Thursday, January 31, 2008

Urdu audio: Between tradition & Islam

The following is an Urdu talk given by a sister on a FM Radio station in New Delhi:

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Between tradition & Islam

Nizam al-Islam book - Tamil version

The Tamil translation of the book 'Nizam al Islam' (The System of Islam) by Sheikh Taqiuddin an-Nabhani can be downloaded from:

The System of Islam (Tamil)

Wednesday, January 30, 2008

Urdu audio: Muslim women, East - West or Islam?

The following is an Urdu talk given by a sister on a FM Radio station in New Delhi:

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Muslim women, East - West or Islam

What is happening in Kenya?

The following has been adapted from a political analysis article issued before the elections.

Kenya's opposition Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) claims that last month's election was rigged in favour of President Mwai Kibaki. Protests have led to over 900 deaths nationwide and more than 250,000 people have fled their homes.

According to the official results, Mr Kibaki won with a tiny margin of 230,000 votes out of a total cast of some 10 million. There were various discrepencies in the elections, such as:
  • The results were delayed for more than a day, at a time when ODM candidate Raila Odinga was leading
  • Many thousands of people seem to have only voted in the presidential election but not the parliamentary or local polls held at the same time
  • Some of these results came from areas known to be pro-Kibaki
  • In the parliamentary race, Mr Odinga's ODM won twice as many seats as Mr Kibaki's Party of National Unity (PNU)
  • Results in some constituencies were different when announced nationally, to when they had previously been announced locally
  • The head of the election commission has admitted that turnout in one constituency was 115%.
Opinion polls conducted by Steadman prior to the election indicated that Raila was ahead and his ODM was more popular than the PNU. It is likely that President Mwai Kibaki manipulated the results in order to remain in power.

It is important to understand the background of both parties and their allegiences.

I)
The Party of National Unity (PNU) headed by the incumbent president Mwai Kibaki. This group actually is an alliance for the following groups:
1. National Rainbow Coalition-Kenya: This is Kibaki’s original party.
2. The Democratic Party (DP)
3. Kenya African National Union (KANU)
4. Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya.
5. Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People.
6. Shirikisho Party of Kenya.
7. TIP
8. Safina
9. Sisi Kwa Sisi
10. Agano

Most of these ten parties are led by the regional tribal leaders. This alliance was hastily cobbled up just before the general elections because Kibaki feared that chances of his NARC party winning the polls alone were slim. He therefore forged this alliance under a single umbrella to face the opposition as a unified front.

II)
The Opposition Alliance: The Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) which split into three outfits:

1. The Orange Democratic Movement is the main group and the strongest of the alliance. This is led by Raila Odinga who is the Opposition Leader who is form Lou, the second largest tribe in Kenya. He was chosen to head the party in its conclave held recently and nominated to be the opposition candidate for the Kenyan presidency in the ensuing elections. Immedeately on being elected leader, Odinga took the initiative to foster cordial relations with all his 5 rivals whom he had defeated at the party conference. This was designed to put forward a unified opposition front as these rival leaders represented various tribes as follows:

A. Musalia Mudavadi, the former Vice President represented the Luhya tribe which is the 3rd largest tribe on Kenya.
B. William Ruto, was the right hand man of the former president Moi. He represents the Kanenjin tribe.
C. Najeeb Bala’la’, a Muslim of the Yemeni (Hadhrami) origin. He is a strong supporter of Raila Odinga within the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM).
D. Joseph Niagah, who although belongs to the Kikuyu tribe of the current president, yet is in the opposition.
E. Charity Ngilu, is from the Kamba tribe who heads the NARC alliance which actually brought Kibaki to the presidency. She then joined the opposition.

Raila won the nomination to head the oppostion alliance thanks to the American support which is evident from the statements of the US Ambassador who called upon the voters to back the “youth” , indicating Raila who is many years junior to Kibaki.

It is known that Kibaki who inspite of his previous British loyalties, was closer to the US in his tenure as president during 2002-2005 and the US had hoped to lure him to its ways especially after his US visit in 2003.

Britain on its part had foisted its own men around the president by using the ‘carrot and stick’ tactics. This campaign for Britain was carried out by the former president Moi who is a bastion of the British politics in Kenya: Moi thretened to start an intensive campaign to expose Kibaki’s corrupt practices, at the same time he offered to support him in the next prsendential elections. Moi convinced him that the current public opinion was against the US and cited the results of the 2005 referendum on the draft constitution prepared by Kibaki which went against him. Kibaki was convinced that the people and their votes were with Moi and thereby the British loyalists and if he went wioth them, he can be assured of a second presidential term.

Thus by using the threat of exposure and incentive for a second term, Britain ensured that since 2005, Kibaki reverted back to his original loyalty.This prompted the US to back Raila as Kibaki’s rival.

Consequently, the alliance in power started a massive campaign against Raila and the US as follows:

A. The government charged Raila that he promised the Americans to establish their military base in Kenya.
B. The government refused to allow American observers for elections from the Carter Center while permitting only EU deputed observers.
C. Newton Kulundu, the Labour Minister in the government charged the US of ignoring the Human rights and liberties aspirations of the Third World and cited the Guantanamo and Abu Ghuraib incidents. This infuriated the US Ambassador so much so that he refused to shake hands with Kulundu.
D. The government supporters organised a protest at the site of the 1998 US embassy blasts and raised anti-American slogans.

2. The Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya (ODM-K) is led by Kalonzo Musyoko, a conservative christian with links to the former president Moi and belongs to the 5th largest Kenyan tribe of Kamba. It may be recalled that Kalonzo had split from the original ODM before its conference where Raila was elected its leader. He his regarded by most local observers as a government agent sent to the opposition in order to cause disruption in its ranks and confuse the voters due to the similarity in the names and their election symbols. Kalonzo has so far only succeeded in getting a few leaders to his party from his own tribe. His party is therefore regarded as a mere tribal entity.

3. Kenya African National Union (KANU) has further split into two factions:

1. Faction led by Uhuru Kenyatta the younger son of the first Kenyan president Jomo Kenyatta. He has little political expertise but belongs to the largest Kenyan tribe of Kikuyu. He is widely regarded as a pawn in the hands of the former president Moi. Until recently, Uhuru was in the opposition ODM even during the referendum on the new draft constitution in November 2005, but switched his loyalties to the current president Kibaki under pressure from former president Moi. As a result, the ODM movement was reduced to being a single party rather than an alliance.

2. The new Kenya African National Union (KANU) led by Nicholas Biwott, who is a right-hand man of Moi. There wer persistent rivalries between Biwott and Uhuru, but were sorted out by Moi to unify the KANU.

Raila is the strongest opponent of Kibaki who was nominated by the ODM as the presidential candidate. This is why Kibaki spared no effort to engineer a split in the ranks of the ODM with the help of former president Moi. Hence the opposition charged Kibaki of allying with a dictator.

Both Kibaki and Moi are from the British Imperialist background are working to keep Kenya under the British influence and to isolate Raila who appears to harbour American loyalty. They regard him as dangerous for the British influence as he is an impressive orator who can sway the people with his eloquent speaking skills.

This is another example of the turmoil created by the meddling of the Western powers in Africa, a rich continent destroyed by the greed of the colonialists.

The Indian stock market crash, an Islamic perspective

The following is the transcript of a circle given on this subject.

وَيْلٌ لِلْمُطَفِّفِينَ

“Woe to the defrauders” [TMQ 83:1]

• Today Inshallah I want to discuss with you some aspects of the problems and the turbulence to the stock markets that occurred in India due to problems in the US economy which has had a worldwide impact.

• Before I discuss this topic and go into some detail, I want to discuss the way that we should view this topic and approach it. We must approach this topic for the correct motive.

• Some Muslims may discuss this issue because they are just interested in the economic affairs or as just for academic reasons, e.g. some Muslims I know discuss the economic affairs merely to write essays for their courses. We should not approach this topic in this manner, the manner of an economics lesson or lecture.

• Other people may not see the relevance of discussing such a topic, they may say: “what’s the point of going into detail about the subject” or “You’re making Islam too complicated” Therefore they may sideline topics such as this and see it as irrelevant.

• As we are Muslims we can only approach this topic from the angle of Islam and the Islamic belief. And if we look to the Prophet (saw) he understood the economic situation at his time and he gave the judgement from Islam relating to it. Many of you may have heard that the Prophet (saw) critised the cheating in the market places, so he stated the ayah from Quran “Woe to the defrauders (cheaters)” So the Prophet (saw) criticised the economic situation and the economic practices of the Quraysh like their throwing of stones and cheating in the market places. This shows us that he must have understood the economy of the Quraysh in order to criticise it. Even when he (saw) established the Islamic state he looked at the economic situation not only in his state even in Makkah, the state of the Kuffar. One clear example that illustrates this is when the Quraysh had a famine and were in need of food, the Prophet (saw) sent them food. Obviously this must have impacted the Quraysh because the people who they belittled and boycotted now were sending them food. The point is that for the Prophet (saw) to send food, he must have firstly understood the economic situation of the Quraysh at that time.

