Sunday, October 24, 2010

The Floods Reveal the Failure of Pakistan's Political System

Although no longer in the headlines, the floods continue to impact our brothers and sisters in Pakistan. According to the UN, 20 million people still continue to be affected by the floods. As an Ummah we cannot rely on the Pakistani government or any other Muslim government to alleviate the suffering of our brothers and sisters. Instead, we must dissociate ourselves from these governments and work to re-establish the Khilafah Rashidah in Pakistan and in the rest of the Muslim world according to the method of RasulAllah صلى الله عليه وسلم.

As reported in the Express Tribune, the UN High Commissioner of Refugees stated that, "the situation remained ‘critically difficult' in some areas, while shelter and recovery for hundreds of thousands of people was still short nearly 10 weeks since flooding began." He also stated that, "we need to draw the international community's attention that the emergency in Pakistan is not over...Making sure 20 million people are rehabilitated I think is an international obligation: we are looking at a geopolitical situation where the stability of Pakistan we feel is in everybody's interest." Channel 4 reported that seven weeks after the initial trip to Chek Hisara, the government has still not visited the people as they continue to suffer under miserable conditions. Akhtar Munir told Channel 4: "We have no shelter. Children are suffering from diseases. There are not enough medicines. The government has not done anything."

Flood Aftermath: Continued suffering

Based on various media reports the following numbers paint a picture of the current situation of our brothers and sisters in Pakistan:

• 20 million need some type of assistance due to the floods. To put in perspective, this would represent about 95% of the combined populations of Ontario and Quebec.
• 6 million children have been impacted, which is more than the population of the Greater Toronto Area.
• 3.5 million children are affected by diseases, such as diarrhea, dysentery, and are at the risk of cholera.
• 2.7 million people are displaced in the hard hit areas of Balochistan and Sindh.

Pakistani Political Class: Unapologetically Corrupt
Despite having had over two months to put together an action plan to resolve the crisis, the Zardari-Gilani government continues to act in a criminally negligent manner. As noted above, the flood victims have been left to fend for themselves. Instead of acting resolutely to alleviate the suffering of the people, the government is debating the levying of a flood tax. Some may argue it is the only way to raise funds as the Pakistani economy is bankrupt. However, the ruling elite had no problem spending $35 billion on America's so called war on terror. In other words, attending to the flood victims is not a priority - but acting as America's lap dog is. Furthermore, the corruption is not limited to Zardari (who was too busy vacationing in Europe when the crisis was unfolding) or Gilani (who staged a visit to a fake flood relief camp with paid actors pretending to be flood victims), but it is also widespread in the political class at large. A report released by the Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development and Transparency (PILDAT) found that the average value of declared assets of a Member of the National Assembly (MNA) had tripled in six years from Rs. 27 million in 2002-2003 to almost Rs. 81 million 2008-2009. The report found the richest MNA to be from the PPP with Rs. 3.288 billion, while the second richest MNA was from the PML-N with Rs. 1.627 billion. These MNAs continue to become wealthier in a time when life is a struggle for the average person in Pakistan hit by the economic downturn, rising costs, and an unreliable power supply. As noted in an editorial piece for the Pakistani newspaper The Nation, the tripling of MNA assets "cannot fail to raise eyebrows and create all kinds of doubts, considering the corruption-ridden society we live in." The shameless response of both Prime Minister Gilani and the leader of the opposition in the National Assembly, Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan, to the report was to blame the media for not scrutinizing the assets of the judiciary, the army and others!

Obligation to cut ties from the System
The continuing tragedy of the floods illustrates the criminal negligence of not just the ruler, but the entire political system, the politicians, and the political parties, which are an integral part of the system. This system is beyond redemption and it is an obligation on all Muslims (in Pakistan or outside of Pakistan) to completely sever all ties and withdraw any support from the political system. This is based on the following ahadith by the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم:

"There will be rulers after me, whoever testifies to their falsehood and lies, and helped them in their treachery, he is not from me, and I am not from him (i.e. I have nothing to do with him). He shall not come near me at the cistern (Hawdh Kauthar). And whoever does not testify to their falsehood and does not help them in their treachery, he is from me and I am from him and he shall meet me at the Hawdh." [an-Nasa'i]

"There will be rulers who will do things that you recognize and things that you reject. Whoever opposed them will be saved; whoever stays away from them will be secure, and whoever mixes with them will be destroyed." [Al-Tabarani]

These ahadith make it clear that a Muslim cannot be neutral when it comes to the treacherous rulers and the corrupt political system. Instead, it is a fard (obligation) that we completely distance ourselves from their treachery and lies.

