Sunday, August 30, 2009

Tooba lil-Ghurubaa' (Blessed are the strangers)

A translation of an article by Abu al-Mu'tassim - Bayt al-maqdis - which appeared in al-Waie magazine number 254 March 2008.

Imam Muslim narrated in his Sahih, on the authority of Sahl bin Sa'd as-Saa'adi (may Allah be pleased with him), that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
«بدأ الإسلام غريباً وسيعود غريباً كما بدا، فطوبى للغرباء»
"Islam began strange and will return strange as it began, so Tooba (blessedness) is for the strangers." It was said: "Who are they Allah's messenger?"

He صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
«الذين يصلحون إذا فسد الناس»
"Those who reform if the people become corrupt."

Islam began a stranger with the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and his companions who believed in him and followed him. It was strange to their way of thinking and life, so they were strangers in the view of the society, with its deriding and scorning of them. They were strangers among their families and neighbours. They were strangers to the help of the society, who would use against them all shades of persecution, yet rarely would anyone defend them. They spent long years in the mountains while no one would marry them and no one would sell to them nor buy from them, until they ate from the leaves of trees.

Islam began a stranger with these shining lights, shining in their spirit, their mentality and their rising above what the people brought of corruption on the earth. Islam began a stranger with these masters who knew nothing of worship except for their Lord, the All-Mighty. It began with these great ones, and ended with the help of Allah most high, after an arduous journey, until the whole world was lit with their brightness, with all shades of oppression and misguidance blotted out from the minds of people.

The patience of these great pioneers ended in a state that ruled with Allah's book and the way of His Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, filling the world with justice, uprightness and guidance, after it had been filled with darkness and oppression.

Islam began with those pure pioneers, and it shall return again! It began with the companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with all of them), the best generation until the last day, and today it has returned with the beloved of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم; those who do not deviate from the truth, having deep rooted Iman in their hearts and conviction filling their minds and their thoughts.

From these new shining lights is a great brightness sending its light in a land where the low people have gained domination. A land where the disbelievers have transgressed and caused the people to frown upon the carriers of da'awah. Here the shining lights are strangers, finding none to help them, as the oppressive followers of Karimov hover over them.So how do these heroes meet their bitter reality? Did they turn back on their idea and their method of work? Did they become hypocritical or find inclination in their hearts for the oppressors?

These great heroes (the true men, the true men) met the evil campaign with elevated spirits and with patient bodies, despite the severity or brutality of the hardship.

They made Wudu with freezing water, in spite of the harshness of the cold winter. They prayed Jumm'ah prayer, in spite of the torture inflicted upon those who do that. They mentioned the da'awah matters in their cells, in spite of the surveillance of the criminals over them, and in spite of the threats of death or torture given to them.

They rejected signing even a small paper that the prison officers wrote, declaring disapproval of the da'awah or innocence from it, which would thus give them freedom to leave and live a comfortable life. They rejected that despite the fact that most of them have spent twelve years or more of their sentences in the worst conditions on the face of the earth.

As for the martyrs among them, who have reached at least two hundred, who died under torture; some we know their names, some we don't. For those martyrs there were no great tombs built, nor grand funeral processions of thousands, for most of them were buried in the darkness of night, just as they were killed in the darkness of their cells, and just as the news of how they were killed was shrouded in darkness. As for those who did attend their funerals, they were only a few from the closest of relatives without any words said.

They were strangers, even in the way they died, the way they were carried in their funerals, and how they were lowered to their graves.

Truly, they are strangers among the people, but they are stars and shining lights among those who know their Iman and sacrifice among those who know the prison, subjugation and restriction, the severity of the torture which leads to martyrdom among those who know the truth and travel on its straight path without deviation.

They are the pure chosen ones (martyrs) with their Lord, the Creator of the heavens and earth. The pure angels will attend their funeral in heaven, if Allah wills, if the pure people did not attend their funeral on the earth; moving with them, praising Allah, raising voices that none can hear except the Lord of the heavens and earth. Then they line up in rows that no man or jinn has lined up in before. When this is over, their souls are carried up through the heavens. In each heaven the angels ask "who are these good people? What is that lovely odour filling the heavens?" So the angels reply that they are the strangers! The strangers in the time of corruption among the people. The strangers who raised themselves above the misguidance and deviation. The strangers who reformed then worked to reform the people, so they were captured by the sinful hands that authored the oppression and walked the path of disbelief, hypocrisy and evil.

So they say with voices filling the heavens "Tooba, Tooba (blessedness) for them". They call out then gather with this honourable delegation, accompanying it to the next heaven. Like this the angels from every heaven accompany them until they reach a great place, with no place like it, in the shade of the throne. There their Lord addresses them, "Tibtum (blessed are you), Tibtum, Tooba is for you and how great a place to return to!" He will order the angels of the heaven to make them in the highest ‘Illyeen (highest elevations of paradise), with the prophets, martyrs and truthful righteous ones who came before them.

As for on the earth, remembrance of their good will not stop. Their blood and their pictures will remain a da'awah whose light is sent to more places than they were able to be present at. They are the good ones, the truthful ones, the best and the pious. The people know them by their truthfulness, their sincerity and their uprightness.

Yes, those pure, pious men will remain a da'awah among the people even though they are far far away in a place not in this dunya. Their blood remains an affecting picture in the minds of those after them from their brothers inside and outside of the prisons. It is as if their blood came back to life to say:

مِنْ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ رِجَالٌ صَدَقُوا مَا عَاهَدُوا اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ قَضَى نَحْبَهُ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَنْتَظِرُ وَمَا بَدَّلُوا تَبْدِيلاً

"Among the believers are men true to what they promised Allah. Among them is he who has fulfilled his vow and among them is he who awaits. And they did not alter by any alteration" [al-Ahzaab: 23]

O you stars, you are a true guide for this pure true da'awah. You are a model and strength, even though you may be in your prison. Your brothers look to you with a look of glad tidings, because the victory comes with patience and truly hardship comes with ease, truly hardship comes with ease!

You are the best followers for the best predecessors who came before you from the companions of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, and from the pious who carried the da'awah after them, especially its leaders. You are the best followers of Sheikh Taqi an-Nabhani who preferred patience under torture even if it leads to his death, rather than utter one word which would harm the da'awah or a carrier of da'awah. He stayed like that until his hand was paralyzed from the severity of the torture and did not say more than "I'm and old man, remedying with a treatment", meaning by that the remedy for the ummah.

You are the best followers for Shaikh Taqi who lived a stranger and died a stranger. The people did not mention him until after he had died, even though he was the reviver of this age, whom Allah sends every hundred years. You are the best followers for his follower and student Shaikh Abdul Qadeem (Abu Yousuf) who travelled the same path, and who was not dissuaded by imprisonment, despite its severity, brutality and its length. He lived a stranger and died a stranger, such that his helpers and followers did not even know him.

You are the best companion for he who came after him and carries the banner before he meets his companions who came before him. Abu Yaseen lived a stranger, a fugitive in more than one country. He stayed in oppressive prisons years after years. He lost his wife while he was away from her, not knowing except where she is buried. He remains a star despite all of the attempts of the oppressors of more than one country to divert him from his path.

You, O strangers, O grandsons of al-Bukhari, of at-Tirmidhi, of an-Naysaboori and as-Sajastani, O lights of guidance, you are the strangers who first reformed yourselves, then will reform the face of the earth, with Allah's permission, just as your predecessors from the companions of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم did. You will reform the face of the earth with your brothers all over the world waiting for Allah's help, support and His opening.

A day will come, with Allah most high's permission, that you will come out from this darkness and you are the victors, raising the head high under the banner of the Qur'an, in the shade of the Islamic State which raises in all corners of the earth the flag of ‘La ilaha illa Allah Muhammadu Rasool Allah'.

Finally I say "I ask Allah the Most High to extend help and support to you and make for you a way out and make your matter easier."

Allah says:

وَمَنْ يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يَجْعَلْ لَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ يُسْراً
"And whoever fears Allah He will make for him of his matter ease" [at-Talaaq:4] and

وَمَنْ يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يَجْعَلْ لَهُ مَخْرَجاً
"And whoever fears Allah He will make for him a way out" [at-Talaaq:2].

Our final prayer is al-Hamdu lillah Rabbil ‘aalameen.

Thursday, August 27, 2009

Clarifying misunderstandings of Taqdeer

The following is the transcript of a circle given in the middle of the month of Shaban 143o Hijri.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ فَإِنْ تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآَخِرِ

“O you who believe, Obey Allah, Obey His Messenger and those in authority from amongst you and if you differ then refer it to Allah and His Messenger if you believe in Allah and the Last Day.” [An-Nisa: 59]

We have recently passed the 15th of Sha’ban, and the night which people call ‘Shabe barat’ or ‘Laylatul barat’ it is also known as Laylat al-Nusf min Sha’baan, in the Indian sub continent we see people engaging in all types of practices on this day, where some consider that it is like Eid, others go to graveyards saying the souls visit the world. People give out sweets, people spend the night in prayer, etc.

In Arabic Bara’a means forgiveness and pardon. The night of 15th of Sha’ban (the night between 14th and 15th) has come to be known as Shab-e-Bara’at, the night of pardon from sins, probably because of a narration recorded by Imam Tirmizi.

I want to begin by clarifying the issue and then discussing other points related to the issue of the confusions people have surrounding the topic of Taqdeer.