• Similarly it is a must and wholly relavent for us as Muslims to understand the structure of the economies in the Western World and in the Islamic lands and to see their inability to solve peoples problems correctly. And we must also give the verdict from Islam relating to them and the Islamic alternative. This is the way that we should approach the subject of the problems in the stock markets.

The current crisis

Last year, the Indian market's benchmark stock index, the Sensex, soared 47 per cent, in the process drawing new investors to the world of stocks and bonds many with little or no experience in financial markets.

But since the start of the year, the index has plunged. On Tuesday 22nd January, the market sank so fast when it opened that the Bombay Stock Exchange automatically shut down for an hour. By the end of trading, the index had dropped a stunning 12 per cent in just two days.

The plunge wiped out more than Rs6 trillion from investors' wealth. The was on top of over Rs11 trillion loss suffered by investors in the six days before that.

Many gathered outside the Bombay Stock Exchange, gazing up at the screens flashing market numbers in stunned silence. No one had expected the impact from falls in regional markets to be so pronounced in India.

If there was an overwhelming sentiment at the Bombay Stock Exchange on Tuesday, it was this: utter confusion. Millions of retail investors have put their life savings in these markets, hoping to make a pretty profit.

A small group of traders demonstrated outside the exchange, blaming Indian financial authorities for not having done more to protect small investors.

The question they should ask is: If they believe that the Capitalist economic system which they follow is the best system, then why does this happen?

The capitalist economic system is unstable and liable to fluctuations, financial crashes and recessions.

• We have seen this in the past, the October 1987 crash, when the Dow Jones Index (Stock exchange) in New York dropped by 22% in a single day.

• The 1997 stock market collapse in the Far East which had a massive impact on Malaysia and Indonesia

• They also witnessed the failure of the capitalist system in the infamous ‘Wall St crash’ which occurred in America in October 1929 when the American stock market collapsed, e.g. by the end of the month share owners lost $40,000million. It led to a major economic depression known as ‘The Great Depression’, which lasted for 10yrs and resulted in widespread poverty, e.g. 32,000 companies became bankrupt and 5000 banks had to be closed down.

• They also witnessed in the past how the German capitalist economy collapsed during the Weimar Republic before the Second world war in 1923, e.g. the fall of the German currency – in January 1921 the currency rate was 64 German Marks to $1 American Dollar, in November 1923 only 2 years after it was 4.2 trillion marks to the dollar. People had to take wheel barrows of notes just to buy a loaf of bread, the paper which the money was printed on became more worth than the currency, people even burned money to stay warm.

If we look to any financial papers on any day of the week we can see that they realise that their system is weak and prone to massive problems.

The true reality of Stock Markets

The problems in the stock markets worry even the Western Nations although their economies have existed for many years and their stock markets have existed for a long time and even though they are the leading nations in the world. Allah (swt) gives an analogy in the Quran about those who take Awliya besides Allah, that their house is like Bait al Ankabut (House of the spider) which looks very nice but is the weakest kind of house.

• I want to take a deeper look into the reality of the stock markets so that we can see how the collapse occurs and how the Western Nations use the stock markets in the campaign to economically colonise the Muslim world.

1. Stock markets are financial markets where people buy and sell shares of companies. But these markets are completely different to real markets in which people may sell fruit or clothes.

2. When a Company floats on the stock market or becomes a Public Limited Company (PLC), basically this means that they issue shares. The reason that they issue shares is to gain revenue (money) for them to use, e.g. Company X worth $10million, if it going floats on the stock exchange shares in the company will be issued for public to buy. The valuation of the company could become $50 million over night even though the ground reality of the company has not changed.

3. The reason that people buy shares is basically to make money because the shares market goes up and down. So people buy shares when they think prices will go up and sell shares when prices go down. It is all based on greed and confidence in the companies, therefore it is similar to gambling in a casino.

4. Most of the people who buy shares in these companies don’t do it because they care for the company and have no loyalty to it and its staff because they don’t have any liability or any major link to the company,. Its not like a normal business partnership, e.g. if 2 people are partners in a company selling cars, so they both own 50% of the company, if the business makes a profit they would get an equal share, if the company made a loss both of them would make a loss.

5. The only real link that a shareholder gets is that they have the right to vote to elect a board of directors (People in charge of the company). But these votes are not like in normal elections, where each person gets a vote. The votes are allocated according to the number of shares a person has, e.g. if a person (say Rajesh) owns just over half the shares in a company and he wants to elect (Anil) on the Board of Directors of the company, even though all the other shareholders no matter how much they numbered – 100,000 or 200,000 – There vote would not count (Rajesh) would have the decisive vote.

- Businessmen usually do not even need half the shares even 5 or 10% of the shares are sometimes enough for them to control a company.

- So businessmen and the people who own large amounts of shares effectively control the company and therefore can manage the company and gear it in a manner that would increase it share prices. The normal shareholders have no say in the affairs of the company and are just owners of the pieces of paper, which are called share certificates, which they buy and sell.

- We know that only the major businessmen and capitalists have the capital to own large amounts of shares, e.g. ¾ of the major stockholders in the companies – ABC, CBS and NBC the 3 major television and radio networks in America are owned by banks such as Chase Manhattan, Morgan Guaranty Trust, Citibank and the Bank of America.

6. Furthermore the shareholders in these companies can buy and sell their shares without anyone’s permission. What they look for is to make an instant profit, so if the value of shares increased they would sell all or part of their shares and if it decreased they would buy their shares back.

• So I have briefly explained the reality of the stock markets, now let us apply that on what occurred in the collapse in 1997 of the stock markets in the south-east Asia.

• Firstly we have to realise that the markets in South-East Asia are much frailer and weaker than the Western markets because the Western markets have been established for many years and are much larger. Competition in these markets is also less than in the Western countries.

• So it is easier for the Western Capitalists and speculators to dominate these markets.

They enter these countries like Indonesia and buy local shares in the local companies.
Instead of waiting for the share prices to rise they use styles to increase the prices of shares such as :
- Hyping the company whose shares they just brought.
- And leaking the news that they have invested heavily in these companies.
- These leads to the local people rushing to buy shares in that company which in turn leads to the share prices rising
- Once the Capitalists have reached their profit level they sell their shares to the locals making a quick profit.
- Sometimes a number of Capitalist investment funds work together as one group in the market because their aim in making profit is the same, this leads to collapse in the market when they decide to sell all at once. When they sell all their shares its like a sinking ship no one wants to remain on it, so this leads to a collapse in the local currency and causes major problems for the local banks which gave the locals credit.

• This is what occurred and is still occurring in South-East Asia, in Indonesia a Muslim country which has got the largest Muslim population in the world 80% of the companies went bankrupt, people became unemployed and the Indonesian rupiah became worthless, many people are even stealing to survive…these are the effects of these stock markets!

• The Western Nations know this and they are the ones who legitimise and even promote such activity. When the spokesman for the US State Department was asked about the intervention of one of the game-player Capitalists who was involved in South-East Asia named George Soros, he said: “George Soros is a highly respected individual in the US who has done a lot of good things for many countries around the world.”

• What gives more power to these Western Capitalists to intervene in the markets is the usury (interest) based banking system. It allows them to take massive loans so that they can buy much more amount of shares than they have money.

• The banks get deposits from people, e.g. when you go to your bank you deposit money. They consider these deposits to be their own and lend them the capitalists and businessmen. If we everybody demanded there money back from the banks straight away, they would not be able to give it because they lend most of the money out.

• The banks lend the money at different rates of interest, obviously they are biased to the companies which they own or have major stakes in, like the example I gave earlier of banks owning companies in America like ABC and NBC. We can clearly see this bias in America where the interest rate changes from 5.8% on loans given to capitalists and major companies to 20% on loans given to purchase a car.

• So the banks loan this money to the dealers of shares much more than the dealers have in cash. E.g. with 500Rs of their own money they can buy 5000Rs worth of shares by borrowing the money from the banks.

• This is the reality of capitalist economics. We should realise that anything based on Kufr will fail and not peoples problems in a correct manner. Even the Kuffar acknowledge their failure, e.g. In my Economics Exams I had a whole exam paper on market failure, about how the capitalist system has failed in many areas, when I asked my economics teacher what the alternative was he said: “Capitalism is the best of the worst.”