Consequently, a Muslim cannot be involved with the government in any way. This means that we:

• Do not support or endorse the policies or laws that are proposed or implemented by the ruling or the opposition party(s),
• Do not join or promote any political party running for office,
• Do not vote for any of the parties that run for election,
• Convince relatives, co-workers, neighbors, and others that they must not support any of the political parties, get involved in the political process, or vote in the elections.

• Expose the lies, corruption, and criminal negligence of those who are involved in the political process.

No real change can ever come through the existing political system. This system, that was inherited from the colonial era, can never be reformed or improved, or bring any good to the Muslims. It will always oppress the ruled for the sake of the rulers because in its essence it is a kufr system built upon the implementation of the whims and desires of the colonial masters and its agent rulers. The same applies whether the ruler is a dictator, part of an assembly of parliamentarians or even a group of technocrats and "clean politicians". America first swapped Nawaz Sharif for Musharraf. Then when Musharraf attracted the anger of the Ummah, they swapped him for Zardari. Eventually, they will replace Zardari with some other agent. It is a system of whims and desires which exploits the ruled and denies them their rights and the blessings that Allah سبحانه وتعالى bestowed upon them. Indeed, Allah سبحانه وتعالى ordered that we rule by what He سبحانه وتعالى has revealed:
فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ ۖ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ عَمَّا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ
"And rule between them by all that which Allah revealed to you, and do not follow their vain desires away from the truth which came to you." [Al-Maaida, 5:48]

Pakistan: The Challenge of Leadership

The current state of the Ummah in Pakistan with the floods, the continuous American bombardment, and the internal strife should not blind us from the fact that Pakistan is a wealthy country with significant potential. The country has the 7th largest army in the world, a population that is larger than Russia's and significant mineral and energy resources. But most important of all, it is full of people who believe in Allah سبحانه وتعالى and His Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم. The following numbers give an idea of how wealthy Pakistan actually is:
Agriculture - Pakistan's largest food crop is wheat. Pakistan produces over 21 million metric tons of wheat, nearly as much as Canada (22.7 million metric tons; according to Statistics Canada). Pakistan is the 12th largest agricultural producer in the world with an agrarian output of $32 billion annually.
Thar Coal - The Thar Coal Field in Sindh is the world's largest coal field. The export of Thar Coal would generate revenues of over $1 trillion. Converted into oil, Thar Coal would generate over 650 billion barrels of crude oil, at the current market rate of $80 that would generate $5.2 trillion.
Reko Diq minerals - Reko Diq, a town in Baluchistan, possesses the world's 5th largest reserve of copper and over 20 million ounces of untapped gold reserves. Pakistan's gold reserves alone would bring in revenues of $25 billion (at current price of approximately $1300/oz).
Khewra Salt Mines - The Khewra Salt Mines has an estimated total of 220 million tonnes of rock salt deposits. At current market rates this would bring in revenues of $13.2 billion.
Off-shore oil - It is believed that the potential off-shore oil reserves range from 6 billion to 6 trillion barrels of oil. Successive governments in Pakistan have failed to carry out a scientific evaluation to determine the amount of oil that exists - once again demonstrating their incompetence and negligence.

Pakistan is therefore an immensely wealthy country, but its people are unable to benefit from the wealth due to the corrupt political system that governs them. Therefore, this system must be removed for the people to be able to enjoy the justice that the laws of Allah سبحانه وتعالى will bring when they are implemented, and to have access to the wealth that Allah سبحانه وتعالى has bestowed on Pakistan. Not to mention that Pakistan can become with Allah's سبحانه وتعالى Will, the birth place of the second Khilafah Rashidah whose time draws nearer by the day.

The Way of the Prophet: The only Method for Change
   When seeking a way out of the current turmoil that has gripped the Ummah in Pakistan and all Muslim lands it is crucial to turn to the book of Allah سبحانه وتعالى and the Sunnah of RasulAllah صلى الله عليه وسلم. Any other method will fail. In Pakistan, we must work with the sincere groups who are working for real change. Real change can only come by replacing the entire system with what Allah سبحانه وتعالى has prescribed for us: the Khilafah State. Hizb-ut-Tahrir works in Pakistan and the Muslim lands to fulfill this obligation to re-establish the Khilafah Rashidah. In order to accomplish this obligation, the Party has adopted the method of RasulAllah صلى الله عليه وسلم, which includes giving halaqat with the goal of attaining the Islamic personality, interacting with the Ummah to create positive public opinion for Islam, and seeking the support from the people of power and influence. Hizb-ut-Tahrir restricts its activities to intellectual and political means (e.g. discussion, leaflets, conferences, etc), as RasulAllah صلى الله عليه وسلم restricted himself to such means and forbade the Sahabah from using armed struggle in establishing the Islamic State. He صلى الله عليه وسلم also did not participate in the political system of the Quraish: Dar-al Nadwa. Consequently, Hizb-ut-Tahrir does not involve itself in the democratic systems. Instead, the Party works to expose the lies and treachery of the rulers and those who support them, as we have done in this article.