Before discussing this topic we need to be reminded that we base our actions upon evidences from the Quran and that which is authentic from the Sunnah. We do not base our actions on custom, tradition, the actions of people even scholars.

There is nothing about this night in Qur’an. Imam Tirmizi has recorded the following Hadith: “Narrated Ayesha that one night (she awoke and) she did not find Prophet (Pbuh) (in his bed). She went out (to search for him) and found him in Baqi’ (the graveyard in Madinah)... The Prophet (Pbuh) said: In the night of 15th of Sha’ban, Allah descends to the lowest of skies and grants pardon to the people more than the number of hair of the goats of Kal’b tribe.” (Tirmizi)

After recording the above Hadith Imam Tirmizi wrote the following note underneath: “I have heard Imam Bukhari saying that this Hadith is Za’eef as Hajjaj. One of the chain of its narrators is a’eef (less reliable). (Tirmizi; Abwab-us-Saum)

There are also various other narrations which people quote regarding this night but they are not authentic.

Al-‘Allaamah al-Shawkaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Fawaa’id al-Majmoo’ah:

“The hadeeth: ‘O ‘Ali, whoever prays one hundred rak’ahs on Laylat al-Nusf min Sha’baan, reciting in each rak’ah the Opening of the Book [Soorat al-Faatihah] and Qul Huwa Allaahu Ahad ten times, Allaah will meet all his needs…’ This is mawdoo’ (fabricated) [i.e., it is falsely attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him]. Its wording clearly states the reward that the person who does this will attain, and no man who has any common sense can doubt that this is fabricated. Also, the men of its isnaad are majhool (unknown). It was also narrated via another isnaad, all of which is mawdoo’ (fabricated) and all of whose narrators are majhool (unknown).

In al-Mukhtasar he said: The hadeeth about the salaah for the middle of Sha’baan is false, and the hadeeth of ‘Ali narrated by Ibn Hibbaan – “ When it is the night of the middle of Sha’baan, spend that night in prayer and fast that day” – is da’eef (weak).

Al-Haafiz al-‘Iraaqi said: “The hadeeth about the prayer during the night of the middle of Sha’baan is fabricated and is falsely attributed to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).”

Imaam al-Nawawi said in his book al-Majmoo’: “The prayer that is known as salaat al-raghaa’ib, which is twelve rak’ahs between Maghrib and ‘Ishaa’ on the night of the first Friday in Rajab, and the prayer of Laylat al-Nusf min Sha’baan, of one hundred rak’ahs – these two prayers are reprehensible bid’ahs. No one should be deceived by the fact that they are mentioned in the books Qoot al-Quloob and Ihyaa’ ‘Uloom al-Deen, or by the hadeeth which is mentioned in these two books. All of that is false. Nor should they be deceived by the fact that some of the imaams were confused about this matter and wrote a few pages stating that these prayers are mustahabb, for they were mistaken in that.”

It is recommended to fast in Sha’ban in general

'Aa'ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: "The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to fast until we thought he would never break his fast, and not fast until we thought he would never fast. I never saw the Messenger of Allaah fasting for an entire month except in Ramadaan, and I never saw him fast more than he did in Sha'baan." (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, no. 1833; Muslim, no. 1956).

Emotional belief and the wrong attitude

What we see today is a sign of the intellectual decline, where people follow Islam emotionally rather than believing in it intellectually and following its rules. We see so much hypocritical behavior such as people spending the whole night in prayer thinking that Allah will forgive them and the next day go back to committing haram such as riba, socializing with the opposite sex, tribalism, women not covering their awra, etc.

In fact if we have the correct understanding based on the authentic evidences we would realize that Allah accepts the prayers every night:

Allah’s Apostle said, “When it is the last third of the night, our Lord, the Blessed, the Superior, descends every night to the heaven of the world and says, ‘Is there anyone who invokes Me (demand anything from Me), that I may respond to his invocation; Is there anyone who asks Me for something that I may give (it to) him; Is there anyone who asks My forgiveness that I may forgive him?’ (Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 75, Number 333)

Misconceptions regarding Taqdeer

MISCONCEPTION: This is the blessed night on which the taqdeer is decided. Who will live…who will die. Who will get how much rizq…

The issue of qadar that the text refers to the knowledge of Allah. The mention in the text about Al-Lauh al-Mahfooz, the protected decree is an expression of the knowledge of Allah

There are various texts in the Quran and the Sunnah about this:

وَمَا كَانَ لِنَفْسٍ أَنْ تَمُوتَ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ الله كِتَاباً مُّؤَجَّلاً
"Nor shall a soul die except by Allah's leave, the term being fixed by writing." [Aali-Imran: 145]

The Prophet (saw) said: "The first thing which Allah created was the pen. Then, He said to it: Write. It asked: My Lord, what should I write? He said: Write the Qadar of all things up until the Hour." [Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi, and it is hassan]

It is narrated from Amru bin Al-‘Aas, he said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) say: “Allah decreed the destinies ‘maqadeer’ of the creatures fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.” [Muslim]

Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet said, "Allah has appointed an angel in the womb, and the angel says, 'O Lord! A drop of discharge (i.e. of semen), O Lord! a clot, O Lord! a piece of flesh.' And then, if Allah wishes to complete the child's creation, the angel will say. 'O Lord! A male or a female? O Lord! wretched or blessed (in religion)? What will his livelihood be? What will his age be?' The angel writes all this while the child is in the womb of its mother." [Bukhari]

Therefore it is false to say it occurs on this night, as the knowledge of Allah regarding this world and what will occur in it was written before we existed.

The confusing of people between al-qadar (the knowledge of Allah) and al-Qada wal qadar (fate and destiny) & free will

People confuse between the knowledge of Allah and the subject of al-Qada wal Qadar which was a debate that came about after the time of the Sahaba when the Muslims encountered the Greek philosophy. Essentially that topic is to do with free will, do we have free will or not? What do we control and what we don’t control?

If one was to come to an accurate understanding of the subject of al-Qadaa wal Qadar he must first have an understanding of the correct basis upon which the argument is built. This basis should not be whether the actions of man are created by himself or by Allah (swt). It is also not the knowledge of Allah (swt) (‘ilmullah علم الله), in terms of the fact that He (swt) knows that man will perform such an action and that His (swt) knowledge encompasses it. Nor is it the decree of Allah (swt) (iraadatullah إرادة الله) in terms that His (swt) decree was related to the servant's action, i.e., that the action must happen because of this will. It also shouldn't be that the servant's action is recorded in the Al Lauh Al Mahfooth (اللوح المحفوظ - Protected Decree or Register), so as a result he is inevitably going to carry out this action in accordance with what is recorded.

The fact that Allah knows everything it is to do with his attributes and that he is unlimited, it is a clear part of Iman. We cannot build any logical argument on that basis – that because he knows what we will do that we have no free will, this is completely false. As he knows everything and he has clearly given us free will and he knows what we will do with our free will as he is unlimited, beyond perception. In fact the Prophet (saw) warned us not to discuss the essence of Allah as it is beyond our reality as the Quran says ‘Laysa kamislihi shay’ ‘There is nothing like unto him’. The Prophet also specifically warned not to enter into discussing the unlimited knowledge of Allah and try to debate about it

Al-Tabarani extracted with a good [hasan] chain from the hadīth of Ibn Mas'ūd who reported it without mentioning the reference to the Messenger of Allah (saw) [marfū']:

إذا ذُكِرَ القَدَرُ فأمْسِكُوا

“If the qadar is mentioned leave it”, [Tabarani]

That is, if the Knowledge of Allah or His Determination for things are mentioned then do not involve (in discussion) about it, because the fact that the determination of thing is from Allah means that He Recorded them in the Lawh al-Mahfūdh, that is, He knew them. The fact that Allah is knowing about them is one of the attributes of Allah in which īmān is obligatory. So the meaning of the hadīth is that if it was mentioned that Allah is the One who Determined the things and He knew them, that is, He recorded them in the Lawh al-Mahfūdh, then do not involve yourself in discussing that, rather abstain from that and submit to it.

Allah is unlimited and he has all knowledge, this does not mean we become fatalistic and submit to what may be included in that knowledge, if we did this we would be sinful as we have free will and will be accounted upon our actions.

The subjects of the knowledge of Allah and the inclusion in Al Lauh Al Mahfooth of everything are detached from the subject of reward and punishment for the action. This is what needs to be our focus. In other words, is man compelled to perform an action, good or bad, or does he have a choice? And does man have the choice to perform an action or abandon it? Or does he not have the choice?

Any individual who studies the actions of man accurately will observe that man lives within two spheres: one of them he dominates, which is the sphere that falls within the domain of his free will and within it, his actions, which he carries out by his own free will, occur. The other sphere dominates him and it is the sphere within whose domain he lives and within it the actions, which he has no free will in, occur; whether they occur from him or not.