The Islamic viewpoint

The public limited company system gives the public company a distinct quality of limited liability, aimed at protecting major capitalists and businessmen in case the company fails and incurs losses, in which case, those who have claims against it would not be able to demand from its investors any compensation no matter how large the personal assets of the investors are. The financial claims are only confined to what is left in the company in terms of assets.This system is contradictory to Shari'ah in every aspect.

The Shari'ah rule obliges all to repay debts in full to the rightful owners, and it is forbidden to cut anything from them.

Al-Bukhari reported on the authority of Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "He who takes money from people with the intention of paying it back Allah will pay on his behalf, and he who takes it with the intention to waste it Allah will waste him."

Ahmed also reported on the authority of Abu Hurayrah who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "You shall return the rights to their rightful owners on the Day of Judgement, even the ewe with no horns will get even with the ewe with horns by butting it back."

Hence, the Messenger of Allah (saw) has confirmed the obligation of fulfiling one's rights in full in temporal life, and if one does not he will do so on the Day of Judgement. This serves as a warning for those who devour people's rights.

The Shari'ah has made it an unjust act for the rich to delay the settlement of their debts.

Al-Bukhari reported on the authority of Abu Hurayrah who said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "The delay by the rich is unjust."

If the delay in settling the debt is unjust, what would the devouring of the rights and the non settlement of the debts be?

Indeed it would be a greater injustice and would entail a graver punishment. The Messenger of Allah (swt) has taught us that the best people are those who are best when it comes to settling their debts, for Al-Bukhari reported that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Truly the best from amongst you are those who are best in settling debts."

Therefore to restrict the settlement of debts to those who have claims against the company, only after clearance of the public company's losses, is forbidden. Rather they should be given all that is owed to them in terms of rights or debts in full from the assets of the investors.

This is as far as granting the public companies a limited liability. As for the public limited companies themselves, they contradict the rules of companies in Islam. This is so because the public company according to their definition : "A contract in which two or more persons undertake that each one of them participate in a financial project, by tendering a sum of money, thus sharing what this project yields in terms of profit or loss."

According to this definition and according to the reality pertaining to the founding of the public company or the Joint-Stock Company, it becomes clear that it is not a contract between two people or more according to the Islamic Shari'ah rules, because the contract according to Shari'ah is based on offer and acceptance between two parties. In other words it means that there should be two parties in the contract. One party assumes the offer, i.e. he initiates the offer of the contract by saying: "I enter into partnership with you" or words to this effect; and the other party expresses acceptance by saying: "I accept" or "I consent" or words to this effect. If the contract is lacking the presence of two parties and the presence of offer and acceptance, nothing can be contracted and nothing can be called a legitimate contract.

The reality of the public company contradicts the reality of the company in Islam. The company in Islam is: "A contract between two or more parties, who agree to undertake a financial venture with the aim of making a profit." It is therefore a contract between two or more parties; thus it could not be unilateral. An agreement should rather take place between two or more parties. The contract itself should be based on the undertaking of a financial transaction with the aim of making a profit. It is not fitting for the contract to be based on the mere payment of money. It is also not fitting for the aim to be just for the sake of entering into a partnership. Hence, undertaking the financial venture is the basis in the company contract.

In the public companies, partnership is concluded by the mere presence of partners in capital only. The public company assumes its activities without the presence of a physical partner. According to Shari'ah, the partner in capital, has no right to run the company, nor does he have the right to work in the company as a partner. The running of the company and working in the company is confined to the physical partner only.

As for the shares of such companies, these are financial papers representing a share in the company at the time of purchase or at the time of evaluation. They do not represent the capital of the company at the time of establishment. The share is an integral part of the company's entity and it is not part of its capital. The value of the shares is not unique nor is it stable. It rather varies according to the profits and losses of the company. They are not unique and fixed at all times, but they are constantly fluctuating.

As for the Shari'ah rule pertaining to the dealing in these shares and in securities, whether buying or selling, it is forbidden. This is because these shares are those of a company that is unlawful according to Shari'ah. They are in fact certificates of bills which contain mixed sums from a lawful capital and unlawful profits made from an unlawful transaction. Each bill represents the value of a share, and this share represents part of the assets that belong to the unlawful company.These assets have been mixed with an unlawful transaction which Shari'ah has prohibited. Thus, it is illicit money, whose buying and selling becomes unlawful, and dealing in such money is also illicit. This is also the case for bonds, in which money is invested with interest, and so is the case for bank shares and similar, since they all contain sums of illicit money; thus their buying and selling is unlawful, because the money contained in them is illicit

Therefore these problems which we discussed inshallah will not exist under the Islamic state, and therefore when Islam returns Inshallah it will bring the world under its just systems and abolish the oppressive system of Capitalism on this earth.

Today through floating on the stock exchange companies are able to generate huge amounts of wealth and thus easily able to become monopolies, duopolies or oligopolies which dominate the market destroying any small competitors – this in the end is bad for the consumer. Even the capitalists teach that competition is good for the market and call monopolies a ‘market failure’ then why is it that there are so many monopolies in their economies? E.g. Soft drinks – Coca-Cola, Pepsi & Cadbury’s Schweppes dominate the market. Operating Systems – Microsoft.

Islam allows companies to exist which are partnerships between body and capital, there are 5 types of company structures in Islam. However as Islam prohibits PLC’s, this means that companies will have capital only from private wealth and therefore it is likely they will only be small to medium sized companies in the market. Not the multi-billion dollar corporations that exist today. This is good for the market place as competition increases quality and reduces price. Furthermore Islam’s prohibition of patenting and copyrighting will further add to this. We must study the Islamic economic system and explain to the people how it is the true alternative to the economic problems we face today.

Abu Nadra reported: We were with the company of Jabir Ibn Abdillah...Jabir Ibn Abdillah kept quite for a while and then reported Allah's Messenger (saw) having said: "There would be a Caliph in the last (period) of my Ummah who would freely give handfuls of wealth to the people without counting it." I said to Abu Nadra and Abu al-Ala: Do you mean Umar Ibn Abd al-Aziz? They said: NO. [Sahih Muslim, English version, v4, chapter MCCV, p1508, Tradition #6961. Sahih Muslim, Arabic version, Kitab al-Fitan, v4, p2234, Tradition #67]

Saturday, January 26, 2008

Q&A: What statements indicate divorce?

The following is a translation from an Arabic Q&A:

Question: What statements uttered by the husband leads to divorce. I.e. if the husbands says to his wife to leave his house, is this equivalent to a divorce or is it only when the word ‘talaq’ is used?

Answer: The expression used for divorce is the word ‘divorce and its derivatives’ such as when the man says to his wife ‘You are divorced (anti taaliq) or ‘I have divorced you (tallaqtuki) and the like from the derivatives of the word ‘divorce’. If he said this then the divorce will take place in its correct form according to the Sharee’ah rules. In this situation the intention is not considered. If the divorce was pronounced with seriousness or jokingly the divorce will take place. The Messenger (saw) said: Three things should be taken as serious and their joking is taken as serious and they are: marriage, divorce and Raj’ah (taking the wife back after the revocable divorce [Talaq raj’i]) Reported by Tirmizi and he said it is Hasan ghareeb.

If he uses other expressions in front of his wife which can mean divorce but without using the word ‘divorce’. Then in this case the intention is considered for the divorce to take place. If he says to his wife: Go back to your family’ or ‘I have no guardianship over you’ or ‘you are not tied down i.e. free’ and so on and so forth. Then he is asked as to what he meant by these expressions. If he says divorce then divorce will take place and if he says I meant something else then this is not considered divorce.

The evidence: It has been narrated by ‘Aisha (ra) that 'When the daughter of Al-Jaun was brought to Allah's Apostle (as his bride) and he went near her, she said, ‘I seek refuge with Allah from you.’ He said, ‘You have sought refuge with The Great; return to your family.’ Reported by Bukhari. Here it is divorce because the messenger (saw) intended divorce when he said: go back to your family’

And in the Hadeeth regarding when Ka’b b. Malik stayed behind from jihad, he said: When a period of forty out of fifty nights had passed, the messenger of the Messenger of Allah (saw) approached me and said: ‘The Messenger of Allah (saw) commands you to distance yourself from your wife.’ I said: ‘Should I divorce her, or what must I do?’ He responded: ‘No, distance yourself from her and do not approach her. So I said to her: ‘Go back to your family’. Here it is not divorce because Ka’b did not intend divorce by the expression: ‘go back to your family’.