May Allah سبحانه وتعالى grant victory to His Deen through the work of the sincere Muslims.

وَعَسَىٰ أَنْ تَكْرَهُوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ ۖ وَعَسَىٰ أَنْ تُحِبُّوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ شَرٌّ لَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

"It could be that you dislike something and it is Good for you and it could be that you like something and it is Bad for you. Allah knows and you know not" [Al-Baqara, 2:216]


Monday, October 18, 2010

View on the News 18-10-2010

Gold hits record as Fed signal sinks dollar

Gold surged to a record high at $1,367.65 an ounce on Wednesday and silver to a 30-year peak after the Federal Reserve signalled the U.S. economy may need extra stimulus, which hit the dollar. Gold prices have rallied nearly 25 percent so far this year as investors turned to the metal as a haven from the effects of an increasingly loose monetary policy. Spot gold XAU hit a peak of $1,367.65 an ounce and was bid at $1,366.75 an ounce at 1417 GMT, against $1,349.60 late on Tuesday. U.S. gold futures for December delivery GCZ0 rose $21.50 to $1,368.20, having earlier touched a record $1,368.90.

France: Turkey can join the EU if it carries out the necessary reforms

Turkey can join the EU if it carries out the necessary reforms, says French foreign minister Bernard Kouchner, according to Today's Zaman. He added that the ball is in Turkey's court. Kouchner promised that France is willing to help Turkey in fulfilling its EU requirements. Turkey still needs to work on its social and employment policies, says Kouchner in a press conference with his Turkish counterpart, Ahmet Davutoglu yesterday. Kouchner is currently on an official visit to Turkey.Davutoglu said that he asked Frace to give active supports to Turkey in its attempts to join the EU. We want the visa procedures to be applied to Turkey as they were applied to the Balkans. Nothing more, nothing less,€ says Davutoglu according to Today's Zaman. Davutoglu mentioned difficult "political barriers" that are blocking Turkey's EU membership, citing the Cyprus problem as one of them. Davutoglu says that the Cyprus problem can be comprehensively settled by calling a grand conference. He added that Turkey cannot allow Greek Cyprus to use Turkey's ports until a comprehensive solution is found.

Americans against war on Iran: Poll

A new survey has shown that most Americans would not support US-lead attack on Iran, even if the country "tested a nuclear bomb or attacked Israel." A quarter of respondents in 60 Minutes-Vanity Fair poll have said that “nothing” could make them “support a war with Iran.” The phone survey of 906 randomly selected participants in September showed that 25% of respondent would consent to an attack “only if Iran attacks US soil” or “if Iran attacks the US fleet in the Persian Gulf”. Around 24% of respondents said they would never support a war with Iran. Only 11 percent of respondents said they would support war if Iran tested a nuclear bomb. The US accuses Iran of following a military agenda under the guise of its civilian nuclear program, refusing to rule out military action on the country of more than 70 million people. Tehran rejects the charges, arguing that as a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Iran has a right to the peaceful applications of nuclear technology.

Pakistan plans to target militants in North Waziristan

US Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral Mike Mullen said the Pakistani military has pledged to go after militants that the US wants targeted in the North Waziristan tribal region. Mullen said Chief of Army Staff (COAS) General Ashfaq Pervaiz Kayani has given assurances that he will mount an offensive in the tribal region along the Afghan border. "He has committed to me to go into North Waziristan and to root out these terrorists as well," Mullen reportedly said in an interview on Bloomberg Television's "Conversations with Judy Woodruff" to be broadcast this weekend. "He clearly knows what our priorities are…North Waziristan is the epicentre of terrorism," Mullen said. "It's where al-Qaeda lives." He further said that the objective was to defeat al-Qaeda and ensure Afghanistan would not again become a haven for the group. Pakistan says its army is stretched by the fight against militants in six tribal regions and a flood that inundated a fifth of the country in July.