We can see the correct understanding in the Sahabah

The phrase ‘the qadar of Allah’ has come in the speech of the Sahabah with the meaning of the taqdīr of Allah and His Knowledge. It is narrated from Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas that, “Umar ibn al-Khattāb left for al-Sham, until he reached Sawgh where he met the leaders of the armies, Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah and his companions who informed him that plague had befallen the land of al-Sham. Ibn ‘Abbas said, Umar ibn al-Khattāb said, ‘Call for me the first Muhājirīn’. So they called them, he consulted them and informed them about the plague that that befallen al-Sham, but they differed. Some of them said, you went out for a matter and we do not think you should change your mind about it. Some others said that you have with you some people and the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and we do not think that you should expose them to this plague. Umar said ‘Withdraw from me’. He then said, ‘Call for me the Ansār’, so they called them, he consulted them, and they took the path of the Muhājirīn, so they differed like them. He said: ‘Withdraw from me.’ Then he said, ’Call for me whoever present here of the leaders of Quraish who are of the Muhajireen of the Conquest’, so they called them and even two men of them did not differ in their opinion to him. They all said, ‘We think that you should turn back together with the people who are with you and not expose them to this plague.’ Thus Umar announced to the people, ‘I will be riding (back) in the morning, so you do the same’. Abu Ubaydah then said, ‘(Are you) fleeing from the qadar of Allah?’ Umar replied, ‘had someone else said that O Abu Ubaydah; Yes, we are fleeing from the qadar of Allah to the qadar of Allah. What do you think if you had camels and you descended a valley that has two slopes (sides), one of them is fertile and the other barren. Is it not true that if you grazed (in) the fertile one you would do so with the qadar of Allah, and if you grazed (in) the barren one you would so that with the qadar of Allah.” The qadar of Allah here means the determination and the knowledge of Allah, that is, if you grazed (in) the fertile you did what Allah had decreed in the Lawh al-Mahfūdh and what He did know. Similarly if you grazed in the barren one you did what Allah decreed in the Lawh al-Mahfūdh and what He did know.

They had the correct understanding that there are some things we control which we are accountable and the things beyond our control are from Allah, so we should worry about that.

As narration by As-Suyuti in Tarikh al-Khulafah that a man came to Ali (ra) asking him about what we control and what we don’t. He asked him to lift one of his legs up and then the second leg – then said there are some things we control and others we don’t.

Narrated from ‘Imran bin Hussein, he said: “A man said; O Messenger of Allah! Are the people of the jannah and the people of the nar known? He said: Yes. He said: Why then the people have to strive? He said: Every one will strive for what he was created (jannah or nar), or for what he was facilitated.” [Al-Bukhari]

This is quite explicit that iman in al-qadar does not mean depending (on it), because al-qadar and recording, i.e. the knowledge of Allah, are not disclosed to any creature; so on what man has to depend? Therefore, the Messenger said to the one who asked him, should not we depend? He said: No, i.e. He forbade him from depending. He was not satisfied with that, he rather said to him as well: ‘strive’, i.e. he ordered him to strive. Thus his forbiddance from depending (on al-qadar) and his order of striving is explicit evidence on not linking the action with al-qadar.

Moreover, the knowledge of Allah that the particular matter would happen does not mean to neglect considering the causes and effects (la-asbab wal-musabbabat) and not to link the causes with their effects. This is because the knowledge of Allah was not revealed to any body so as to know the matter and thus he does not consider its causes; for recording and al-qadra are impossible to be known by the creatures so as to judge on whether the matter would happen or not. Therefore, they should not neglect considering the cause and effects under the pretence of al-qadar and the recording, for this is linked with unknown matter. They must rather consider the causes and the effects without linking them with al-qadar, i.e. without thinking of it.

The danger of al-Qadariya al-Ghaibiya (fatalism)

Muslims used to believe in the Qadr and keeping it in the realm of belief (Iman). But now, Muslims started noticing this Iman in the Qadr, before performing any action and they started to carry various actions shaped by this Iman in the Qadr. Thus, they surrounded themselves by what is predetermined. Muslims started to think that whatever Allah predetermined is going to happen, regardless if they became active or passive in carrying out an action. They started believing like this, despite the fact that they know for sure that, it is impossible for anyone to have access to Allah's knowledge. In other words, the Muslims do believe that it is impossible for anyone to know what Allah's knowledge is.

Muslims know all of this, yet they still link their actions with this knowledge of Allah. Thus, al-Qadaria al-Ghaibiya (fatalism) emerged. It became something different than believing in al-Qadr. This is because, believing in the Qadr is to believe conclusively that nothing will happen in this universe, other than what Allah has predetermined everything and wrote in al-Lowh al-Mahfooth. However, al-Qadariya al-Ghaibiya means to surrender to what is predetermined. There is a difference between believing in the Qadr and surrendering to the predetermined. Surrendering to this predetermined is simply the result of believing in the Qadr with the absolute surrender; which is that what is predetermined is going to happen and nothing will happen if Allah did not predetermined it.

e.g. The situation of the Ummah today, we can’t do anything to change it as Allah will bring the change
e.g. We cannot stand against the corrupt rulers as Allah has given them power over us
e.g. Accepting the occupation of Islamic lands and butchering of Muslims

We do believe that Allah knows or predetermined everything. This, however, should not be observed in our actions. We do not have access to Allah's knowledge. No one knows that there is going to be a failure or success. No one knows whether there is going to be obedience or disobedience. We do not have access to Allah's knowledge and consequently Allah's knowledge should not be observed and linked to our actions, because we do not know it and it is impossible for us to know. Thus, we do not surrender to it. Rather, we should put a thick barrier separating it (Allah's knowledge) from our minds. It should not be thought about, imagined or speculated before carrying any action. But, we should restrict ourselves to the issue, the hukm Sharii, causes of success, the factors of failure and keep this alone in mind.

Even in those matters beyond our control which are from Allah such as Victory (nasr), Rizk (livelihood), Ajal (lifespan), etc – The Prophet (saw) and the Sahaba were not fatalistic.

The Prophet was promised victory, yet he still followed the commands of Allah and tirelessly worked to change the society and establish the Islamic state and after that to prepare the armies for Jihad. He fought in numerous battles like Badr and Uhud.

There is a difference between the matters of Iman and the matters of Shariah. Regarding actions we have to refer to the Shariah, although Iman is permanent.

Anas bin Malik, who said: “A man said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, should I tie it and make tawakkul, or let it go free and make tawakkul?’ He (saw) said: “Tie it and make tawakkul.’” [At-Tirmizi]

The Prophet showed us to look after the means to achieve the results and have tawakal in Allah.

The Sahaba worked to achieve their rizk and did not wait for Allah to send it from the sky. In fact they were strictly against that, it was narrated that Umar bin Al-Khattab (ra) passed by some people, who were known as readers of the Qur’an. He saw them sitting and bending their heads, and asked who they were. He was told: "They are those who depend (al-mutawwakiloon) upon Allah (swt)." Umar replied: "No, they are the eaters who eat the people’s properties. Do you want me to describe those who really depend upon Allah (al-mutawwakiloon) are?" He was answered in the affirmative, and then he said: "He is the person who throws the seeds in the earth and depends on His Lord The Almighty, The Exalted (‘azza wa jall)."

Therefore we need to work to fulfill all the commands and prohibitions of Allah, at the same time believing the absolute knowledge of Allah and having tawakkal in Him.

Tuesday, August 25, 2009

Urdu book: The main rules of fasting

The following is an abridged translation and explanation of the Arabic book 'Al-Jami al akham as-siyam' (Collection of the rules of fasting) by the Mujtahid, Sheikh Abu Iyas Mahmoud bin Abdul Latif al-Uweida (May Allah protect him). The translation and commentary is by brother Muhammad Ali. :

Sheikh Abu Iyas is a respected scholar from Jordan, he has authored various books including:

- Selected fiqhi issues: The book contains 321 issues in the form of questions and answers related to Salah (prayer), fasting, Zakah, Hajj, Umrah, economics, ruling, social relations and Jihad. The Sheikh has selected from the questions which he responded to between 1993 and 2007. The book can be downloaded from: مسائل فقهية مختارة
- 'Al-Jami’ Ahkam as-Salah' (Collection of the rules of prayer): a very detailed book in Arabic upon the rules of Salah entitled which is over 500 pages long.
- Hamlad da'watul Islam wajibat wa sifat' (The way to carry the da’wah, its obligations and characteristics).

The respected Sheikh has spent long years in the da’wah, he is an activist in the work for Khilafah and a member of Hizb ut-Tahrir. The Sheikh has spent time in prison in Jordan for his da'wah activities.

Monday, August 24, 2009

Views on the News - 12 August 2009

Swedish paper tells of Palestinians killed to harvest organs

Leading Swedish daily Aftonbladet claimed in one of its articles that Israeli soldiers killed Palestinians in order to trade in their organs. The report mentioned Brooklyn resident Levy Izhak Rosenbaum, who is accused of involvement in the recent human organ-trafficking case that caused a storm in the US and Israel . The report said Palestinians claim youngsters were forced to give up theirs before being executed. This suspicion, the report said, may lead to an international war crimes investigation against Jewish state. Aftonbladet also said Palestinian youths who were snatched from their villages in the middle of the night were buried after being dismembered. The reporter, Donald Boström, said he was informed of the alleged atrocities by UN employees while he was working on a book in the West Bank . According to Bostrom, a Palestinian from Nablus who for a number of years headed stone-throwing attacks against IDF soldiers was shot to death in May because he interfered with the activity of the "Israeli conquering forces." ftonbladet published a photo of the body, which had a scar running from the face down to the stomach. In his article Bostrom quoted a number of Palestinians as saying that their children were killed by IDF soldiers for their organs.

