mutlaq and the Sunnah came and restricted these with a specific restriction.

For example, He (swt) said;

﴿السارق والسارقة فاقطعوا أيديهما﴾

“Cut off (from the wrist joint) the (right) hand of the thief, male or female.” [TMQ Al-Maa`idah: 38]

This is Mutlaq in regards to all types of theft. Then the Sunnah came and restricted the quantity at which something is considered a theft to be a quarter of a gold Dinaar and more. He (saw) said;

((القطع في ربع دينار فصاعدا))

“Cutting is (obliged) in a quarter of a Dinaar or more.” Also it restricted the cutting of the hand from the wrist and not from any other place.

d) Adding a peripheral rule mentioned in the Sunnah with an original rule present in the Qur’an

In the Qur’an, the prohibition of marrying two sisters at the same time is mentioned. He (swt) said;
﴿وان تجمعوا بين الأختين إلا ما قد سلف﴾

“And two sisters in wedlock at the same time, except for what has already passed.” [TMQ An-Nisaa: 23]

However, the Qur’an did not mention the prohibition of marrying a woman and her paternal or maternal aunt at the same time, or marrying at the same time the daughter of her brother or her sister. So the Sunnah came and clarified this. He (saw) said;

((لاتنكح المرأة على عمتها ولا على خالتها ولا على ابنة أخيها ولا على ابنة اختها فإنكم إن فعلتم ذلك قطعتم أرحامكم))

“A woman and her paternal or maternal aunt cannot be married at the same time; nor can a woman and her brother’s or sister’s daughter be married at the same time. If you did this, then you have cut the links of your womb.”

So he added all of this to the original rule of not allowing the marriage of two sisters to the same man at the same time. The Qur’an also mentions the prohibition of marrying mothers and sisters through suckling (Radaa’ah). He (swt) said;

﴿وأمهاتكم اللاتي أرضعنكم وأخواتكم من الرضاعة﴾

“Your foster mother who gave you suck, and your foster milk suckling sisters.” [TMQ An-Nisaa: 23]

So the Sunnah has come and added this to the original rule and the rest of the relatives through suckling which are forbidden to marry due to lineage, such as the paternal and maternal aunt, daughter of the brother, daughter of the sister etc. He (saw) said;

((إن الله حرم من الرضاع ما حرم من النسب))

“Suckling makes women unlawful (for marriage) the same as birth makes (them) unlawful.”

e) The Sunnah has also added new legislation that finds no origin in the Qur’an

This is like the public amenities, oil and mines for gold, iron, silver, copper etc. Similar to that are the rivers, seas, green pastures and forests, as part of the public property. He (saw) said;

((الناس شركاء في ثلاثة: الماء، والكلأ، والنار))

“The people are partners in three: water, green pastures and fire.” He (saw) said;

((منى مناخ من سبق))

“Mina is the camping place for he who reached (there) first”, and he (saw) returned the land that had been given out to Abyad b. Hammal after he learnt that it contained minerals of unknown quantity.

Another example is the prohibition of customs. He (saw) said;

((لا يدخل الجنة صاحب مكس))

“He who imposes Maks (custom duty) would not enter paradise.”

Also included in this is the confiscation of land from the one who neglects it for three consecutive years due to the saying of the Messenger (saw);

((وليس لمتحجر حق بعد ثلاث ))

“Anyone who fences a land (Muhtajir) has no right to it after three years.”

Fifthly: Citing Sunnah as a proof

It is valid to use the authentic Sunnah as proof for ‘Aqaa’id (belief) and Shar’ee rules (Ahkaam). The difference between belief and Ahkaam is that belief demands Imaan and Ahkaam demand work and application. Since the ‘Aqeedah is the decisive belief that agrees with reality based on evidence’ then its evidence must lead to decisive belief (tasdeeq jaazim). This will not be possible unless the daleel (evidence) itself is decisive, so as to be an evidence for certainty. This is because the speculative evidence (daleel zanni) cannot establish decisiveness and hence cannot be a daleel for the ‘Aqeedah.

Therefore, the extraction of evidence for the ‘Aqeedah from the Sunnah must be via the qat’i (definite) Ahadeeth, which are the Mutawatir Ahadeeth narrated by a daabit (retentive) group of tabi’ee tabi’een from a daabit group of tabe’een from a daabit group of Sahabah from the Prophet (saw), such that each group constitutes a sufficient number of people that precludes the possibility of their agreement on a lie.