Nato facilitating Taliban contacts with Afghan government

Nato-led forces in Afghanistan are facilitating contacts between senior Taliban officials and the Afghan government, including allowing them safe passage for talks in Kabul, a senior Nato official said on Wednesday. The disclosure reveals a greater Western role than previously acknowledged in Kabul’s preliminary attempts to seek a political resolution to the 9-year-old war.The official, who spoke to reporters in Brussels on condition of anonymity, cautioned that contacts were in their very early stages and could not be described as negotiations. Nato allies including the United States have previously voiced their support for reconciliation efforts by President Hamid Karzai’s government. The extent of any Western involvement in those contacts had been unclear.“We have indeed facilitated to various degrees the contacts between these senior Taliban members and the highest levels of the Afghan government,” the official said. The official declined to offer specifics about the facilitating role of the Nato-led International Security Assistance Force, known as ISAF, in Afghanistan.

India to be given important position at the UN

India will be given a place on the UN Security Council in a move seen as a step towards a permanent seat and recognition as its status as a growing world power. According to Indian diplomatic sources, New Delhi will use its place at the high table of the world's leading powers to push for UN reform to reflect the rise of growing powers like itself, Brazil and South Africa. India will take up its place on the 15 member council as a regional representative of Asia following a vote at the United Nations General Assembly. It will join its ally South Africa, Colombia and two countries out of Germany, Canada and Portugal. In any case, all four of the 'BRIC' countries – Brazil, Russia, India and China, the world's fastest growing economies – will sit together on the Council for the first time, strengthening the hand of the world's growing powers. Pranab Mukherjee, India's finance minister and second most powerful figure in India after the prime minister, last week intensified New Delhi's campaign for a permanent seat at the Security Council and a shake-up of the global power structure which emerged following the second world war. During a visit to Washington last week, he said:"I do hope that as and when the expanded Security Council along with the general reforms of the United Nations take place, India's claim for being a permanent member of the Security Council will be considered and accepted."

18th October 2010

Sunday, October 17, 2010

View on the News 14-10-2010

Global unemployment to trigger further social unrest, UN agency forecasts

The International Labour Organisation (ILO) has warned of growing social unrest because it fears global employment will not now recover until 2015. This is two years later than its earlier estimate that the labour market would rebound to pre-crisis levels by 2013. About 22 million new jobs are needed – 14 million in rich countries and 8 million in developing nations. The United Nations work agency today warned of a long “labour market recession” and noted that social unrest related to the crisis had already been reported in at least 25 countries, including some recovering emerging economies.

Guatemalan President Alvaro Colom accuses the US of crimes against humanity

The United States government has apologised for deliberately infecting hundreds of people in Guatemala with gonorrhoea and syphilis as part of medical tests more than 60 years ago. None of those infected - mentally ill patients and prisoners - consented. US President Barack Obama has called Mr Colom to apologise and has said the acts ran contrary to American values. Evidence of the programme was unearthed by Prof Susan Reverby at Wellesley College. She says the Guatemalan government gave permission for the tests. No offer of compensation has yet been made, but an investigation will be launched into the specifics of the study, which took place between 1946 and 1948.White House spokesman Robert Gibbs said on Friday the news was "shocking, it's tragic, it's reprehensible". The study by Prof Reverby shows that US government medical researchers infected almost 700 people in Guatemala with two sexually transmitted diseases. The experiment ran from 1932 to 1972, with President Bill Clinton eventually apologising for it.

Muslims should conform to German values: Merkel

German Chancellor Angela Merkel demanded on Monday that Muslims living in Germany conform to "fundamental German values", saying there was no leeway on the issue. She spoke a day after Germany's largely ceremonial president, Christian Wulff, had reached out to Muslims in a speech marking 20 years of reunification, assuring them they belonged. The Christian Democrat chancellor, in remarks promoting a fiercely conservative book by one of her supporters, said Muslims in Germany must orient themselves without reservation to Germany's fundamental values and constitution. "There is no leeway on this," she said, adding that Germans' perceptions of Islam were dominated by Sharia (Islamic law), the lack of equality between men and women and honour killings. Germany had freedom of religion, and Islam was welcome, "but it must be a form of Islam that feels devoted to our fundamental values", Merkel said. If it were not, fears would develop among Germans, "and that is hardly something we want to happen".

West warned that Islam insults risk 'civilisation clash'

Kings, emirs and presidents from Muslim nations have made pressing appeals at the United Nations for the West to clamp down on attacks on Islam which they warned is a growing threat to international security. In speeches to the UN General Assembly, leaders said that "Islamophobia" was causing a growing Muslim-West divide and one top Arab minister put the international community on guard against a "civilisation clash".But Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, the emir of Qatar said,"We disagree with the attribution of this so-called terrorism to the Islamic religion because this - in addition to being incorrect - is a historical injustice that is refuted by evidence from recent history." He said "gratuitous violent actions" in the US, Europe and Asia in the late 20th century were never labelled as being American, European or Asian terrorism. Egypt's Foreign Minister Ahmed Abul Gheit said,""We find the West, in general, being drawn into a clash with the Muslim world. This clash will serve no one except extremists and those who hold perverted ideas on both sides. It will not be in the interest of security and stability in the world." King Abdullah II of Jordan said it is "essential to resist forces of division that spread misunderstanding." Malaysia's Prime Minister Najib Razak told the UN assembly that the world's 1.5 billion Muslims were offended by "attempts to demonise Islam." He added: "It intensifies the divide between the broad Muslim world and the West."