China begins to move away from the US dollar

This week the BBC reported that China reduced its holdings of US government debt by the largest margin in nearly nine years in June, according to data from the US Treasury. China holds more US government debt than any other country and cut its holdings of US securities by more that 3% in June, said the BBC's Chris Hogg. Japan and the UK - second and third largest holders of US debt - increased their holdings over the same period. China 's holding of US debt is about 7% higher than at the turn of the year. In recent months the US government's budget deficit has widened thanks in part to the Obama administration's costly stimulus plan. China is worried about this, and fears the stimulus efforts will fuel inflation in the US , reducing the value of the dollar. This would then erode the value of the debt China holds in the US currency. In June, China cut its holdings of US securities by about $25bn, a fall of 3.1%. The sales were made as the US treasury secretary was visiting Beijing to try to reassure the Chinese that their investment in his country's government debt is safe. In 2008, the Chinese increased their holdings in US debt by 52% over 12 months.

America to rewrite Iraq security pact

This week the U.S. military commander said that he had proposed setting up security teams formed of Iraqi, Kurdish and U.S. forces to protect volatile areas disputed by Kurds and Arabs from insurgent attacks. The idea, which might require a modification of a U.S.-Iraqi security pact to allow U.S. troops to return to towns and villages, had met with a positive response from the Baghdad government and the semi-autonomous Kurdish Regional Government in the north, Gen. Ray Odierno said. The tripartite arrangement, if approved, would be "a little bit" like a U.S. peacekeeping mission between the rival forces as they face off in a potentially explosive dispute over land, power and oil, Odierno said. "It won't be for long. If we do it it'll be just to build confidence in the (Iraqi and Kurdish) forces, till they are comfortable working together."
The Iraqi government may have to grant U.S. troops an exemption from the bilateral security agreement under which U.S. troops retreated to rural bases at the end of June and which sets an end-2011 deadline for a full U.S. withdrawal, he said. Odierno said he had discussed his proposal with Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki and Kurdish regional president Masoud Barzani and both had asked him to have a look at the idea. A committee would start discussing the proposal next month. "I have been encouraged. I didn't sense any initial resistance to having joint trilateral checkpoints, Iraqi army, KRG and U.S. soldiers in oversight," he said.

Obama paints a bleak picture about America ’s crusade in Afghanistan

Obama told the Veterans of Foreign Wars on Monday that the United States didn't choose to fight in Afghanistan , but was forced to invade that country to stop future Sept. 11-type attacks at home. Obama says his new strategy recognizes that al-Qaida has moved its bases into remote areas of Pakistan and that military power alone will not win that war.
Obama says it's important to note that the insurgency in Afghanistan didn't happen overnight and would not be defeated overnight. Obama warned Americans that the battle there will be neither quick nor easy.

Pakistan: America begins to co-opt naïve Islamists

This week Reuters reported that U.S. President Barack Obama has started reaching out to some of Pakistan 's most fervent Islamist and anti-American parties, including one that helped give rise to the Taliban, trying to improve Washington 's image in the nuclear-armed state. Obama's special envoy, Richard Holbrooke, is initiating dialogue between the United States and religious parties previous administrations had largely shunned, both sides said. "The purpose is to broaden the base of American relations in Pakistan beyond the relatively narrow circle of leaders Washington has previously dealt with," explained Vali Nasr, senior adviser to Holbrooke. At one of this week's sessions, Holbrooke invited Jamaat-e-Islami, whom some U.S. officials compare to the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt . Holbrooke rejected the party's complaints about a Western "assault" on Islam, saying "that could not be further from the truth" with Obama, who has roots in the religion, now in the White House. Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari praised Holbrooke's meetings with Islamist parties as "a new era" aimed at promoting reconciliation and dialogue instead of "the violent mindset"."We need to help Obama. He's a breath of fresh air to the world," Zardari told reporters travelling with Holbrooke.

Russia buttresses its presence in Abkhazia

Russia 's Prime Minister Vladimir Putin visited the separatist Georgian region of Abkhazia on Wednesday, promising to provide nearly millions of dollars in military aid and shrugging off Georgian protests. Putin's visit came on the anniversary of the cease-fire in last year's war with Georgia , during which Russian troops and separatist forces ousted Georgian forces from the territory of Abkhazia and another breakaway Georgian province, South Ossetia . The Georgian Foreign Ministry strongly protested Putin's trip as "yet another attempt to destabilize the situation and escalate the tension in the Caucasus region.” However Putin accused Washington of forcing its allies to toe its line against Russia after the war. "There are many who support us in the West," Putin said. "They all feel a certain pressure from the most powerful NATO member _ the United States . After the end of the Cold War, some people in the United States got an illusion they don't have to follow any rules and do what they want." He added on a less defiant note that now "all have come to realize that ... no country in the world can play the role of a global policeman." "Russia is providing and will provide economic, political and, if necessary, military assistance to Abkhazia," he said, adding that Russia will spend 15 billion to 16 billion rubles ($465 million to $495 million) next year for Abkhazian military bases and border-control projects.


Sunday, August 16, 2009

Audio: Islam - a threat or interest to the USA?

Audio talk by Sheikh Abu Talha:

Imaan & Action

Based on the request of one of our readers for an article explaining this issue, the following is an extract from the book 'The Ark of Salvation' by Abdul-Kareem Hassan and Murad el-Adnany:

Disagreement among the scholars of Islam has centred on whether action is part of Imaan or something based on Imaan. Some of the scholars of Islam have held the view that belief is simply an inward adherence (`aqd bi'l-qalb) and verbal confession (shahadah bi'l-lisan). Other scholars, such as Abu Talib al-Makki in Qut-al-Qulub , have maintained that action is a part of belief and Imaan is incomplete without works according to the pillars of Islam.

Imam al Ghazzali in "The Foundations of the Articles of Faith" says there is no disagreement at all that anyone who combines in himself all three, i.e., inward adherence, verbal confession and works according to the pillars of Islam, will have his final abode in Paradise. Disagreement has occurred as to whether inward adherence and verbal confession is sufficient to bring men forth from Hell and prevent them from remaining there forever, in accordance with the hadith: "Whoever hath in his heart the weight of an atom of belief will be brought forth from Hell-Fire."[al-Bukhari, al-Tirmidhi]

The Khawarij:

Those that say action is a part of Imaan contend that the person who does not perform the action, like prayer, is a disbeliever. For this reason the Khawarij sect considered a person who did not perform an obligatory duty (wajib) or who performed a forbidden action (haram) as a disbeliever. In arriving at this opinion they made ta`wil (allegorical type of interpretation) of the verse of Quran "He who kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein forever" [al Nisa` 4:93] and the authentic tradition of the Prophet: "A fornicator is not a believer when he does it, a drinker is not a believer when he drinks." [Muslim]. These evidences appear to support the view that committing a sin makes one a disbeliever. This opinion has been rejected by the scholars of Ahlal Sunnah. The verse quoted was revealed, according to Imam al-Ghazzali, for the particular situation of a person killing a believer because of his belief. As for the tradition, Ibn al Qayim al-Jawziya quotes Imam Ahmad as saying the subject of the tradition is that the person in committing the sinful act is no longer a believer, but he is still a Muslim. It does not mean a disbelief that takes a person out of the community of muslims. It is not like believing in part of the revelation and disbelieving in another part of it; this is real disbelief, about which there is no doubt in anyone's mind.

The Mutazilah:

The Mutazilah school of thought said that the person who commits a major sin (kaba'ir), but performs some works according to the pillars of Islam, departs from true belief but does not become an unbeliever. He becomes a fasiq (reprobate), neither a believer nor an unbeliever, and will reside in Hell forever. The Mutazilahs opinion has been rejected by the scholars of Ahlal Sunnah on the grounds that they failed to understand the real meaning of the verses of Allah, such as "Surely I am indeed forgiving to him who repents, believes and does righteous good deeds, and then remains constant in doing them." [Ta-Ha 20:82]; and "And for such as will rebel against Allah and His Messenger for him is the fire of Hell, he shall dwell therein forever." [al-Jinn 72:23] These verses, and others wherein Allah couples good works with belief, are general statements, which also include specification, as proven by the verse: "Verily! Allah forgives not setting up partners in worship with Him, but He forgives whom he pleases other sins than that." [an-Nisa 4:116]. Thus freedom to forgive men sins, other than shirk (setting up partners with Allah), must be left to Allah. This is proven by the tradition: "Whoever hath in his heart the weight of an atom of belief will be brought forth from Hell fire.", and the verse : "As to those who believe and do righteous deeds, verily! We shall not suffer to be lost the reward of anyone who do a righteous deed." [al-Kahf 18:30] In the context of this verse how would Allah suffer the reward, not only of good deeds, but the belief itself because of one sin?

The Murjiah:

The Murjiah considered the sinner to be full of Imaan, making ta`wil (allegorical type of interpretation) of such verses as: "And whoever believeth in his Lord, need not fear either loss or wrong." [al-Jinn 72:13]; and "And they who believed in Allah and His Messenger are the men of truth, and the witnesses in the presence of the Lord; they shall have their reward and their Light; but as for the disbelievers and those who give the lie to Our signs, these shall be the inmates of Hell." [al-Hadid 57:19] they said that no believer would enter Hell fire, although he might commit every possible sin. Their fundamental doctrine consisted of the suspension ( irja' ) of judgement against believers who committed sin. For the Murjiah the sinner was a sinner because of his major sin, and the believer a believer because of his Imaan . The opinion of the Murjiah has been completely rejected by the scholars of Ahlul Sunnah. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: "Whoever hath in his heart the weight of an atom of belief will be brought from Hell fire." How could anyone be brought forth from Hell fire if he had not first entered therein?