As for the Shar’ee rules, it is allowed to extract them, from both definite (qat’i) and speculative (zanni) evidences i.e. by Mutawaatir and Ahaad Ahadeeth. Despite the fact that the Ahaad Ahadeeth, convey least amount of doubt, they are not definite. It is allowed to use them as evidence for all Shar’ee rules in ‘Ibadaat (worship), Mu’amalaat (transactions), ‘Uqubaat (penal codes). This is because it has been proven that one can use them as proof due to the Ijmaa’ (consensus) of the Sahabah and The Noble Qur’an.

He (swt) said;
﴿واستشهدوا شهيدين من رجالكم﴾

“And get two witnesses out of your own men.” [TMQ Al-Baqarah: 282]

And He (swt) said;
﴿ واشهدوا ذوي عدل منكم﴾

“And take for witness two just persons from among you (Muslims).” [TMQ At-Talaaq: 2]

And He (swt) said;
﴿فاستشهدوا عليهن أربعة منكم﴾

“Take the evidence of four witnesses from amongst you against the.” [TMQ An-Nisaa:15]

These Ayaat have established that the Nisaab of testimony is two or four men (depending upon the subject matter for testimony). Testimony (Shahaadah) is considered as transmission (naql). Two or four witnesses do not indicate decisiveness; rather they indicate Zann (uncertainty). This is because they are not a large enough group from which the possibility of an agreement on a lie can be precluded, though their testimony indicates least amount of doubt. The Sharee’ah has accepted this; and therefore the Ahaad reports that convey least amount of doubt are accepted in analogy with the acceptance of two or four witnesses. This is because the truth is assumed over the lie as long as the transmitter of the Hadith is just (‘adl), trustworthy (thiqah) and retentive (daabit) and he has met the one he is narrating from. Thus, the lie is precluded and the truthfulness is made weightier.

It has also been established, by definite evidence, that the Messenger (saw) sent messengers to kings to invite them to Islam; and to each king he sent one messenger. If it were not allowed to execute the conveyance of the Da’wah by a single person, then the Messenger (saw) would not have accepted to send a single messenger to convey the Da’wah. So this is explicit evidence from the actions of the Messenger (saw) that the single report is a proof in conveyance. The Messenger (saw) used also to send a single person to convey the Ahkaam. We can see this when the Qiblah changed from Bayt ul-Maqdis to the Ka’bah. So he sent a single person to convey this hukm. Those who heard this message changed their direction of the Salah from Bayt ul-Maqdis to the Ka’bah whilst engaged in performing their Salah, which they didn’t break. That is why their masjid is called Masjid ul-Qiblatayn (The Mosque of the two prayer directions). Similarly, when alcohol was forbidden, he (saw) sent one person to inform the Muslims of its prohibition and ordered them to pour out what they had remaining, hence the Sahabah broke their wine jugs.

These and other such examples of the actions of the Messenger (saw) are a proof that obliges one to act upon the Khabar Ahaad (solitary narrations) in the matters of Shar’ee rules.

Sixth: The issue of the compilation of the Sunnah
The noble Sahabah, were in a position of being constantly around the Messenger (saw), hearing his sayings, witnessing his actions and registering his consent about their actions. When they had difficulty in understanding an ayah or if they differed over its Tafseer (explanation) or in understanding a Hukm, they referred to the Ahadeeth to clarify the matter. Initially the Muslims relied upon memory and their retentive abilities. However, when Islam spread and the cities were distant and the Sahabah were scattered throughout the regions and many had died, a need was felt to compile the Hadith.

The compilation of the Ahadeeth began at the time of the Sahabah. It has been narrated that Abu Hurayrah said; “From the companions of the Prophet (saw), no one narrated more Ahadeeth than me except Abd Allah b. Umar. He used to write them down, but I did not.” However, those Sahabah who wrote down the Ahadeeth were a few in number. The Sahabah used to place a lot of attention on the knowledge of Ahadeeth. They did not take a Hadith except after they proved that it had come from the Messenger (saw); and in this regard they used to be very careful.