Erdogan: EU is putting up hurdles to Turkey's membership

Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan complained here Monday that the European Union was putting up hurdles to Turkey's accession to the 27-member bloc."Turkey is constantly being held up and various hurdles are being put in our path. This is not right," Erdogan told a news conference after meeting his Bulgarian counterpart, Boyko Borisov."Some hindrances are being applied for Turkey which were not applied for any other EU candidate," Erdogan said.But he added: "We are resolute in continuing our accession negotiations with the EU."While Turkey has been allowed to open certain negotiation chapters with the bloc, it has not yet been allowed to close any of them. And other chapters were a long way from being opened, Erdogan said.Ankara kicked off membership talks with the EU in 2005.

Iraq’s oil reserve 505 billion barrels

Iraq’s oil reserve underground is estimated at 505 billion barrels, the Iraqi Oil Minister Hussein al-Shahrastani said on Monday. “The reserve that can be extracted is estimated at 143 billion barrels,” al-Shahrestani told the press. He explained that the estimations were made in coordination with “oil companies.” “The al-Qurna oilfield in Basra (southern Iraq) is the biggest in the country, with a reserve totaling at 43 billion barrels,” al-Shahrestani added. He noted that the al-Qurna oilfield is the second biggest throughout the world.

Chinese, Russian troops in Central Asia military exercises

Thousands of Russian, Chinese and Kazakh soldiers began two weeks of war games in Kazakhstan Monday, preparing to counter regional threats ranging from drug traffickers to extremists. More than 3,000 troops will take part in the "Peace Mission 2010" exercises, the largest in three years involving the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), a six-nation group. The SCO has focused in recent months on fighting terrorism and radicalism in the region, as well as drug trafficking from Afghanistan."Now and for the next few years, terrorism, separatism and extremism will remain serious factors in the stability of this region and the world," Ma Xiaotian, deputy chief of staff of the Chinese armed forces, said.China, Russia and Kazakhstan each sent 1,000 troops to the exercises, which are taking place at the Matybulak military range in southern Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan's defence ministry said more than 300 military vehicles and 50 Kazakh, Chinese and Russian aircraft and helicopters would join the anti-terrorist drills.Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan each sent 150 troops, the ministry said. Uzbekistan was invited, but said it would not send troops.


"Israel" increases its cruelty and oppression in Palestine

وَقُلْنَا مِنْ بَعْدِهِ لِبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اسْكُنُوا الْأَرْضَ فَإِذَا جَاءَ وَعْدُ الْآخِرَةِ جِئْنَا بِكُمْ لَفِيفًا

"After his [Pharaoh] death, We told the Children of Israel, ‘Live in the land, and when the promise of the Hereafter is fulfilled, We shall bring you to the assembly of all people." [Al-Israa', 17:104]

This is a clear sign that Allah has promised Muslims their land.

Construction of the "Israeli" settlements has restarted again since the so-called freeze was lifted. The Jewish population is increasing as their settlements increase. The Palestinian "President" threatens that peace agreements will be stopped unless the settlements are stopped. He cannot do more than this because he will disobey his masters. He sits and watches while construction has begun in the settlements. Palestine and Jerusalem belong to the Islamic Ummah and one inch of this land cannot be compromised by any "traitor" or their laws.

The Jewish state is growing, Muslim lands have been stolen and their trees destroyed. Muslims have been tortured at the hands of the "Israelis", checkpoints imposed making travel difficult and most of all they had the nerve to ban the reciting of the Qur'an before the Azan in almost all cities and villages. The Jewish settlers complained that the sound of the Qur'an before the Azan bothers them and they outlawed it. The Palestinian Authority obeys such hideous laws to the extent that almost all mosques have banned Qur'an recitation before the Azan in order to please their masters.

"Israel" even has the nerve to steal one of our natural resources - water. Some of "Israel's" water access points are from 42 deep holes, which allow them to fill their pools, water their grass, gardens, and crops. The Muslims living in Palestine are prevented from digging wells and are limited greatly to the natural springs. When the water sources run out the Palestinian people must buy their water supply from the "Israelis".