The People of Sunnah (Ahlul Sunnah):

The people of the sunnah and the majority of the muslims consider that action is a fruit of the belief and the person who commits a sin is not a disbeliever unless the sin is in the creed itself, i.e., it contradicts the faith such as the worship of idols, ridiculing the Quran, denying prayer or fasting, or permits adultery or usury etc. The person who does not pray is a sinner, the person who denies the duty of prayer is a disbeliever[1] . In other words, there is a distinction between conviction and action. Imam al Nawawi says in his introduction to Sahih Muslim, "The school of thought of the true believers is that no one from the people of the Qibla becomes a disbeliever through a sin or innovation ( bida ) or through following a desire. Only if he denies what is known by Islam of necessity does he at that time become an apostate and disbeliever, unless that is he is new to Islam."

Sheikh Ali al-Tantawi in his book "The Faith" says: "Scholars of Ahlul Sunnah are unanimous in their opinion that a person who commits a forbidden act without denouncing its prohibition or a person who neglects to do a duty but does not deny that it is a duty and expresses no contempt for it will no doubt be punished in the other world. But he will not be accused of blasphemy nor will he be condemned to the eternal fire of hell."[2]

The Fruit of Belief :

Those that say that action is neither a pillar of Imaan nor a part of it, but rather a fruit of Imaan, they also acknowledge that sometimes action is a part of Imaan; Imam Qurtubi in his explanation of : "Surely the (true) faith with Allah is Islam." [al Imran 3:19] quotes, for example, the Prophet having said, "Faith consists of seventy-odd aspects, the lowest of which is removing an obstacle (off the road), and the highest the profession that `There is no Allah but Allah.' and modesty is an aspect of faith."[Bukhari, Muslim] In this regard Qurtubi also quotes the hadith concerning the Abd al Qays delegation. This delegation came to the Prophet from the Island of Bahrain during the conquest of Makkah. They represented the tribe of Rabi'ah. The Prophet enjoined that they have faith in Allah alone. He then asked them, `Do you know what faith is?' They answered, `Allah and His Messenger knows best.' He said, `It is the witness that there is no Allah but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, observing the regular worship, giving the obligatory alms, and observing the fast of Ramadan. It is also that you give in alms the fifth of the booty."

Imam al-Ghazzali says: "It is not unlikely that good works be considered a part of belief, because they perfect and complete it, just as it is said that the head and hands are part of man. it is evident that a person will cease to be human if his head no longer exists; but he will not cease to be a human being if one of his hands is lost through amputation. Similarly both the magnificent ( takbir ) and the praise (tasbih ) [at the beginning of prayer] are considered a part of prayer, although it is not annulled with their omission. Therefore acceptance with the mind stands in relation to belief as does the head in relation to the existence of man [in this life], since the one depends for its existence upon the other and ceases to exist when the other no longer is. The remaining good works are like the limbs of the body, some are more important than the others. The Messenger said, `A believer is no longer a believer when he commits fornication.' Furthermore the Companions held the same opinion as the Mutazilah concerning the fact that a person ceases to be a believer when he commits the sin of fornication. What this really means is that such a person is no longer a real believer possessing a complete and perfect belief, just as the deformed individual whose limbs have been amputated is described as being no longer a human being; in other words he lacks that perfection which is beyond actual humanity."[3]

[1] A Muslim who holds the prayer to be obligatory but through lack of concern neglects to perform it until its proper time is over has not committed unbelief; the Hanafis, Malikis, and Shafiis all hold this to be the case. Imam Nawawi says: "This is what the vast majority of early and later scholars have held. [al-Majmu]. The Hanbali scholars have held two views: the first being that such a person becomes an unbeliever while the second view is that he does not become an unbeliever, and this is what Ibn Qudama, in al-Mughni, has declared to be the soundest opinion. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, said: "Allah has made five prayers obligatory: whoever performs their ablution well and prays them in their time, completing the bowing, the humility, and the awe that is due to them, has entered a solemn pact with Allah to forgive him. And whosoever does not, has no pact with Allah: should He want, He will forgive him, and should He want, He will torment him." [Abu Dawud, Malik]. It is necessarily established that unbelievers will be tormented and enter Hell, yet the hadith indicates that Allah may chose not to punish the person who does not pray, a clear indication that someone who neglects to pray is not a disbeliever. The Muslims from the earliest times have considered the person who misses the prayer to be entitled to inherit by way of estate division and be inherited from, and washed and prayed over on death; this would not be the case for an unbeliever. [Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, The Reliance of the Traveller, pp.881-884].
[2] Tantawi, The Faith, p.69.
[3] al Ghazzali, Ihya Ulum al-Din, The Foundations of the Articles of Faith, Translated by Nabih Amin Faris, pp115-116.

Friday, August 14, 2009

Views on the News - 12 August 2009

20% of the European Union will be Muslim by 2050

Twenty percent of the European Union will be Muslim by 2050, according to forecasts cited in a Telegraph report this week. The current figure, according to the article, sits at five percent, and will be pushed up due to immigration, and low birth rates among native Europeans. The article noted that the UK , Spain and Holland would hit the 20% mark faster. According to the London-based newspaper, experts have criticized lawmakers' failure to address this "demographic time-bomb." They called for a discussion on how these demographic changes would affect "areas of life from education and housing to foreign policy and pensions."

British army wants to enlist Muslims to fight the Taleban

The new head of the Army wants to recruit British Muslims to help fight the Taliban. General Sir David Richards said the UK may be in Afghanistan for 40 years and it needs more ethnic troops to boost numbers.
He told an MoD journal: "There are some hugely capable people I would love to see in the Army. The Army would be better getting more Muslims in to our ranks. ”An MoD source added: "He is sending Muslim soldiers on a recruiting drive to Bradford, Leeds, Birmingham and London . This is a sensitive but bold attempt to increase boots on the ground in Afghanistan and increase ethnic numbers.”

Chavez tells his military to prepare for war

President Hugo Chavez told his military on Sunday to be prepared for a possible confrontation with Colombia , warning that Bogota 's plans to increase the U.S. military presence at its bases poses a threat to Venezuela . Chavez has issued near daily warnings that Washington could use bases in Colombia to destabilize the region since learning of negotiations to lease seven Colombian military bases to the United States . “The threat against us is growing," Chavez said. "I call on the people and the armed forces, let's go, ready for combat!” Chavez warned Colombia that " Venezuela 's military will respond if there's an attack against Venezuela .” Chavez said he would attend this week's summit of the Union of South American Nations in Quito , Ecuador , to urge his Latin American allies to pressure Colombian President Alvaro Uribe to reconsider a pending agreement to lease military bases to U.S. forces.

Russia attacks Ukraine ’s leadership

This week Dmitry Medvedev, Russia 's president, has said that Moscow will delay sending a new ambassador to Ukraine because of its leadership's "anti-Russian" stance. In a letter released on Tuesday, Medvedev said that he hoped Viktor Yushchenko, his Ukrainian counterpart, would lose presidential elections in January because he is ignoring "the principles of friendship and partnership with Russia ".
"I want to inform you that under the current anti-Russian course of the Ukrainian leadership, I have taken a decision to postpone sending a new ambassador to Kiev ," he said in the letter. "Russia hopes a new political leadership in Ukraine will be ready to create relations between our people that respond to the real hopes of our people." Ties between Russia and Ukraine have soured in recent months following a pricing dispute over gas supplies, which caused large parts of Europe to be left without heating for two weeks in January.Russia has also been angered by Ukraine hopes to join Nato, fearing the military alliance is encroaching on its sphere of influence.

Karzai’s re-election as President is uncertain

This week a US-funded poll has indicated that Hamid Karzai, the incumbent Afghan president, might not gain enough votes in the elections on August 20 to avoid a second run-off. Although the survey of 3,566 Afghans showed Karzai was likely to get 36 per cent of the vote, with his rival Abdullah Abdullah, a former foreign minister, second with 20 per cent, he would not pass the 50 per cent threshold needed to be re-elected. A United Nations report recently has said that security fears in many parts of Afghanistan were hindering preparations for the presidential election to be held on August 20.The report, compiled by the UN mission in Afghanistan and Afghanistan's independent human rights commission (AIHRC), said insecurity had "severely limited freedom of movement and constrained freedom of expression for candidates.” The elections are crucial for Western efforts to legitimize their rule in Afghanistan , where more than 90,000 foreign troops are fighting the Taliban.

US targets Pakistan ’s nuclear arsenal

Pakistan's nuclear facilities have come under attack from the Taliban and other groups and there is a ‘genuine’ risk militants could seize weapons or bomb-making material, an article published in a West Point think tank newsletter said. The Combating Terrorism Center , which is housed at the US Military Academy at West Point , published the article in the July edition of its ‘Sentinel’ newsletter, copies of which were distributed widely on Tuesday. Written by Shaun Gregory, director of the Pakistan Security Research Unit at the University of Bradford in Britain, the article detailed three attacks against Pakistan's nuclear facilities, and warned that sites in the country may be vulnerable to infiltration .‘The risk of the transfer of nuclear weapons, weapons components or nuclear expertise to terrorists in Pakistan is genuine,’ the article said.
Gregory wrote that Pakistani forces guarding the facilities underwent a selection process to keep militant sympathizers out. For added protection, warhead cores are separated from their detonators, and these components are kept in underground sites. Some 8,000 to 10,000 members of the Pakistani army's Strategic Plans Division and other intelligence agencies are involved in providing security and monitoring, he said, citing interviews with Pakistani and French officials. ‘Despite these elaborate safeguards, empirical evidence points to a clear set of weaknesses and vulnerabilities in Pakistan's nuclear safety and security arrangements,’ Gregory wrote. Pakistan is believed to have stockpiled approximately 580-800 kg of highly enriched uranium, sufficient amounts to build 30-50 fission bombs. The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists estimated in 2007 that the Pakistani arsenal comprised about 60 warheads.