After the murder of ‘Uthman and the emergence of political factions, Ahadeeth were concocted to support the claims of each faction due to their inability to find (genuine) Ahadeeth from the Messenger (saw). After the fitnah (civil war) had abated the Muslims embarked upon checking the Ahadeeth to separate the authentic (Sahih) from the spurious and fabricated (Maw’du). They spent a lot of effort in investigating this by studying the narrators and their lives—to the extent that there is no other science like the science of Ahadeeth in its degree of study, research and investigation—until they had sifted the Ahadeeth and distinguished the authentic ones from the false ones. They began to study the status of the narrators one after another until the turn of the century, in the time of ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-Azeez who ordered that the Hadith be written down. The first one to write down the Hadith upon the order of ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-Azeez was Muhammad b. Muslim az-Zuhri. Then the writing of Ahadeeth began to spread. Some of those who compiled the Ahadeeth are the following: ‘Ibn Jurayj in Makkah, Malik in Madinah, Hammad in Basrah, ath-Thawri in Kufa, al-Awza’i in Ash-Shaam, until the advent of Imam Bukhari. He was distinguished in the science of Ahadeeth and wrote his renowned book, Saheeh al-Bukhari, in which he quoted the Ahadeeth that he perceived to be authentic. He was followed in his way by Muslim b. al-Hajjaj who was his student. He wrote his famous book, Saheeh Muslim.

Seventh: Apparent Conflict between the Ahadeeth
This matter has been resolved by the ‘Ulama of the Muslims. This is because if a conflict occurs between the qat’i (definite) and zanni (speculative), then the Qat’i is taken and the zanni is discarded. An example of this is what has been narrated from Fatimah b. Qays that she said;

((طلقني زوجي ثلاثا على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فأتيت النبي فلم يجعل لي سكنى ولا نفقة))

“My husband divorced me three times at the time of the Messenger of Allah (saw). I went to the Prophet (saw) but he did not assign to me a lodging (sukna) and nor maintenance (nafaqah).” This Hadith is rejected because it contradicts the Qur’an. He (swt) said;

﴿ أسكنوهن من حيث سكنتم من وجدكم ﴾

“Lodge them (the divorced women) where you dwell, according to your means.” [TMQ At-Talaq: 6]

So this Hadith is rejected because it contradicts the qat’i meaning of the Qur’an. When a conflict occurs between the ‘Aamm (general) and the Khaas (specific), between the Mujmal (ambivalent) and the Mubayyan (elaborated) and between the Mutlaq (unrestricted) and the Muqayyad (restricted), then the ‘Aamm is elaborated by the Khaas, the Mujmal by the Mubayyan and the Mutlaq by the Muqayyad, and thus both evidences are used. If both evidences are not of these types and they are in conflict, then we should determine which one came first chronologically; thus the latter would abrogate the former.

Let us turn, Colonel, to the two examples you cited, to clarify the mistaken view and show how there is no contradiction between these Ahadeeth, because it is possible to reconcile them. So the Hadith;

((إذا التقى المسلمان بسيفيهما فالقاتل والمقتول في النار))

“When two Muslims clash with their swords, then the killer and the killed both go to the Fire.” This Hadith is Saheeh, but the wording ‘two Muslims’, ‘killer’ and ‘killed’ are general terms; there are Ayaat and Ahadeeth that specify them. Thus, Allah (swt) said;

﴿وان طائفتان من المؤمنين اقتتلوا فأصلحوا بينهما فان بغت احداهما على الاخرى فقاتلوا التي تبغي حتى تفئ الى أمر الله﴾

“If two parties among the believers fall into a fight, make peace between them. But if one of them transgresses beyond bounds against the other, then fight (all) against the one that transgresses until they comply with the command of Allah.” [TMQ Hujurat: 8]

Here Allah (swt) ordered the fighting of the rebellious group, despite the fact that they are from the believers as stated in the ayah. He (swt) ordered the believers to fight them until they return to the order of Allah. Here two Muslims meet with their swords by an order from Allah. So this ayah specifies the word ‘killer’ and ‘killed’ mentioned in the Hadith (i.e. the ayah excludes these fighting believers from the above mentioned Hadith). It was also narrated in the Hadith from the Messenger (saw), he said;

((من قتل دون دمه فهو شهيد ومن قتل دون ماله فهو شهيد ومن قتل دون عرضه فهو شهيد))

“The one who is killed for his blood he is a Shaheed, and the one who is killed for his property he is a Shaheed and whoever is killed for his honour he is a Shaheed.” This Hadith also specifies the Hadith under discussion. This is the case when a Muslim fights a Muslim in defence of his life, property and honour, so he will not be in the Fire, whether he was a killer or the one killed.