In short, if the pronouncement includes the word divorce and its derivatives then the divorce takes place in its correct form whether he was serious or joking, the intention is not relevant here.

However, if the wording does not explicitly mention divorce but rather by indication or the like then his reason or intention is considered and whether divorce takes place or not depends on this.

Islam & Modernity: Selling out?

Nothing but tales of the Ancients

The claim that Islam is not “modern” is not a new one. In fact, Quraish presented a similar argument to Prophet Muhammad (saw):

“When it is said to them, "What is it that your Lord has revealed?" they say, "Asateeru al-awwaleen” (Tales of the ancients)!"” [TMQ 16:24]

As revealed in this Ayah, Quraish used to dismiss Islam as simply being stories that belonged to ancient times. In other words, Quraish were implying that they were “modern” and Islam was a relic of the past.

The Islamic Shariah encompasses all the actions of man, completely and comprehensively, at every time and place.

Unfortunately, some Muslim speakers are now issuing calls to modernize our understanding of Islam. The claim is that Islam was silent on issues and that Islam left room for man to govern/legislate in certain areas. This would therefore require the need for a “new Fiqh” (Islamic jurisprudence); where ultimately we do what we feel is right. This idea threatens the existence of the Islamic jurisprudence. Such thinking will allow non-Islamic rules to be introduced into the Ummah under the guise of Islam.

Is Islam silent on issues?

The proponents of the idea that Islam is in need of a “new Fiqh” claim that the Shariah has remained silent on new issues, and that the existing methodology of Islam is incapable of dealing with such issues. The proponents of this viewpoint cite the following Hadith. On the authority of Jurthum bin Nashir the Messenger of Allah (saw) said:

“Allah the Almighty has laid down religious duties, so do not neglect them. He has set boundaries, so do not over step them. He has prohibited some things so do not violate them. He was silent about some things out of compassion for you, not forgetfulness, so do not seek after them” [Darqutni, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, & Hakim].

Tariq Ramadan, who is trying to formulate a methodology for life for the Muslims in the West, speaks about the silence mentioned in this Hadith in his book, “To be a European Muslim.” He says that this Hadith of permissibility…” He further states that: “The silence, then, is in the sphere of which permits Fiqh, within social affairs (Muamalat) to be in constant development, evolution, and formation.”

Based on this understanding, where there is no explicit text, then the concept of Ibaha (permissibility) exists. That is, we are free to do what we want and adopt legislation as we see fit. As a result, those who promote this understanding of Islam claim that the rules that should be adopted (within the area of permissibility) are those that provide the most benefit to the Muslims.

The issue of whether actions are permissible in the absence of a text is a topic of Usul-al-fiqh (principles of Islamic jurisprudence). As a result, such a topic requires greater discussion than what is permitted in this article. However, inshaAllah we will cover the key reasons that explain the falsehood of such an opinion.

The Shariah has not left anything without a ruling from the Quran or the Sunnah. The Islamic Shariah encompasses all the actions of man, completely and comprehensively, at every time and place.

Allah (swt) revealed, with definite meaning:

“And We have revealed the Book to you explaining clearly everything, and a guidance and mercy and good news for those who submit.” [TMQ 16:89].

The meaning of this ayah leaves no room for the claim that the Shariah remained silent on certain issues. Instead Allah (swt) revealed the Quran as an explanation of all matters.

Either the matter is explicitly identified in the texts or a qualified scholar must use Ijtihad to extract opinion – supporting his or her opinion with Adila (evidences) from the Quran and Sunnah. Furthermore, Allah (swt) is clear on the fact that all judgements must be referred to the Shariah when He (sws) says:

“No by your God, they shall not become true believers until they make you judge in matters that are of dispute amongst them and find within themselves no dislike of that which you have decided, and submit with full submission” [TMQ Al-Nisaa:65]

If the premise that the Shariah did not cover all situations were true, then Muslims would be forced to adopt a rule that the Shariah had not come with. In effect, Muslims would have referred a judgement to other than the Shariah—and this is forbidden. So claiming that there is a permission to refer to other than Islam under the pretext contradicts this ayah and is therefore false.

Finally, the Messenger of Allah (saw) has explicitly forbidden us from taking anything other than what he has brought. Muslim reported on the authority of Aisha (ra) that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said:

“He who introduces in our order something that is alien to it, must be rejected”.

Silence in the Era of Revelation

“Truly the gravest sinners amongst the Muslims would be those who ask about something that has not been forbidden for them, then it became forbidden because of their asking about it.”

This Hadith and others are used as a proof to backup the claim that the Shariah was silent on issues. However, a closer look at these Ahadith indicates that these texts are related to the subject of the prohibition of searching and asking about that which He (swt) has lightened for you and has not forbidden for you – during the period of revelation. So when something is not prohibited, it is a pardon from Allah (swt) so do not ask about it. This is reflected in Allah’s saying:

“O you who have believed do not ask about matters which, if made plain to you, may cause you trouble, but if you asked them when the Quran is being revealed, they will be made known to you. Allah pardons this, for Allah is forgiving, Most Forbearing” [TMQ 5:101].

Consequently, the above Hadith and others are specific to the era of revelation and do not absolve us from the obligation of seeking the ruling on issues of politics, worship, economics, social relationships, and any other issue related to our life.

What is Ijthihad?

Ijtihad is the task of applying Shari (as in Shariah) evidences to determine Allah’s (swt) ruling on an issue. Such a task must be performed by a qualified Mujtahid. Just as any other expertise – such as doctors, accountants, and engineers - to be a Mujtahid requires an in-depth knowledge of classical Arabic (i.e. as was used during the time of revelation), Quran, Hadith, and Usul-al-fiqh. In addition to knowledge, the key to making Ijitihad is to look at the Shari evidences from a legislative perspective; identifying how the revelation solves problems in daily affairs. With such a mindset, we can see that Islam is more than capable of solving problems. If we as individuals lack the necessary qualifications to make Ijtihad – then the problem is with us; not Islam.

Ijtihad also requires a deep understanding of what the text is referring to. For example, one superficially examining the issue of drugs would say that Islam was silent on heroin, crack-cocaine, crystal-meth, and other drugs. However, when a Mujtihad studies the issue, he or she would study the nature of heroin, etc and discover that it is an intoxicant. Then all the relevant Ayat and Ahadith would need to be studied, such as:

"Every intoxicant is Khamr, and every Khamr is haram." [Muslim]

“Khamr is that which befogs the mind" [Bukhari & Muslim]

Thus, through a deep understanding of these Shari evidences and others, and through a deep understanding of the nature of the issue being addressed, the Mujtahid discovers that drugs are intoxicants and that intoxicants are Haram – even though no text specifically mentions them.

If we as individuals lack the necessary qualifications to make Ijtihad – then the problem is with us; not Islam.

We should also recognize that man’s needs have not changed since the Quran was revealed. People need to acquire the necessities of life in order to satisfy their need for survival, and to worship Allah (swt). One would argue that technological and scientific knowledge has increased and this is indisputable fact. However, technology is just merely a tool – it does not solve the problems in it of itself. For example, millions of people go hungry despite the fact that the Internet exists. The issue of how we use technology to solve such problems requires us to turn to the solutions provided by Allah (swt) in the Shariah.

Islam Solves Problems!

Ownership of Energy Resources: If we look at contemporary issues, we can readily find solutions from the Shariah. For example, in Canada, there has been a dispute between the oil companies and the Alberta provincial government about how the revenues from the oil & gas should be shared. The government wants to increase taxes, royalties, etc on the oil & gas, while the companies want to keep the profit for themselves. The crux of this issue is: to whom does the oil belong to? Regarding the ownership of oil, we find the following Hadith that would solve such a dispute (had it occurred in an Islamic State):

Ibn Abbas narrated that the Prophet (SAW) said:

“Muslims are partners in three things, in water, green pastures and fire.” [Abu Dawud]

Scholars have understood the word fire to mean any resource that can be used to generate energy – including oil, uranium, electricity, etc. As a result, the solution to the problem as to who owns the oil is neither the state nor the individual –it is rather the entire Ummah who owns the oil. In the Islamic State, the Khaleefah would administer the resources, but would have to consult the citizens of the Islamic State as to how it can be used.

Human Cloning is another contemporary issue that some claim Islam was silent on. To see how Islam is not silent about this issue, we must first understand the process of cloning (based on what was done with sheep Dolly in Scotland). The process involves taking a nucleus of the cell that was taken from the body of a particular man, and insert the nucleus in an egg that was taken from a woman. Special chemicals and specific electric currents are used to combine the nucleus of the cell with the egg. After they are joined together, the egg (that has the cell’s nucleus) is implanted in a woman’s womb so that it can reproduce, grow, divide and form a complete fetus which is then born through the
process of a natural birth.