Nationalism: The Rotten Roots of Racism

The recent incident in the U.S. involving Henry Louis Gates Jr. highlights the racial and ethnic tensions that still exist in Western societies. Nationalistic and patriotic bonds existed prior to the revelation of Islam. Allah (swt) has established the Islamic Aqeedah as the bond between Muslims. Recent history has seen the re-introduction of nationalism and patriotism into the Muslim Ummah. We must think, feel and act only according to the Quran and Sunnah and not according to family/tribal traditions or customs relating to geographical locations.

In mid July of this year, Henry Louis Gates Jr, a Harvard University professor and documentary film maker returned home from a trip to China to find his front door jammed. He and his driver attempted to gain entrance by forcing the door open. A neighbor passing by called police reporting a possible break-in. The ensuing confrontation resulted in Gates being arrested and charged with disorderly conduct. Prosecutors later dropped all the charges. The incident spurred an exchange of views about race relations and law enforcement throughout the United States. The arrest eventually led to an invitation to Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Sgt. James Crowley (the arresting officer) by President Barack Obama for a "beer" to discuss race relations.

Far from being isolated events, racial tensions have existed in both the US and Europe for quite some time. For example:

L.A. Riots – In 1992, riots broke out in L.A. after white police officers were acquitted of all wrong doings in what was perceived to be a racially motivated beating of Rodney King, an African-American, whom they had stopped for speeding. 53 people died, thousands were injured and damages were estimated at $1 billion.

French Riots – In 2007 two teenagers of a North African descent were riding a motorcycle when they were rammed by a police car and left to die. Due to simmering ethnic tensions between the immigrants and the police, riots erupted and clashes between police and the immigrants ensued. Many were injured and property was damaged.

Unfortunately, xenophobic attitudes are also present in the Muslim world. Too often do we see racial, ethnic and tribal tensions exist between Muslims living in one area versus another. Therefore, it is important for us to understand racism and tribalism - where they originate and how to solve them.

Nationalism: The Root of Racism

Racism is defined as, “a belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement, usually involving the idea that one's own race is superior and has the right to rule others.” Tribalism is defined as, “strong loyalty to one’s own tribe.” Racism and tribalism can exist in a society and between people when nationalism and nationalistic ideas are used by individuals to identify and relate to each other.

Nationalism is a bond between people that is based on family, clan or tribal ties. Nationalism arises among people when the predominant thought they carry is that of achieving domination. It starts from the family, where one member asserts his authority to achieve leadership in the affairs of the family. Once achieved, the individual extends his leadership to the wider family. In this way, the families would also try to achieve leadership in the community they reside in. The next stage is that of tribes competing with each other, all trying to dominate others in order to enjoy the privileges and the prestige that comes with authority.

Prior to the message of Islam, the Arabian Peninsula was split along tribal lines. People living in a tent or a house formed a family, a group of families made a clan and a group of clans formed a tribe. Each tribe had its own set of rules and regulations according to which the people were governed. All activities were confined within this structure and anyone stepping outside these limits was reprimanded. The strong loyalties to the tribe often led to inter-tribal rivalries, often culminated in physical clashes, which led to tribal wars over trivial issues.

Islam Eradicates Nationalism

The tribal structure of Arabian society which existed for centuries was eradicated by the arrival of Islam. Islam invited people to believe in Allah (swt) – The One True Creator of the heavens and the earth and everything in them.

Allah (swt) revealed:
وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ حُنَفَاءَ وَيُقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَذَلِكَ دِينُ الْقَيِّمَةِ
“And they were commanded not, but that they should worship Allah, and worship none but Him Alone, and perform As-Salat and give Zakat: and that is the right Deen.”[TMQ 98:5]

Islam commanded loyalty to the Deen rather than to the tribe, as Allah (swt) revealed:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا آَبَاءَكُمْ وَإِخْوَانَكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ إِنِ اسْتَحَبُّوا الْكُفْرَ عَلَى الْإِيمَانِ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِنْكُمْ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ (23) قُلْ إِنْ كَانَ آَبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ وَإِخْوَانُكُمْ وَأَزْوَاجُكُمْ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ وَأَمْوَالٌ اقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا وَتِجَارَةٌ تَخْشَوْنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَاكِنُ تَرْضَوْنَهَا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَجِهَادٍ فِي سَبِيلِهِ فَتَرَبَّصُوا حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ (24)

“Oh you who believe! Take not for Auliya' your fathers and your brothers if they prefer disbelief to Belief. And whoever of you does so, then he is one of the Zalimun. Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you delight are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger, and striving hard and fighting in His Cause, then wait until Allah brings about His Decision (torment). And Allah guides not the people who are Al-Fasiqun.”[TMQ 9:23-24]

Ties between the Muslims were therefore based on the Aqeedah of Islam. All Muslims were treated exactly the same, irrespective of their family background or race. Anyone who declared the Shadahah became part of the Muslim Ummah.RasulAllah (saw) clearly prohibited ‘asabiyyah (nationalism):

“He is not one of us who calls of ‘asabiyyah or who fights for ‘asabiyyah or who dies for ‘asabiyyah.”[Abu Dawud]

“He who calls for ‘asabiyyah is as if he bit his father’s genitals.”[Mishkat al-Masabih]

On one occasion, a non-Muslim youth in the Islamic State was sent to incite remembrance of the battle of Bu’ath that took place between the Aus and Khazraj (the 2 tribes that formed the Ansar) prior to Islam reaching them. The poetry that the youth recited stirred strong emotions and as a result, there was a call to arms. When the news reached RasulAllah (saw), he rushed to the situation and said, “Oh Muslims, remember Allah, remember Allah. Will you act as pagans while I am present with you after Allah has guided you to Islam, and honoured you thereby and made a clean break with paganism; delivered you thereby from disbelief; made you friends thereby?” When the Aus and Khazraj heard this they wept and embraced each other as brothers.

Allah (swt) then revealed:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ (102) وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنْتُمْ أَعْدَاءً فَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِكُمْ فَأَصْبَحْتُمْ بِنِعْمَتِهِ إِخْوَانًا وَكُنْتُمْ عَلَى شَفَا حُفْرَةٍ مِنَ النَّارِ فَأَنْقَذَكُمْ مِنْهَا كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آَيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ
“Oh you who believe! Fear Allah as He should be feared and die not except in a state of Islam And hold fast, all of you together, to the Rope of Allah, and be not divided among yourselves, and remember Allah's Favour on you, for you were enemies one to another but He joined your hearts together, so that, by His Grace, you became brethren, and you were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus Allah makes His Ayat clear to you, that you may be guided.”[TMQ 3:102-103]

The bond of the Islamic Aqeedah continued to be the basis of the relationship between the Muslims for over a thousand years. Islam therefore united people irrespective of their colour, race, status or language. It was this bond that provided strength and might to the Islamic State.

Re-injecting ‘Asabiyyah

After failing to defeat the Muslims in the Crusades, Britain and France along with the United States focused their attention to separate Muslims from Islam. One of these means was to re-inject nationalism into the Muslim Ummah.

Using Missionaries who operated in the Uthmani Khilafah, there were many attempts (and failures) to try and establish associations and organizations of members belonging exclusively to one ethnicity (tribe) – such as “Arab” or “Turk”. In 1857, the missionaries were successful in establishing the Syrian Scientific Association and in 1875 the Secret Association was established in Beruit. These organizations, would promote “Arabism” and its related pre-Islamic culture while criticizing the Uthmani Khilafah and accusing the “Turks” of stealing the Khilafah from the “Arabs”. In this manner, Arab nationalism was re-introduced into the Muslim Ummah. By the turn of the 20th century, the fever of nationalism had spread to all corners of the Islamic State.

When the Colonialists occupied various parts of the Islamic State, by dividing it into nation states, patriotism (the temporary bond between people of a geographical location against an external threat) emerged among the Muslims as a reaction to the political and economic oppression by the Colonialists. By the time the Islamic State was abolished Muslims were no longer bound solely by the Islamic Aqeedah. Rather, there were additional ties of race, ethnicity, tribe and geographical location.

Tyrannical Rulers Welcome Nationalism

The current regimes emphasize and amplify nationalism and patriotism within their area of control. In order to keep Muslims bound by their race, ethnicity, tribe and geographical location these regimes use every tool available, including:

Independence Day – Every Muslim country spends great amount of effort, energy and enthusiasm in celebrating the day of its so-called freedom from colonial occupation when in fact the Kufr thoughts and laws still govern the Muslims.

Wars between Muslim countries – There have been many disputes and altercations in the recent past between Muslim countries including Iran and Iraq, Kurdish Muslims and Turkey, Afghanistan and Iran and between Turkey and Syria. These wars only stress the existence of the artificial borders created by the colonial powers, such as Britain and France.

Entertainment – Even in forms of entertainment such as soccer, the Muslim countries when playing each other incite nationalistic emotions resulting in vehement opposition of fans to the other teams and their fans – despite being brothers in Islam!

These tools culminate in stronger bonds between Muslims (and/or non-Muslims) of one specific geographical location compared to those between Muslims of different locations. As a result we see tensions between Sunni and Shia, between Muslims from India and Muslims from Pakistan, between the Muslims from Lebanon and the Muslims from Palestine or the Muslims who have darker skin versus the Muslims who have lighter skin.