The Messenger (saw) also said;

((من جاءكم وأمركم جميع على رجل يريد أن يشق جماعتكم فاشدخوا رأسه بالسيف كائناً من كان))

“Whosoever comes to you while your affairs are united under one man, wishing to divide your unity, then strike his neck with the sword (kill him), whoever he is.” He (saw) also said;

((إذا بويع لخليفتين فاقتلوا الآخر منهما))

“When the Bay’ah is given to two khulafaa’ kill the latter of them.”
Both of these Ahadeeth specify the Hadith regarding the meeting of two Muslims with their swords. The Muslim who fights the rebels against the state will not enter the Fire, whether he was the killer or killed. Therefore, this Hadith does not apply to Ali b. Abi Taalib, so Ali will be one of those promised Jannah. Thus, there is no contradiction. As for the Hadith of ‘Aisha and what you said with your own words that; “Aisha is deficient in mind and Deen.” This is not a Hadith. As for the Hadith; “Take half your Deen from the mouth of ‘Aisha”, this also, with such a wording, is not a Hadith. What has been reported is;

((خذوا نصف دينكم من الحميراء))

“Take half your Deen from this Humayraa.” So taking half the Deen does not contradict with women being deficient in mind and Deen. This is because deficiency in the Deen refers to the fact that she does not pray or fast during her period of menstruation and childbirth (post natal bleeding) as the Messenger (saw) has informed us. As for the deficiency in the mind, it is from the angle that Allah (swt) has made the testimony of a woman half the testimony of a man. However, this does not prevent a woman from being a scholar; therefore, there is no contradiction.

Eighth: The importance of Sunnah
One understands from what has been mentioned previously that the sayings and actions of the Messenger (saw) are one of the foundations of Islam. It is a Shar’ee daleel, from which the beliefs and Ahkaam are taken just as they are taken from the Qur’an. The Sunnah also clarifies, elucidates, interprets and explains the Qur’an. This is by clarifying its Mujmal (ambivalent) text, specifying the general (‘Aamm), restricting the absolute (Mutlaq) text and adding the peripheral rules to the original rules mentioned in the Qur’an. It also brings new legislation that does not have an origin in the Qur’an. One has to depend on the Sunnah to understand the Qur’an and understand the beliefs and Shar’ee rules whether they are form the ‘Ibdaaat (worships), individual behaviour such as morals (Akhlaaq), punishments (‘Uqubaat) or transactions (Mu’amalaat).

From the Prophetic Sunnah we have understood the reality of the ruling system in Islam. We have also understood that the ruling system is the system of the Khilafah and that the Khaleefah is appointed via the Bay’ah. From the Sunnah we have also understood the structure of the ruling system, just as we have understood from the Sunnah that the relationship of the Islamic state with other states is conducted on the basis of Jihad. We know how this relationship will be in time of war and peace and what kind of dealings we will have with other states. What are the agreements, treaties, and truces that are allowed to be held and those that are forbidden.

We also know when the emergency treaties are allowed and when they are forbidden. From the Sunnah we have understood how the Khaleefah will implement the system of Islam on the citizens, whether Muslims, Zimmis, or those with whom we have a treaty (Mu’aahideen). From the Prophetic Sunnah we have understood the reality of the economic system in Islam, ownership and its three types, private property, public property, and state property; and we have understood the state’s wealth sources or revenues and expenditure, and also that its currency must be gold or silver, together with the manner of its exchange. From this also we have learnt that the economic problem is the satisfaction of basic needs in terms of food, clothing and shelter; and that the state is required to provide these basic needs in case the individual is unable to do so himself or the one on whom the nafaqah (financial maintenance) is an obligation is unable to provide it. From the Sunnah we have understood as well the details of the social system, which is the relationship between men and women. From the Sunnah we have learnt the education policy. In short, all the Ahkaam that treat all the problems of life from all angles, the way we have adopted them is through the Sunnah, i.e. the sayings, actions and consent of the Messenger (saw). From this one can understand the level of the importance of the Sunnah and the value of the obligation of adhering to it in it capacity as a part of the foundation of Islam, just like the Qur’an. It is also understood that it is not allowed to abandon it, whatever the situation; one must give attention to it exactly as one gives attention to the Qur’an.