1. Cloning deviates from the normal process of reproduction prescribed in the following ayah: “And that He (Allah) created the pairs, male and female. From Nutfah (drops of semen – male and female discharges) when it is emitted.” [TMQ An-Najm:45-46]
2. Cloning effectively generates a being without a father thereby violating the following Ayah:
“O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female.” [TMQ Al-Hujurat: 13]
3. Cloning destroys the ties of family that is between the child and their parents. In the following Ahadith, we are required to preserve such ties;
Examining the Quran and Sunnah we find:

“Whoever claims relationship by birth to other than his father or belonged to other than those he belongs to, then the curse of Allah, the Angels, and all the people be upon him.” [Ibn Majah]

“Any woman who introduced to some people an offspring that does not belong to them, then she has nothing to do with Allah and she will not enter Paradise; and any man who denies his son while looking at him, Allah will not reveal Himself to him and Allah will disgrace him in front of the first and last generations.” [ Al-Darimi]

As a result, cloning violates this principle in Islam, thereby making human cloning haram.

Conclusion

A shallow understanding of the Shariah may have led some to conclude that Islam was silent on some issues. However, the real problem is not that Islam was silent, but rather that people lack the qualifications necessary to make Ijitihad or do not have sufficient understanding of how Ijtihad is performed.

May Allah (swt) guide us and protect us. May He expose the plots against Islam and protect this Ummah from the corrupt thoughts.

Source

Thursday, January 24, 2008

Hindi & English Poster: Need for Khilafah


The Role of Muslim Women in Daw’ah

كُنْتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ

“You are the best of the nation raised up for mankind because you enjoin what is right and forbid the wrong and believe in Allah” [TMQ Ale-Imran: 110]

There many evidences in the Qur'an and Sunnah that obligates ALL Muslims, men and women to do da'wah, and enjoin good and forbid evil.

The Qur’an and Sunnah have expressed the idea of da’wa with the terms; tableegh (delivering the call), enjoining the good (ma’ruf) & forbidding the evil (munkar), recommending one another on the truth (tawaasi), being sent to give good tidings and to warn, clarifying the truth, advising (naseeha) and reminding the people, and debate and discuss with the people in the manner which is best and the struggling to make the Deen prevail.

ادْعُ إِلَى سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَجَادِلْهُمْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ

Allah (swt) says, “Invite to the way of your Lord (i.e. Islaam) with Hikmah (divine evidences), and argue with them in a way that is better.” [TMQ 16: 125]

What we can notice when we look at the evidences is that they have come in a general form, addressing Muslims as a whole – not being specific to men or women.

The fuqaha have explained that Da’wah to non-Muslims is in origin Fard Kifayah (obligation of sufficiency), meaning if some people are fulfilling it – the rest of the Ummah are not sinful and are encouraged to also perform it. However, it can become Fard Ayn (individual obligation) in the case where we know a non-Muslim who does not know about Islam and is unlikely to hear about it except through you – in this case it is our obligation to convey the message of Islam to them.

Da’wah to non-Muslims differs from da’wah to Muslims which includes enjoining the Ma’ruf and forbidding the Munkar which is an individual duty.

Ahmad narrated on the authority of Abu Bakrah that the messenger said: "If the people see the Munkar (evil, wrong doing) and they do not change it, Allah will take them with a punishment".

The Muslims, as individuals, are required to enjoin that which they are commanded with and forbid that which they are ordered to abstain from - if anything happens in front of them that necessitates that – according to the knowledge each individual has.

Furthermore, the Messenger (saw), when addressing the people used to say, “Let the one who is present convey what he has heard to the one who is absent” (Al-Bukhari).

Consequently, enjoining the ma’roof and forbidding the munkar becomes an individual obligation (fard ayn) for which the Muslim will be sinful if he or she did not undertake it, and he is not excused for abandoning it. Thus the Muslimah, in her daily life with her husband, children, relatives, neighbours, customers, acquaintances or anyone else who they happen to meet; each one of such people needs be given the naseeha (advice), if they failed to perform a duty or was disobedient. How can this not be the case when there are sins that only she may be aware of. Such as a sin committed in front of her at a sitting where no one else is present. If she did not advise them then she will be sinful. No one else can take her place, and in his sphere, nobody other than her can fulfil it. For every munkar that appears in his sphere, no one other than the individual who witnesses it is responsible.

If one of our friends is not wearing the khimar, taking riba, has haram relations with men before marriage or engages in any other definitive haram – then you are obliged to forbid this munkar.

The Prophet (saw) said in a hadith narrated from Imam Muslim from Abu Sa’id al Khudri: “Whosoever sees a Munkar (an evil or wrong) let him change it by his hand, if he could not let it be by his tongue. If he could not let it be by his heart, and this is the weakest of Iman”

We are also obliged to work to establish the mechanism which will establish the Ma’ruf and ensure the removal of Munkar, the Islamic state – which has been emphasised by the hadith in Sahih Muslim, the Prophet (saw) said:

“Whosoever dies without a bay'ah on their neck dies the death of Jahiliyyah.'' [Sahih Muslim]

Women have been expressly addressed with the duty of the da'wah because Allah, subhanahu wa ta'ala, says:

يَا نِسَاءَ النَّبِيِّ لَسْتُنَّ كَأَحَدٍ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ إِنِ اتَّقَيْتُنَّ فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَعْرُوفًا

"O wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women. If you keep your duty (to Allah) then be not soft in speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease should be moved with desire, but say that which is Ma'roof (good)." [33:32]

Ibn Abbas understood Allah's injunction to the Prophet's wives, to "say good," to mean that they have to enjoin what is good and forbid what is evil. This can be taken as a general address to all Muslim women. Allah also says:

وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتُ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاء بَعْضٍ يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاَةَ

"The believers, men and women are Auliya (helpers, protectors) of one another, they enjoin the good and forbid the evil, they perform salah and give away zakah and obey Allah." [9:71]

It is clear in this verse that women are addressed with this task, just as men, whenever they are capable of undertaking it.

* Removing ignorance, increasing awareness of Islam, and the creation of qualified women da'wah carriers. These results have a lasting and beneficial influence, not only on women and the Muslim community, but also on the whole society at large

* Women's place and status in Islam would be highlighted and Muslim women would attain a better awareness of their rights and duties.


* Making dawah should be part of our children’s upbringing by making them aware that they are the future carriers of Islam; and Islam is their identity; without it they are lost.

Examples from Muslim women in the past

The Prophet's companions who left their homes to go places that were thousands of miles away to take the new religion to people also had the support and the backing of their wives. Let’s look at some examples:

- Khadija's (ra) comfort, help, and support of the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhe wa sallam, offer the greatest proof of the vital importance of this role. Khadijah was very rich, and she spent her money to support the da'wah

- If we look at the hadeeth narrated by Abu Saeed that the women said to the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhe wa sallam, "The men are keeping you busy and we do not get enough attention from you. Would you specify a day for us, women? He promised them a day to meet them and educate and admonish them." (Bukhari) The fruits of this understanding and concern by the women companions of the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhe wa sallam, and the attention he gave them, are shining examples and a source of pride for Muslim women

- Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, is also a perfect example of what the Muslim women should strive to be like. After the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, died, Aisha (ra) was the main source of knowledge about the Prophets teachings. She was active in telling people about Islam and giving knowledge to those who sought it. Abu Musa Ash'ari narrated, "We never had a problem to tackle but always found a relief from Aisha (ra). Her knowledge was stupendous." Imam Zuhri, a Tabe'ie of great renown said, "Aisha was the greatest among the living scholars."

- Umm Sulaim (ra) teaching her son Anas Ibn Malik (ra) about Islam, even though her husband rejected Islam. When Abu Talha proposed to her (before accepting Islam) she told him that her dowry was Islam, he in-turn embraced Islam and she married him. She gave her son Anas to the Prophet (saw) as a servant.

- Umm Hakeem (ra) was the reason behind her husband embracing Islam, the aunt of Adi ibn Hatem (ra) also led him to Islam. Amra, the wife of Habib Al-Ajami would wake up her husband to make salah at night. Asmaa (ra), the daughter of Abu Bakr, encouraged her son, Abdullah ibn Az-Zubair (ra), to stand up for the truth and not fear death in the face of a tyrant.

- Sumayyah (ra) gave up her life when Abu Jahl killed her for becoming a Muslim. She was the first martyr in Islam.