Protect Yourself from the Disease of Nationalism

Irrespective of whether we were born in the West or we emigrated from the Muslim lands, we must be very careful of the attitude towards our brothers and sisters from different parts of the world. Being constantly bombarded with nationalistic and patriotic slogans, it is possible that many of our own decisions and emotions are influenced by these ideas. As a result, we should monitor our thoughts and emotions and if we recognize them to be nationalistic and/or patriotic, we should actively change our thoughts and our emotions so that they are governed solely by the Islamic Aqeedah.May Allah (swt) cleanse our hearts and minds of nationalism and patriotism and may He allow us treat all Muslims as our own brothers and sisters.

Allah (swt) says in the holy Qur'an:

وَلَقَدْ أَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكُمْ آَيَاتٍ مُبَيِّنَاتٍ وَمَثَلًا مِنَ الَّذِينَ خَلَوْا مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ وَمَوْعِظَةً لِلْمُتَّقِينَ
“And indeed We have sent down for you Ayat that make things plain, and the example of those who passed away before you, and an admonition for those who are Al-Muttaqun”[TMQ 24:34]


Views on the News - 7 August 2009

A football anthem and a court room killing - Is Germany turning into a fortress of Islamophobia?

An anthem sung by fans of the German football club FC Schalke 04 has drawn protests from Muslims because of its reference to the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم of Allah. The club has received hundreds of e-mails from angry Muslims recently, since Turkish media carried reports about the song.
Police in Gelsenkirchen, in the industrial Ruhr region of western Germany, say they are taking the Muslim complaints very seriously.

The song is the latest in a series of incidents that demonstrates that the Germany is becoming deeply anti-Islamic. Only a few weeks ago the German government rejected accusations that it tolerates xenophobia and anti-Islamic views after the killing of 31-year-old Marwa El-Sherbiny in a Dresden in which the German media remained relatively silent. Germany has the second-biggest Muslim population in Western Europe after France and is quickly turning into a fortress of anti-Islam.

US eager to engage in Iran

This week the US expressed support for the opposition in Iran but also pressed ahead with its plans to engage Iran under Ahmadinejad. "We appreciate and we admire the continuing resistance and ongoing efforts by the reformers to make the changes that the Iranian people deserve," Clinton said, shortly after Ahmadinejad was sworn in for another four-year term. She then said that Ahmadinejad disputed re-election would not alter Washington's readiness to engage Iran. "Our policy remains the same. We take the reality that the person who was inaugurated today will be considered the president," she said. "We are still clear in our policy that engagement is on the table for the Iranians."
The US is desperate to a turn a new page in its relations with Iran, after the Europeans openly courted the Iranian opposition.

Somalia: America plans to double arms shipment to fight Al-Shabab

The United States plans to double the amount of arms and ammunition it is providing Somalia's transitional government to help it fend off an Al Qaeda inspired insurgency, a US State Department official said on Thursday. The official, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said the plan was to double supplies of arms and ammunition 40 to 80 tonnes.

‘That's the idea,' the official said. Since late June the United States has been shipping the Somali government urgent supplies of arms and ammunitions to defend it against the Al-Shabab. An initial 40 tonnes of weapons and ammunition was directed to Somalia in late June. ‘Because of what's going on in Somalia we are providing the transitional federal government ammunition, weapons to support the efforts of the government to try to provide security,' State Department spokesman Robert Wood said. ‘We are in the process of trying to make sure that we can get the 40 tonnes of equipment to the TFG,' he said.

Rasmussen: The Debaser of Islam leads the crusade in Afghanistan

This week NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen was in Afghanistan for his first visit as chief of the 28-nation alliance.

The former Danish prime minister who supported the right of Danish newspapers to insult Islam said: "It is our clear intention to do everything possible to reduce the number of civilian casualties to an absolute minimum." Unabashed, Rasmussen declared: "I can assure you and the Afghan people that we will stay and support you for as long as it takes to finish our job." So it is expected that during Rasmussen reign that more Muslim will be spilt until the Muslims of Afghanistan submit to NATO's will

US fortifies its presence in Islamabad

According to reports, the US will spend $405 million on the reconstruction and refurbishment of its main embassy building in the diplomatic enclave of the Islamabad; $111 million for a new complex to accommodate 330 personnel; and $197 million to construct about 250 housing units. For this purpose, the US Embassy has acquired about 7.2 hectares of land at what is widely considered a mark-down price of 1 billion rupees (US$12 million), courtesy of the state-run Islamabad Capital Development Authority. A Turkish firm has already built a 153- room compound for the embassy. The fortress-like embassy will eventually accommodate close to 1,000 additional personnel being sent to Islamabad as part of the US administration's decision to significantly raise its profile in the country.

The new staffers will augment the current 750-strong American contingent already based in Pakistan; this against a sanctioned strength of 350. "What appears to be more alarming is that this staff surge will include 350 [US] marines. Additionally, the Americans are pressuring Islamabad to allow the import of hundreds of Dyncorp armored personnel carriers," reported Pakistan 's largest English-language daily Dawn.

A spokesman for the US Embassy in Islamabad, Richard W Snelsire, told Asia Times Online that the US was "redoing" the embassy compound as it was 40 years old. He said this was also largely because US aid to Pakistan had tripled to US$1.5 billion a year and therefore additional staff were needed. Snelsire dismissed the report of armoured vehicles being used at the embassy and also said the notion of 350 marines being stationed there was "fictitious". Indeed, since the last few months of 2008, the Americans have quietly been working on extending their physical footprint in the country.

During this period, about 300 American officials landed at Tarbella, the brigade headquarters of Pakistan's Special Operation Task Force approximately 20 kilometres from Islamabad. They were officially designated as a "training advisory group", according to documents seen by Asia Times Online. (See ‘The gloves are off in Pakistan,' Asia Times Online, September 23, 2008.)

Wednesday, August 12, 2009

Chapter 4: The Legally Responsible with respect to the Shari’ah Rulings

The following is the draft english translation from the Usul Al-Fiqh masterpiece of the Arabic book الشخصية الاسلاميَة الجزء الثالث (The Islamic Personality Volume 3 ) by Sheikh Taqiuddin an-Nabhani. Please refer to the original Arabic for accurate meanings.

All the people are legally responsible [mukallaf] with respect to the legal rulings [ahkām]; thus it is said about the legal ruling [hukm shar’i] that it is the address of the legislator related to the actions of the servants.

There is no distinction in this respect between the Muslim and the kāfir; all of them are addressed by the address [khitāb] of the legislator, and all of them are legally responsible in terms of the legal rule. The evidence for this is the totality of texts about this matter, all of which clearly indicate that the Islamic Shari’ah is addressed to all people, irrespective of their being Muslim or kāfir. Allah (swt) says,
«وما أرسلناك إلا كافّة للناس بشيراً ونذيراً» “

And we have not sent you except as a giver of glad tidings and a warner to all mankind” (Saba’: 28),
and He (swt) says,
«قل يا أيها الناس إني رسول الله إليكم جميعاً»
“Say: O mankind! Verily, I am the messenger of Allah to you all” (al-A’rāf: 158),
and the Messenger of Allah (saw) said,

“I was sent to every red and black”, narrated by Muslim, that is, to all people.

Hence this address is general to all people, including the believer and the disbeliever.It should not be said that the address is about Imān in Islam and not the legal rulings [ahkām al-furu’iyyah] on grounds that it is an address about the message which is Imān in it not acting by the legal rulings. This is incorrect because the message is general in that it includes both Imān as well as the legal rulings with which it came. To specify the address to Imān alone is to specify without a specifying cause. Further if the intent was that all the people are addressed with respect to Imān in Islam and only the Muslims are addressed with the legal rules this effectively means the addressing of some people with only some of the rulings and their not being addressed with the rest. If it were permitted that some people were addressed with some rulings such that others were excluded from this address, this would be permitted in everything the Shari’ah came with, that is, the like of it would be permitted in the foundations of Islam related to Imān, because what is permitted in the legal rulings is permitted in other than them, and this is incorrect because the address is clear,

«رسول الله إليكم»
“I am the messenger of Allah to you”,

so believing in him is obviously included in the address, and the inclusion of the legal rulings is established by the clear text of the Qur’an.

Allah (swt) says,
«وويلٌ للمشركين • الذين لا يؤتون الزكاة»

“And woe to the polytheists. Those who give not the zakat…” (Fussilat: 6-7),

and He (swt) said,
«يقول الإنسان يومئذٍ أين المفر»
“On that day, man will say: “Where is the refuge?” (al-Qiyāmah: 10)

up until He (swt) says,
«فلا صدّق ولا صلّى»

“So he (the disbeliever) neither believed, nor prayed” (al-Qiyāmah: 31);
and He (swt) says,
«كل نفسٍ بما كسبت رهينة»

“Every soul is a pledge for what it earned” (al-Muddathir: 38),
up until He (swt) says,
«ما سلككم في سقر• قالوا لم نكُ من المصلين • ولم نكُ نطعم المسكين»

“What has brought you into Hell? They will say: “We were not of those who used to perform the prayers. Nor did we feed the poor…” (al-Muddathir: 42-44).

Further, Allah (swt) has commanded all people with the ritual worships, thus the disbelievers are included.

He (swt) says,
«يا أيها الناس اعبدوا ربكم»

“O mankind! Worship your Lord…” (al-Baqarah: 21),

and He says,
«ولله على الناس حجُّ البيت»

“And pilgrimage to the House is a duty that mankind owes to Allah” (āl-Imrān: 97).