Many of the water supplies that are sent to the Muslims are poisoned by the Jewish settlers. One villager stated, "they come in broad daylight and throw filthy materials like diapers and poisonous substances inside the spring's sources and when we complain to the "Israeli" authorities, they tell us the army cannot do anything." Water consumption of "Israelis" is 344 million cubic meters per year whereas for Palestinians it is 93 million cubic meters per year. This is a clear sign that the Jewish State does not care about the water it steals from the Muslims.

Are these not clear signs that we Muslims must work together to establish the Khilafah? It is the Khaleefah that can finally free the Muslims from the oppression they see and struggle with on a daily basis. It is he who can restore dignity back into the Muslims. It is not the politicians who come with their lies to the people such as the rulers of the Muslims. As each day goes by Muslims are suffering more and more. Enough is enough we must start to work for the establishment of the Khilafah.

Allah has promised the patient ones success.
وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِينَهُمُ الَّذِي ارْتَضَىٰ لَهُمْ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ أَمْنًا ۚ يَعْبُدُونَنِي لَا يُشْرِكُونَ بِي شَيْئًا ۚ وَمَنْ كَفَرَ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ

"Allah has promised, to those among you who believe and work righteous deeds, that He will, of a surety, grant them In the land, inheritance (of power), As He granted it to those before them; that He will establish In authority their Religion - the one which He has chosen for them; and that He will change (Their state), after the fear In which They (lived), to one of security and peace: 'They will worship me (alone) and not associate aught with Me. 'If any do reject Faith after this, They are rebellious and wicked." [An-Nur, 24:55]

Umm Sundus
Bayt Almaqdes

Friday, October 15, 2010

The Preservation of Sunnah

This article is written by Brother Mohammed Ibrahim

إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ

"Verily, it is We who have sent down the Dhikr, (i.e. the Qu'ran) and surely, We will guard it (from corruption)." (Al-Hijr 15:9)

In this verse, Allah سبحانه وتعالى has assured the preservation of the Qur'an. This implies that the Qur'an will remain unchanged and that it shall always be transferred from one generation to the other in its real and original form, undistorted by any foreign element. The question before us is whether protection is restricted to the words of the Qur'an or does it extend to its meanings. If the Prophetic explanation is necessary to understand the Qur'an correctly, then the preservation of the Qur'anic words alone cannot serve the purpose unless the Prophetic explanations are also preserved.

وَأَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

"And We have also sent down unto you the Reminder and the Advice (the Qur'an) that you may explain clearly to the people what has been sent down for them" (An-Nahl 16:44)

The word ‘Dhikr' has been used here to mean the Qur'an and it has been made clear that the people can only benefit from its guidance when they are led by the explanations of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم.

Again the words "to the people" in the ayah indicate that the Prophet's explanation is always needed by everyone. If everyone in every age is in need of the Prophetic explanation, without which they CANNOT fully comprehend the Qur'an, how would it be useful for them to preserve the Qur'anic text and leave its Prophetic explanation at the mercy of distorters, extending to it no type of protection whatsoever.

Therefore, once the necessity of the Prophetic explanations of the Qur'an is accepted, it will be self contradictory to claim that these explanations are unavailable today. It will amount to negating the protection, because it is in no way a wise policy to establish the necessity of the Sunnah on the one hand, and to make its discovery (preservation) impossible on the other. Such a deficiency cannot be attributed to Allah, the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.

What follows is a brief account of the measures taken by the Ummah to preserve the Sunnah of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم.

Different Ways of Preserving the Ahadith

As we shall see, the Sahabah (raa) of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم committed a large number of Ahadith to writing. Yet, the ink and paper was not the sole means of their preservation. There were many other ways.

1. Memorization

The Sahabah (raa) of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم use to learn Ahadith by heart. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "May Allah bestow vigour to a person who hears my saying and learns it by heart, then conveys it to others exactly as he hears it?." (Tirmidhi)

The Sahabah (raa) were eager to follow this Hadith and used to devote a considerable amount of time for committing Ahadith to their memories. A large number of them left their homes and began to live in the Mosque of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم so that they may hear the Ahadith directly from the mouth of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم.They spent all their time exclusively in securing the Ahadith in their hearts. The Arabs had such strong memories that they would easily memorize hundreds of verses of their poetry. Nearly all of them knew by heart detailed pedigrees of not only themselves, but also their horses and camels. Even their children had enough knowledge of the pedigrees of different tribes. Hammad is a famous narrator of Arab poetry. It is reported that he knew by heart one hundred long poems for each letter from their alphabet, meaning that he knew three thousand and thirty eight long poems (Al-A'lam by Zrikli 2:131)

The Arabs were so proud of their power of memorization that they placed more confidence in it than in writing. Some poets deemed it a blemish to preserve their poetry in writing. They believed that writings on paper can be tampered with, while the memory cannot be distorted by anyone. If any poets have written some of their poems, they did not like to disclose this fact, because it would be indicative of a defect in their memory (Al-Aghani V.61 P611)

The Sahabah (raa) utilized this memory for preserving Ahadith which they deemed to be the only source of guidance along with the Qur'an. It is obvious that their enthusiasm towards the preservation of Ahadith far exceeded their zeal for preserving their poetry and literature. They used their memory in respect of Ahadith with more vigor and more precaution.