- Umm Salamah (ra) left her husband and saw her children persecuted when she migrated. (She is the one who narrated the famous speech of Ja’far to Najashi). Umm Ammarah (ra) fought in defence of the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhe wa sallam, in the Uhud battle. Tending the wounded in battles was the role Muslim Women played throughout history.

- It is reported that Dawud ibn Husayn (ra), a companion of the Prophet, used to take Qur'anic lessons from Umm Sa'd Jamilah bint As'ad Ansariyyah (ra), daughter of As'ad ibn Rabi who fought in the Battle of Badr and achieved martyrdom in the Battle of Uhud. According to Ibn Athir, Umm Sa'd had memorized the Qur'an and used to give regular lessons.

Even in later generations Muslim women continued to play a large part in Da’wah and the propagation of Islam.

- Nafisa bint al-Hasan (d. 208/824) taught hadith to Imam ash-Shafi'i.

- Ibn Hajar mentioned 12 women who were musnida (transmitters of collection of hadith). He studied with 53 women.

- Ibn Asakir al-Dimashqi (499-571) took hadith from 1,300 male shaykh and 80-odd female shaykha.

What contribution can women make?

Many obstacles and restraints have been the causes behind the weakness and neglect of da'wah work amongst women.

One major reason, is that many men are not convinced about the importance of women's role and responsibilities in the field of da'wah. This is due to the influence of eastern Mushrik culture where women are seen as slaves to men. Unfortunately some attempt to justify this by misinterpreting Islamic evidences, for example:

The Qur'anic verse: وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ "...remain at your homes..." [33:33] has been misinterpreted by many, and so has the right of guardianship or Qawama. In many instances we see men objecting to women's participation in da'wah and thus preventing them from fulfilling their role toward their fellow Muslims and to the larger society in general. Spreading Islam has been made incumbent on all Muslims, men and women.

It is vital that husbands encourage their wives to participate in da'wah work. Unfortunately, not a lot of Muslim women feel that they know enough about Islam to share it with others. They need to realize that it is their responsibility to obtain that knowledge and then share it with others. Many women also feel uncomfortable presenting to groups of people due to various reasons.

Although many women are busy due to their responsibility as a wife, mother, cook, and teacher, inside their homes, etc – as with any fard, we must make time and organise our lives such that it becomes a centre point of our lives. Women have the ability to make a real difference:

- They generally have a great effect on their husbands. If they have strong Iman and character, they have a very good chance at helping their husbands become strong as well.

- Women are more free than men in communicating with other women, either individually for da'wah activities, or in women's learning and other forums and places of meeting.

- Women stay at home with their sons and daughters, and thus can bring them up as they please.

Practical Steps for women

* Where to do dawah: ideally where people gather regularly, such as the mosques, girls schools – trying to influence the teacher and the curriculum, associations, da'wah groups, friends, families etc.

* We need to start by seeking knowledge and developing our Islamic personalities.
Proper Islamic rules of mixing between men and women must be observed at all times

* Building of the da'wah personality: Da'wah requires sacrifices and therefore women must be prepared to bear the burdens of calling to Islam

* Da'iyat delivering lectures, seminars, sermons, should be able to persuade the listeners by addressing their minds through proofs and evidences.

* Utilising the latest communication technology is important for fruitful dawah. Radio, TV, and the internet are very efficient means for local and international mass-dawah.

* Writing and publishing such as books, newspaper, articles etc are means by which you can easily reach people. Writings should both be eloquent and convincing, through sincere, sound and documented arguments.

So, let us strive to aid in the revival of the Ummah, by being da’wa carriers – possessing thought and articulation to uphold the truth.

Each of us has a gift from Allah we should not ignore our obligation in fear of rejection or failure but, join together to contribute our talents and reasons to share the gift of Islam, truly a mercy from Allah (swt).

وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ قَوْلًا مِمَّنْ دَعَا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا وَقَالَ إِنَّنِي مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ

"Who is better in speech than the one who calls (people) to Allah, works righteousness, and says I am one the Muslims?" (41:33)

Shifaa bint Mukhlis Miah

Thursday, January 17, 2008

Nizam al-Islam book - Hindi version

The Hindi transliteration from the Urdu version of the book, Nizam al-Islam by Sheikh Taqiuddin an-Nabhani is available to download from:

http://www.esnips.com/web/HindiIslamicliterature/

In order to view the file correctly, download and install the fonts from the file included there.

Urdu poster: Need for Khilafah



This is a nice poster brothers have produced to aid the Da'wah.


Monday, January 14, 2008

Q&A: Bush's Middle East Tour

The following is a translation of an Arabic Q&A:

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Question: American President George Bush begins his Middle East tour tomorrow, Wednesday. He starts from Palestine on 9th January, 2008, then proceeds to Kuwait, Bahrain, the UAE , Saudi Arabia and then to Egypt on 16th January before returning to Washington (D.C).

This visit has come amid publicity campaigns especially by Mahmoud Abbas’s Palestinian Authority that Bush visit is aimed at forming a sovereign state with authority for the Palestinian Authority side by side with the Jewish state. How far are these reports authentic?

Answer: Any observer who has keenly followed Bush’s visit will notice as follows:

Bush’s visit comes in the US election year when the president has the least authority to take decisions on international issues. This is why during the 1950’s and 60’s when Britain was US’s direct rival in the international arena, it used be very active during the election year when the US presidents and their parties would be preoccupied in electoral activities and as soon as the new president succeeded, the British would lie low.

This visit comes at a time when the Jews’ state is rather dissatisfied with the US’s somewhat lukewarm response towards the Iranian nuclear dispute especially in the aftermath of the American intelligence reports that have ‘acquitted’ Iran on charges of its efforts to acquire nuclear weapons. This is a critical issue that the Jews’ state is preoccupied with. Hence they have prepared a special dossier on the subject for President Bush after secret confabulations between the security agencies on one hand and the Israeli body politic that were held on 6th January, 2008. This was reported by newspaper Ye'diot Aharonot. The Jews state carried out a massive campaign to heat up the Iranian nuclear issue internationally and particularly in the United States, while the US is disinclined to rake up issue militarily. Americans consider it important to engage the Iranians politically since the Iranians have been positive on the Afghan issue as well as to safeguard the repetitive negotiations over Iraq.

The Jews realized that the US has found in the recent intelligence reports, a convenient excuse to refrain from heating up the atmosphere for a military action against Iran, and this has disappointed them. The reaction of the Jews lobby in Washington was evident and yet Bush’s statement did nothing to assuage them. He asserted that despite the reports, the people of the region must be aware that all options against Iran are still open, thus indicating a military option. But he added “We believe a diplomatic solution is possible”.

The visit comes amidst an intense campaign by the Democratic Party attacking Bush and his Republican Party for failure their international policies. The Democrats have stressed that America has become a most hated country in the Middle East region which is the main source of their petroleum requirement. The Democrats further charged the Bush administration of having exposed the lives of US soldiers in Iraq’s risk zones and being unconcerned about them.
It is in such a period that this visit to the occupied Palestine, Gulf and Egypt has come about:

So far as the occupied Palestine or in other words, the state of the Jews is concerned, Bush seeks to assuage the Jews’ frustration resulting from the recent intelligence report and offer promises and guarantees to them to the effect that the US will not allow Iran to acquire nuclear weapons. In addition to these promises, Bush also wants to gift advanced weaponry and financial assistance to them.

In addition to this, Bush will also bolster their security by preventing Mahmoud Abbas’s Palestinian Authority to cause any security threat to the Jews’ state in the West Bank. After this, he will entrust to Hosni Mubarak the job of calming down Hamas and the issue of prisoner Shalit.
This is how Bush will try to allay the fears of the Jews with regard to the Iranian nuclear issue and offer them security assurances; on one side by preventing Mahmoud Abbas’s Palestinian Authority to cause any security disruption to the Jews, and on the other hand from Hamas through talks in Egypt on the subject including the Shalit issue.

All this will reflect in the reactions of the American Jews’ lobby Vis a Vis the US elections.
As for his trip to the Arabian Gulf, it is intended to counter the Democrats campaign that the US is regarded as a hated entity. Through this visit, Bush intends to demonstrate to the Americans that his country is well accepted and popular contrary to what the Democrats are presenting. In addition, Bush will pay a visit to the American soldiers in these states and thus demonstrate his concern for their well-being. Though no announcement is made, he may include it in his itinerary to visit Iraq and get together with the US soldiers, this is not ruled out.

His visit is designed to be the crowning touch; this will be seen as securing the US interests in the region and will be regarded as Arab approval for them. This will also stone-wall European political influence and curb any resistance to the American influence.