These verses are explicit that Allah has made them responsible for the legal rulings, because they address the disbelievers with the legal rulings, so they are legally responsible with respect to them. Had they not been responsible for the legal rulings Allah would not have threatened them a severe punishment for not performing them, such as in

His saying,
«وويلٌ للمشركين • الذين لا يؤتون الزكاة»

“And woe to the polytheists, those who give not the zakat” (Fussilat: 6-7).

These verses affirm that Allah (swt) has addressed the disbelievers with some commands and some prohibitions of the specified legal rulings, so likewise they are addressed with the rest of the legal rulings. This clarifies then that the disbelievers are addressed with the entire Shari’ah, creed as well as jurisprudence, and that Allah (swt) will punish them for disbelief as well as nonperformance of the legal rulings. With respect to the (divine) address then there is no doubt that the disbelievers are addressed with the legal rulings. As for their actual performance of these legal rulings, the application of these legal rulings upon them by the state, and its forcing them to perform them, there are further details.

As for their acting on the legal rulings by themselves without being forced, there are two scenarios. If Islam is a condition, by a legal text, in the performance of the legal rulings in question, like the prayer, fasting, Hajj, Zakāt, other ritual worships and the like, then it is not permissible for them to perform them, and they are to be prevented from performing them, because Islam is a condition for these legal rulings, and thus they are not permissible with kufr. Examples of this include the testimony of the disbeliever on financial matters like the loan, and the disbelievers’ being a ruler or judge over Muslims. None of these, and the like of them of the legal rulings which a legal text has not permitted for the kāfir by making Islam a condition for their performance, are allowed to be performed by the disbelievers. As for all those legal rulings in which Islam is not a condition of performance, like the disbelievers fighting with the Muslims and the legal testimony in contracts like trade and medicine, they are allowed to perform them if they choose to do so.

This is with respect to their performing the actions of their own accord. As for their being forced by (the executive authority of) the state, then there are two scenarios. If the legal rulings are of the kind which came as a general address, unqualified by the condition of Imān, such that Islam is not a condition of performance or they are of those which the disbelievers were tacitly approved for not performing, then in these two cases they are not forced to perform them.

Thus the Khalifah does not punish the disbelievers for their not adopting Islam - except if they are from the polytheists of Arabia other than the Ahl al-Kitāb – due to the

His (swt) saying,
«لا إكراه في الدين»

“There is no compulsion in the deen...” (al-Baqarah: 256),

and his saying:
«حتى بعطوا الجزية عن يد وهم صاغرون»

“…until they pay the jizyah with willing submission, and are subdued” (al-Tawbah: 29),

and for the tacit approval (iqrār) of the Messenger (saw) for the disbelievers of Yemen to remain upon their religion. He sufficed with taking the Jizyah from them. Excepted from this general ruling are the polytheist Arabs other then the Ahl al-Kitāb due to Allah’s (swt) saying:

«تقاتلونهم أو يسلمون»
“You fight them or they shall submit…” (al-Fath: 16),
which is specific to the Arab polytheists alone. Similarly the disbelievers are not to be ordered to pray or be prevented from their own prayer, due to the tacit approval of the Messenger (saw) for them to remain on their worship, and for their churches which existed in Yemen, Bahrain and Najrān. He did not demolish the churches of those who did not become Muslim. This shows that they are to be left upon their belief and worship.

Likewise the ruling of Jihad is not applied on them nor are they forced to perform it, because the sought of fighting in the ayāt of Jihad is fighting the kuffār as a genus, and it is not conceivable that a kāfir fights himself. Equally they are not to be forced to abstain from alcohol, nor punished for its consumption, because there were Christians in Yemen who used to drink alcohol and were left to drink it, and because when the Sahābah opened lands they would not prevent the kuffār from drinking alcohol.

Likewise are all the legal rulings in which Islam is a condition for their validity, or for which the Messenger (saw) approved the kuffār to continue them, or the Sahabah consented on leaving the kuffār to perform them. In all these cases, the disbelievers are not to be forced to perform them, nor are these rules applied on them by the Khalifah.

However those legal rulings which are not as such, that is, Islam is not a condition in their validity, and no legal text came to show that they are not to applied upon the kuffār, then they are asked to perform them. These rules are to be applied on them and they are to be forced to perform them, and punished for leaving them. This is because in origin the disbelievers are addressed by the legal address, and in the case of there being not text to condition a ruling by the requirement of Imān or to allow them nonperformance, then the original general address remain upon its generality, thus including them. Therefore the disbelievers are made to comply with all the legal rulings except only that which a legal evidence makes an exception to the general rule.

The evidence for this is the Messenger’s implementation of these legal rulings upon the kuffār. It is affirmed that the Messenger (saw) dealt with them according to the Islamic legal rulings in the matters of transactions [muamalāt], and that he punished them for crimes (in line with the Islamic rulings for such crimes). From Anas, "that a Jew bruised the head of a slave girl between two stones, so she was asked ‘who did this to you, was it so-and-so or so-and-so?’ until the Jew was named and she nodded her head. The Jew was brought and he acknowledged his act. The Prophet (saw) commanded that he be punished, so his head was bruised with stones," narrated by al-Bukhāri.

From Abu Salamah ibn Abd al-Rahmān and Sulaymān ibn Yasār, relating from some men of the Ansār, "that the Prophet (saw) said to the Jews, beginning with them, ‘Let fifty men of you swear an oath.’ They refused, so he said to the Ansār: ‘Do what makes you entitled to your claim’. They said: ‘Should we make an oath on a matter we have not witnessed O Messenger of Allah?’ So the Messenger of Allah (saw) made the blood money on the Jews because he (the victim) was found amongst them," narrated by Abu Dawūd. From Jabir ibn Abdullah that he said, "the Prophet (saw) stoned a man from (the tribe of) Aslam, as well as a Jewish man and his wife", narrated by Muslim.

These ahādīth show that the Messenger (saw) used to punish the kuffar as he used to punish the Muslims, which indicates that they are to be forced to perform the legal rulings, and the legal rulings are to be implemented upon them as they are implemented upon the Muslims, and they are bound to them as the Muslims are bound in the legal rulings of transactions, punishments and other legal rulings; and nothing can be excluded from this except what the revelation has itself excepted in terms of implementation, not in terms of the legal address. These exceptions are those rules in which Islam is a condition for their validity, and what is textually established that they are not to be forced to perform them. It should not be said that Allah (swt) has made some legal rulings specifically for the believers like the prayer such that they alone are addressed by it, so any address which begins with,

«يا أيها الذين ءامنوا»

“O you who believe,”
is specific for the Muslims, and what came general, like the trade and ribā, is for the Muslims and the disbelievers. This is incorrect because the objective of that which begins with ‘O you who believe’ is reminding [tadhkīr] the believers of their Imān. It is not a specification for the believers alone.

The evidence for this is Allah (swt)'s saying:
«يا أيها الذين ءامنوا كُتب عليكم القصاص»

“O you who believe, qisās (equal retribution) has been prescribed on you...” (al-Baqarah: 178),
and it is established that the Messenger (saw) made the retribution for the killing upon the kuffār just as it is upon the Muslims without any difference, and also because the sayings of Allah (swt):

«لمن كان يرجوا الله واليوم الآخر»
“...for him who hopes for Allah and the Last Day”,

«فردّوه إلى الله والرسول إن كنتم تؤمنون بالله واليوم الآخر»
“Refer it back to Allah and the Messenger, if you believe in Allah and the Last Day...”,

«من كان يؤمن بالله واليوم الآخر»

“He who believes in Allah and the last day...”,
whose context indicate that they are a reminder to the believers about the (natural) requirement of Imān in Allah and the Last Day.

The first verse is,

«لقد كان لكم في رسول الله أسوة حسنة لمن كان يرجوا الله واليوم الآخر»
“Indeed in the Messenger of Allah, you have a good example for him who hopes for Allah and the Last Day.” (al-Ahzab: 21)

The second verse is,
«فإن تنازعتم في شيء فردّوه إلى الله والرسول إن كنتم تؤمنون بالله واليوم الآخر»

“And if differ in a thing, refer it back to Allah and His Messenger if you believe in Allah and the Last Day.” (al-Nisā’: 59)

The third verse is,

«ذلكم يوعظ به من كان يؤمن بالله واليوم الآخر»
“That will be an admonition given to him who believes in Allah and the Last Day.” (al-Talāq: 2)

All these verses are a reminder (and not a specification).
Likewise is the hadīth of the Messenger (saw),
"Whosoever believes in Allah and the Last, then let him speak good or keep silent", narrated by al-Bukhāri, Muslim and others.

All of this is a reminder of the Imān, and not a condition for legal responsibility with respect to the legal rulings.

Therefore, the conjunction of the address with ‘O you who believe’ does not specify it for the Muslims, but it is a reminder to them of their belief. Accordingly, the address of legal responsibility remains general, including both the disbelievers and the Muslims. Hence the kuffār are addressed with the entirety of the Shari'ah, foundations (creed) as well as branches (jurisprudence), and the Khalifah is commanded to implement all the legal rulings upon them. Excluded from the implementation, but not the address, are those legal rulings whose non-implementation on the kuffār or whose specificity to the Muslims is established by a text of the Qur’an or Hadīth.
All other legal rulings are implemented upon the kuffar as they are implemented on the Muslims.