Abu Hurairah (ra), the famous companion of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم who has reported 5374 Ahadith, says, "I have divided my night into three parts. In one third of the night I perform Salah, in one third I sleep and in one third I memorize the Ahadith of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم." (Sunan Darimi)

At one time, Marwan, the governor of Madinah, tried to test his memory. He invited him to his house where he asked him to narrate some Ahadith. Marwan simultaneously ordered his scribe Abu Zu-aizi-ah to sit behind a curtain and write the Ahadith reported by Abu Hurairah (ra).The scribe recorded the Ahadith. After a year he invited Abu Hurairah (ra) again and requested him to repeat what he narrated last year, and likewise ordered Abu Zu'aizi'ah to sit behind a curtain and compare the present words of Abu Hurairah with the Ahadith he had already written previously. Abu Hurairah (ra) began to repeat the Ahadith while Abu Zu'aizi'ah compared them. He found that Abu Hurairah did not leave a single word, nor did he change any word from his earlier narration's. (AE Bidayaah wa Nahayah and Wa Seer Alam al NibIaa' Lil Zahabi)

In addition, the scholars of Hadith developed the science of Asma ‘ur-Rijal by which they have deduced reliable means to test the memory power of each narrator of Ahadith. They never accepted any Hadith as reliable unless all of its narrators were proved to have high memory standards.

Thus, "memory-power" in the Science of Hadith is not a vague term of general nature. It is a technical term having specified criteria to test the veracity of narrators. A great number of scholars of the sciences of "Asma ‘ur-Rijal" and "Jarh and Ta'dil" have devoted their lives to examine the reporters of Hadith on that criteria. Their task was to judge the memory power of each narrator and to record objective opinions about them.

2. Discussions
The second source of preservation of Ahadith was by mutual discussions held by the Sahabah (raa). Whenever they came to know of a new Sunnah, they used to narrate it to others. Thus, all the Sahabah (raa) would tell each other what they had learnt from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. This was to comply with the specific directions given by the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم in this respect. Here are some Ahadith to this effect:

"Those present should convey (my Sunnah) to those absent." (Bukhari)

"Convey to others on my behalf, even though it be a single verse." (Bukhari)

"May Allah grant vigour to a person who listens to my saying and learns it by heart until he conveys it to others." (Tirmidhi)

"You hear (my sayings) and others will hear from you, then others will hear from them." (Abu Da'wud)

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم motivated the Sahabah (raa) to study the Ahadith in their meetings. The word used for this study is Tadarus which means "to teach each other." One person would narrate a particular Hadith to the other, and in turn, he would repeat it to the first, and so on. The purpose was to learn it correctly. Each one would listen to the other's version and correct his mistake, if any. The result of this Tadarus (discussion) was to remember the Ahadith as firmly as possible. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم has held this process of Tadarus to be more meritorious with Allah سبحانه وتعالى than the individual rituals of worship throughout the night.

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "Tadarus (discussion) of knowledge for any period of time in the night, is better than spending the entire night in worship" (Jam'ia Bayan at urn lbn Adul Berr) [the word ‘knowledge' in the era of Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was used to connote knowledge related to the Qur'an and the Sunnah.]

Moreover, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم has also warned, that it is a major sin to hide a word of ‘knowledge' whenever it is asked for:

"Whoever is questioned pertaining to such knowledge that he has and thereafter conceals it, will be bridled by a rein of fire." (Tirmidhi)

At another occasion the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم explained that the concealment of ‘knowledge' is in itself a major sin, even thought the person having that knowledge is not asked about it. He صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "Whoever conceals knowledge which can be benefited from, will come on the Day of Judgement bridled with a rein of fire." (Jam'ia Bayan Al Ilm Ibn Abdul Berr)

The Hadith makes it clear that the disclosure of knowledge is an inherent obligation on each knowledgeable person, no matter whether he is asked about it or not. The frequent discussions have played an important role in the preservation of the Sunnah. It was by the virtue of these discussions that the Ahadith known only by some individuals were conveyed to others, and the circle of narrators gradually expanded. Since these discussions were carried out at a time when the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was himself present among them, they had the full opportunity to confirm the veracity of what has been conveyed to them in this process, and some of them actually did so.
3. Practice
The third way of preservation of the Sunnah was to bring it into practice.