What the Palestinian Authority is projecting the illusion that the Bush visit will usher in plentiful bounties for the Palestinians and they will be given a state with defined borders and sovereignty. It is like a man trying to reach his hand in a deep well, hoping against hope that the water will reach his mouth, but off course it does not! Bush has come to pacify the Jews and offer them security assurances, not to promise a sovereign state to Mahmoud Abbas and his Palestinian Authority. Even the widely publicised issue of vacating the settlements which are any way nomadic mobile structures which are designed for a terrain may well be compromised in exchange of a humiliating back off from the Palestinian Authority to accept a disjointed housing in certain parts selected by the Jews. Even the Jews themselves regard such settlements as illegitimate.

As for his initiative of carving an independent Palestinian state, Bush is well aware that an election year is not the opportune time to take up such projects, in fact he clarified this before embarking on his trip and said: “Even if the Palestinian and Israeli leaders do not reach an agreement before the end of the year, I an hopeful that we can lay the general broad line for a Palestinian state”. Certainly it is known that these broad lines mean a continuation of the humiliating negotiations with the Jews resulting in giving concession after concession.
Certainly Bush comes to the Palestine in order to offer security assurances to the Jews and to calm them, and this to the Jews means standing side by side with Bush against the so-called Iranian nuclear weapons. He is visiting the Gulf States to counter the Democrats campaign that America is despised and unpopular in the petrol-rich region. While his visit to Egypt, the largest Arab state in the region, is aimed at demonstrating his strength versus the Democrats.
In fact Bush has embarked upon an election campaign for his Republican Party from our lands: the holy Palestine, the vital and strategic Gulf States and Egypt. Our lands are not only reduced to being merely a foreign policy issue for the imperialist colonialist countries, but have also a matter of their internal politics. Such a humiliation would not have been our fate but for our rulers who have sold out not only their world but also have mortgaged others for their sake. Woe to them and their actions!

Palestine is not a crawling insect that these rulers have made it to be for the sake of extending welcomes to Bush, nor is it some thing to be bargained with the Jews. What will restore the honour and pride of Palestine is the marching soldiers across the borders.

The man who will restore to Palestine its honour will be the sincere ruler who will seek Allah (swt) for one of the two good things: either victory or martyrdom.

The man who will restore to Palestine its honour will be the Khaleefah, under whose banner the Muslims fight and behind him they seek protection.

What will restore to Palestine its honour is the rule by what Allah (swt) has revealed, a Khilafah Rashidah on the model of the Prophethood.

This is the only way for salvation of Palestine, the entire Palestine.

إن هذا لهو حق اليقين
“Verily, this! This is an absolute Truth with certainty.”[TMQ al-Waqi’ah:96]

30th Dhil Hijjah, 1428 A.H
8th January, 2008 C.E


Arabic Source: Website of Sheikh Ata Abu Rashta

Wednesday, January 09, 2008

New Urdu booklet on Democracy by Naveed Butt

A new Urdu booklet is available to download in PDF, it is entitled جمہوریت مسائل کی جڑ ، خلافت مسائل کا حل (Democracy - the source of problems, Khilafah - the solution to them) by Naveed Butt, the official spokesman of Hizb ut-Tahrir in Pakistan. It can be downloaded from:

http://www.khilafat.dk/pdfdata/demo.pdf

Tuesday, January 08, 2008

Scholars of the Ummah Call for Khilafah

The following is a translation from Arabic.

Report by the Information Committee of Hizb ut-Tahrir Indonesia

The Khilafah Conference held in Indonesia which was attended by over one hundred thousand, proved to be highly effective in focusing on and highlighting the issue of Khilafah and the Hizb ut-Tahrir to the Muslims there. While at the same time, the hearts of the secularists who raise the banner of Capitalist democracy were filled with rage. It will be pertinent to remind them of Allah’s words:

قل موتوا بغيظكم
"Say: "Perish in your rage.” [TMQ Aal Imran : 119]

The Muslims, both individually as well as their organizations are now more concerned than ever about their great Islam and the Khilafah about the restoration of which the Prophet (saw) had given glad tidings in an authentic narration.

The Islamic parties there organised a seminar there under the theme: The Khilafah on the model of the Prophet (saw) or American Capitalist Democracy? This was organised under the patronage of the Federation of the Islamic Ummah, the FUI.

This seminar was held in a spacious hall at the famous al-Azhaar Mosque on Nov. 16th, 2007 after the Friday prayers and was attended by the Ulama, Shaikhs and representatives of prominent Islamic parties. The Ulama included: Shaikh Rushdie Humka, the head of al-Azhaar, al-Haaj Nazri ‘Adlani, the chairman of the FUI, Shaikh Amr Allah Ahmad, President of the Islamic Brotherhood Movement of Indonesia, Shaikh Khaleel Radwan, the President of the Islamic Council of Ulama in Indonesia, Mohammad Ismail Yusanto, the representative of the Hizb ut-Tahrir in Indonesia, Mr. Mashaadi, the president of the Islamic Ummah Congregation, it was also attended by Shaikh Mohammad Ma’moon, of the Dar al Falah Institute, Bandjalang, Shaikh Ameen Noor of the al Taqwa Institute, Mr Abu Jibreel of the Mujahideen Council Indonesia, Mr. Ja’far Sadiq of Islamic Protection Front, Dr. Bambang Sitiyo of the Society of the Shariah Adherents, and Mr Fadla al Gharmah, who is a Da’ee from Papua and other prominent personalities. The event was attended by about 3000 people.

Shaikh Rushdie Humka, the head of al-Azhaar said that the struggle to implement the Islamic Sharee’ah in Indonesia had started immediately after the independence and the Islamic parties fought for application of the Sharee’ah laws, but the treachery and oppression of every government especially the long years of the Suharto regime that came to power diluted the call. He felt that the need of the hour is to have parties that are serious and highly committed to the call.

Al-Haaj Nazri ‘Adlani, the chairman of the FUI voiced for the unification of the Ummah and called the Muslims not to remain divided. He reminded that the companions of the Prophet (saw) chose to elect their Khaleefah before undertaking the burial of the Prophet (saw) himself, which is sufficient evidence regarding the importance of inaugurating a Khaleefah over the burial. He concluded by saying that it was imperative for the Islamic Ummah to have the Bai’ah of a Khaleefah over its’ neck and this can only be achieved by restoration of the Khilafah.

Mr Abu Bakr Bashir, head of the Mujahideen Council of Indonesia said that it was incumbent upon the Islamic Ummah to live under the shade of the Wali who implemented the Islamic Sharee’ah which implies having a world wide Khilafah. He added that it was imperative to transform the Indonesian system because this is the command of Allah (swt). With out such a Khilafah, the Muslim lands are torn apart, their resources are plundered and blood is spilled without a concern and the Ummah has been confronted with severe problems. He further said that in order to have the Sharee’ah implemented it was absolutely necessary to have a Islamic State, anyone who denies this would be denying a command of Allah (swt).

Ahmad Sumargno, the head of the Islamic Brotherhood Movement of Indonesia was of the view that the Ummah needed the Khilafah and to achieve this, it is necessary to change the present secular system to an Islamic system either through reforms or revolution.

Shaikh Amr Allah Ahmad, President if the Islamic Brotherhood Movement of Indonesia said that the entire world is current in the grasp of democracy, although it is haram to either adopt or even promoting calls for it. This is because democracy is based on secularism which rejects the Islamic Sharee’ah, while Allah (swt) has mandated that the Sharee’ah be implemented. Democracy assigns sovereignty of human beings and therefore if the Islamic Ummah adopted democracy as its creed it would go astray from the straight path. He observed that it is obligatory for the Islamic Ummah to take recourse to the Quran, the Sunnah and Khilafah on the method of the Prophethood as this is the only correct course to take.

Shaikh Khaleel Radwan, the President of the Islamic Council of Ulama in Indonesia said that he whole heartedly agreed with Khilafah, but as of now it is only a dream. He therefore held the view that why should we not harness democracy to implement Islam and await the return of the Khilafah. It may be reminded that this council is known to be closely allied with the authorities.

This was followed by the talk given by Mohammad Ismail Yusanto, the representative of the Hizb ut-Tahrir in Indonesia. He said that the Khilafah was an obligation upon every individual and Islamic organisation. Therefore every party is obliged to work seriously for establishment of the Khilafah and propagate the concept of Khilafah. He stressed that the struggle to establish the Khilafah is a political one and therefore it was inevitable to have a political party based on the Islamic ‘Aqeedah with objective of restoring the Islamic lifestyle by establishing a Khilafah based on the method of the Prophethood. He said that in order to achieve this objective, it was indispensible to change the current democratic secular system to the Islamic Khilafah, and this would be a revolutionary transformation.