As for what you said in the discussion Colonel, that you wish to abandon the Sunnah and confine yourself to the Qur’an, because you fear that the Qur’an will be lost, fabricated or changed, as happened with the other (revealed) Books. We say to you the following. Firstly, Allah (swt) has promised that He will protect The Noble Qur’an until the end of time when He (swt) said;

﴿إنا نحن نزلنا الذكر وإنا له لحافظون﴾

“Verily We, It is We, Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e. the Qur’an) and surely, We will guard it (from corruptio).” [TMQ Al-Hijr: 9]

Had Allah (swt) not promised to protect the Qur’an, then it would not have remained as it is to this day, after all the forces of kufr and shirk have come together to destroy Islam and the Muslims. What has kept the Qur’an safe from change and fabrication is nothing but the definite promise of Allah (swt) that He will protect it. Secondly we also say to you that abandoning the Sunnah does not lead to protection of the Qur’an; it will rather lead to the loss of Qur’an and the loss of Islam. This is because abandoning the Sunnah is a rejection of the definite Ayaat mentioned in the Qur’an, which have ordered that we take the Prophetic Sunnah, whether these are its sayings or actions.

Ninth: The Consequences of abandoning the Sunnah
The extent of the danger that confining oneself to the Qur’an and abandoning the Sunnah can lead to has become very clear from what has been mentioned above. This is because it implies that there is doubt in the noble Sahabah from whom we have taken our Deen. Doubt in them will ultimately lead to doubt in everything they have transmitted to us from the Messenger (saw); it will not only lead to doubt in the Sunnah, but also doubt in The Noble Qur’an. This is because they are the ones who transmitted the Qur’an to us; therefore, it will lead to doubt in the whole of Islam. Doubt in Islam will definitely lead to its abandonment and destruction. At best, the abandoning the Sunnah will lead to abandoning most of the rules of Islam. This is because most of the rules of Islam are taken from the Sunnah, since the Sunnah clarifies, elucidates and interprets the Qur’an and adds detailed explanation to its original rules. It also brings new Ahkaam that do not have an origin in the Qur’an. This means leaving Islam and abandoning it.

From this one realises the extent of the danger of the call to abandon the Sunnah and to confine oneself to the Qur’an, and exposes the truth of this call as explicit kufr. Such a call does not come from anyone except those who are outside the fold of Islam, and from the enemies of Islam, who are working to destroy it using various means.

From this we realise the evil and danger of the enemies of Islam from the kaafir states who have resorted to plotting against Islam using various means throughout the ages. We can also understand what Britain and the western states had undertaken prior to World War I, where they created doubt and used agents disguised as Muslims as a tool to destroy Islam. This is what they did with Mustafah Kamal Ataturk whom you, O Colonel, quoted regarding his stance towards the Muslim scholars. Britain groomed him knowing fully well that he was from the Jews of Dunma in Salonika. They are a group of Jews who pretended to have embraced Islam towards the latter period of the Uthmani state in order to work to destroy the Khilafah. This is exactly what happened. Bringing him to power was the price the English preferred to pay; in return they secured the destruction of the Khilafah state and the abolition of the rules of Islam in Turkey. In its place they enacted western systems and rules, and replaced the Arabic letters with the Latin alphabet to distance the Turks from any linkage to the vitality of the Arabic language and their connection to their brothers the Arabs.

Therefore, it is very clear that the western states are the most evil enemies of Islam. They are the ones who are drawing up roles for those agents they are grooming from the sons of the Muslims in order to use them as tools to attack Islam. Today, after the Muslims have begun to be conscious of Islam after they withdrew their trust in all the ideas presented to them by the Kaafir West, concepts such as nationalism, patriotism, capitalism, socialism and communism. They have lost all confidence in political parties and blocks presented to them whether Ba’athist, Arab nationalist, Communist, socialist or Nasserite. As a result of this feeling the people have for Islam, the western states began to use different styles to give vent to this emotion fearing that this might lead to the return of the Khilafah and the return of Islam to life’s reality. This is because when the Khilafah comes back to existence and Islam comes back to the reality of life, this will pose a danger to the thoughts, interests and even existence of The West. They remember how the Muslims embedded firmly the banner of Laa ilaaha illallaah, Muhammadur rasoolullaah in al-Andalus for 800 years and in eastern Europe for about 400 years. They also realise that the return of the Khilafah and the return of Islam to life’s affairs will be followed up by the Khilafah state’s work to seize the initiative from America, Russia and the western states.
Thus the Khilafah will return as the number one state in the world as was the case in the past, ever since it defeated the Roman and Persian states until the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century CE, except for short periods during the Tatar attack and The Crusades.

Sunday, November 25, 2007