It is obligatory for the members of the parliament to correct their course and cultivate fear of Allah (swt) in their work and to be mindful of their Muslim identity even though they may have elected to the parliament through un-Islamic means. They were still obliged to stand by Islam and propagate the call for Khilafah. It remains their duty to confront the secular democracies and join forces with those who are working to abolish man-made systems and replace them with an Islamic State. It is only this system of Khilafah that will solve the problems of this Ummah in a fair and equitable manner as mandated by Allah (swt).

In conclusion, this seminar pointed to the voice of the overwhelming majority focus of this Ummah in support of Islam and its ruling system of the Khilafah on the method of the Prophethood, Allah willing, this will certainly be a reality and that will be the day when the believers will rejoice in the victory blessed on them by Allah (swt).

Thursday, January 03, 2008

America campaigns for democracy so as to eradicate Islam

بِسْمِ الله الرَّحمَنِ الرَحيم

هَذَا بَلاَغٌ لِلنَّاسِ وَلِيُنذَرُوا بِهِ
“This is a Message for humankind, so that they take heed of its warning.” [Surah Ibrahim 14:52]

Even whilst the Muslims of Pakistan faced the violent upheaval that came after the assassination of Benazir Bhutto, with many deaths, much destruction of private property and shortages in fuel and food, the Americans vigorously campaigned for democracy in Pakistan. On 28 December 2007, US Secretary of State, Dr. Condoleezza Rice said, “But obviously, it’s just very important that the democratic process go forward.” And on the same day, US Assistant Secretary of State, Richard Boucher, said, “We want to see smooth and safe elections go forward.” However, America’s campaign for democracy is not for a truly representative government in Pakistan, rather it is an attempt to prevent the rise of Islam.

The Muslims of Pakistan have faced the oppression of dictatorship for a long time. In this situation, America tries to make the Muslims feel that the only substitute for dictatorship is democracy. In its campaign for democracy, America attempts to appeal to the feelings of the Muslims by linking democracy to elections for a representative government, where the Muslims would choose their rulers. Since Islam rejects the one who usurps the authority and commands that the ruler is elected by choice and consent, America hopes to make democracy appealing to the Muslims by embellishing democracy in their eyes. This is in order to cast a veil over the eyes of the Muslims about the actual essence of democracy, which is legislation by other than the laws of Allah سبحانه وتعالى, and turn their gazes instead to what democracy calls for in terms of representative government.

However, we are confident that America’s campaign for democracy will fail in Pakistan. It is a fact that anything that clashes with the belief of the Muslims can never become entrenched strongly in their hearts and minds, however much effort America may expend in spreading it and however many agents were mobilized to impose it. The fundamental basis of democracy to which America invites is that the sovereignty belongs to people wherein they are free in deciding right and wrong, they are not answerable in front of any other, hence being sovereign they will legislate through their representatives. So, in democracy, it is man who decides what ought to be Halal and what ought to be Haram, rejecting and accepting according to desire that which Allah سبحانه وتعالى has decided, thereby wrongfully raising man to the status that Allah سبحانه وتعالى claims for Himself Alone. But no Muslim can accept that any man or assembly of men should decide what is legaly Halaal and Haraam for others, after Allah سبحانه وتعالى and RasulAllah صلى الله عليه وسلم ordered and forbade. Allah سبحانه وتعالى said,

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلاَ مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُمْ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ
“It is not for a believer man or woman to have any say in the matter after the decision is made by Allah and RasulAllah ” [Surah al-Ahzab 33:36]

And Allah سبحانه وتعالى said,

وَمَا آتَاكُمْ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ
“So take what RasulAllah assigns to you and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you. And fear Allah; for Allah is strict in Punishment.” [Surah Al-Hashr 59:7]

And Allah سبحانه وتعالى has strongly condemned ruling other than Islam, in any taghoot (non-Islamic authority),

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أُمِرُوا أَنْ يَكْفُرُوا بِهِ وَيُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَنْ يُضِلَّهُمْ ضَلاَلاً بَعِيدًا
“Have you not seen those who pretend that they believe in that which has been revealed unto them and that which was revealed before them, how they would go instead for judgement to taghoot (non-Islamic authority) when they have been ordered to disbelieve in it? Shaytan would mislead them far astray.” [Surah An-Nisai 4:60]

And Allah سبحانه وتعالى said,

وَمَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ الظَّالِمُونَ
“Those who do not judge by the law which Allah has revealed, they are the oppressors.” [Surah Al-Maidah 5:45]

The above-mentioned ayahs are explicit in establishing that any system in which sovereignity does not belong to Allah سبحانه وتعالى, or in which the people share in holding sovereignty with Allah سبحانه وتعالى, is a kufr system, whether it is democracy or dictatorship.

Since in democracy sovereignity belongs to man, as in dictatorship, this matter makes this system suitable in the eyes of the colonialist powers, because it opens the door for making laws which protect the interests of the colonialist. The 17th Amendment, through which all the steps taken by the Pakistani government to support the American war on Muslims have been provided legal validity, is a clear, recent example.

Moreover, there is no truth in America’s high claim that it wants representative government in Pakistan. America knows that if Muslims’ opinion was represented then no ruler of Pakistan would have the courage to embolden the Hindu mushrikeen by abandoning the Muslims of Kashmir, or diminish the nuclear program of the world’s only Muslim nuclear power, or eliminate Islamic values from the education syllabus, or allow the savage killing of hundreds of students in Lal Masjid, or order Muslim soldiers to fight Muslims in the tribal areas to secure America’s occupation of Afghanistan, as Musharraf has done for so long in the name of “true democracy.” Indeed, America is always full of praise for Musharraf who is imposed upon the Muslims, without their choice and approval! And America knows that after dictatorship, it is democracy alone that can prevent the real representation of Muslims from reaching the ruling.
And as for the Muslims’ opinion for the establishment of Islam as a state, a survey supported by the US Department of Homeland Security and conducted by the University of Maryland between December 2006 and February 2007, revealed that the majority of Muslims in Pakistan held a goal “to unify all Islamic countries into a single Islamic state or Caliphate (Khilafah).” So, how can America ever tolerate a government that represents the Muslims in their deen, Islam, when it would mean that the Muslims would then emerge as the largest, most powerful state in the world? How, O Muslims, how?

And this is why the Americans in particular, and the West in general, campaign against the rise of Islam with all their might, funding agents and organizations to spread democracy and sponsoring brutal oppression of those who call for Islam. The example of Algeria is not far from our minds. Under the watchful gaze of the West and its agents, the ballot boxes showed that the people wanted Islam. The West and its agents were shocked and agreed unanimously to cancel the elections. And with Western blessings, the Algerian rulers began to brutally suppress the Muslims, rather than honoring the elections.

So rather than allowing representation of the Muslims, America campaigns for democracy to prevent the rise of Islam. This is why they will also never spare any opportunity to accuse the Muslims, without proof, violate and occupy the Islamic Lands, attack the Islamic values and even desecrate the Qur’an in their prisons. Allah سبحانه وتعالى said,

قَدْ بَدَتْ الْبَغْضَاءُ مِنْ أَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَمَا تُخْفِي صُدُورُهُمْ أَكْبَرُ
“Rank hatred comes from their mouths and what their breasts conceal is greater.” [Surah Aali Imran 3:118]

O Muslims of Pakistan!
America aims to hoist democracy, the cause of your ills and woes, over your necks so that you will never taste the blessings of the implementation of the one true deen, Islam. We call upon you to boycott the elections thereby demonstrating your clear, unequivocal rejection of democracy. And we call upon all of you to stand with us, the youth of Hizb ut-Tahrir, in the serious work to remove democracy that has been imposed in the Muslim World, and re-establish the Khilafah in its place.

And know that Allah سبحانه وتعالى has promised that those of you who believe and do righteous deeds will be granted succession in ruling, providing security after a time of fear. Allah سبحانه وتعالى said,

وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُم فِي الأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِينَهُمُ الَّذِي ارْتَضَى لَهُمْ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ أَمْنًا يَعْبُدُونَنِي لاَ يُشْرِكُونَ بِي شَيْئًا
“Allah has promised those amongst you who believe, and do righteous deeds, that He will certainly grant them succession in ruling on the earth, as He granted it to those before them, and that He will grant them the authority to practice their religion, that which He has chosen for them. And He will surely give them in exchange a safe security after their fear provided they worship Me and do not associate anything in worship with Me." [Surah an-Nur 24: 55]

Hizb ut-Tahrir
Wilayah Pakistan
1 January 2008