The knowledge of Sunnah was not merely a theoretical understanding, nor were the teachings of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم merely philosophical disposition. They were and are intimately connected to the affairs of this life. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم did not confine himself to giving lessons and sermons, he صلى الله عليه وسلم also trained the Sahabah (raa) practically. Whatever they absorbed from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, they spared no effort to bring it into actual practice.

Thus, the entire atmosphere was one of following the Sunnah. The Sunnah was not a verbal report only, it was a living practice, a wide spread behavior and a current fashion manifesting itself in all concerns of society, in all the affairs of their daily life.

Therefore, constant practice in accordance with dictates of the Sunnah was another major factor which advanced the process of preserving the Sunnah.

4. Writing
The fourth way of preserving the Ahadith was through the pen. Quite a large number of the Sahabah (raa) committed the Ahadith to paper after hearing them from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. It is true that in the beginning the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم had forbidden some of his Sahabah (raa) from writing anything other than the verses of the Qur'an. However, this prohibition was not because the Ahadith had no authoritative value, but because the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم had in the same breath ordered them to orally narrate his Ahadith. The full text of the relevant Hadith is as follows:

"Do not write (what you hear) from me, and whoever has written something (he heard) from me, he should erase it. Narrate to others (what you hear) from me and whoever deliberately attributes a lie to me, he should prepare his seat in the Fire." (Muslim)

The underlined phrase of the Hadith clarifies that the prohibition for writing Hadith was not on account of negating its authority. The actual reason was that in the beginning of the revelation of the Qur'an, the Sahabah (raa) were not fully familiar with the Qur'anic style, nor was the Qur'an compiled in a separate book form. In those days some Sahabah (raa) began to write the Ahadith along with the Qur'anic text. It was therefore feared that it would lead to mixing the Qur'anic text with the Ahadith.

But this was the case in the earlier period of his صلى الله عليه وسلم Prophethood. When the Sahabah (raa) became fully conversant of the style of the Qur'an and writing paper became available, this transitory measure of precaution was eliminated, because the danger of mixing the Qur'an with the Ahadith no longer existed.

At this stage, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم himself directed his companions to write down the Ahadith. Some of his instructions in this respect are quoted below:

1. One Sahabi (ra) from the Ansar complained to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم that he hears from him صلى الله عليه وسلم some Ahadith, but he sometimes forgets them. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "Seek help from your right hand and pointed to a writing." (Tirmidhi)

2. Rafe' ibn Khadij (ra), says, "I said to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم we hear from you many things, should we write them down?" He صلى الله عليه وسلم replied: "You may write. There is no harm." (Tadrib ar-Rarawi)

3. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-'Aas reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said to him: "Preserve Knowledge." He asked, "and how should it be preserved?" The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم replied "Writing it."

In another report he says, "I came to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and told him, "I want to narrate your Ahadith. So, I want to take assistance of my handwriting besides my heart. Do you deem it fit for me? The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم replied, "If it is my Hadith, you may seek help from your hand besides your heart." (Darimi)

It was for this reason that he used to write Ahadith frequently. He himself says, "I used to write whatever I heard from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and wanted to learn it by heart. Some people of the Quraysh dissuaded me and said, "Do you write everything you hear from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, while he is a human being and sometimes he may be in anger as any other human beings may be?" (Abu Da'wud)
They meant that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم might say something in a state of anger which he did not seriously intend. So, one should be selective in writing this Ahadith. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr conveyed their opinion to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. In reply, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم pointed to his lips and said,
"I swear by the One in Whose hands is the soul of Muhammad, nothing comes out from these two (lips) except truth. So, do write." (Abu Da'wud)

In compliance to this order, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr wrote a large number of Ahadith and compiled them in a book from which he named "Al Sahifah al Sadiqah."

These examples are more than sufficient to prove that the writing of Ahadith was not only permitted but also ordered by the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and that the earlier ban against writing was only for a transitory period to avoid the possible mixing between the verses of the Qur'an and the Ahadith.

After this transitory period, the fear of mixing ended, the bar was lifted and the companions were persuaded to preserve Ahadith in a written form. When we study individual efforts of the companions for compiling Ahadith, we find that thousands of Ahadith were written in the very days of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and the four Khalifs. The following is a brief account of some outstanding compilations of Ahadith in that early period. It will, at least, refute the misconception that the Ahadith were not compiled during the first three centuries!

The Transcript of Sadaqah by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin aI-'Aas

1. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم has dictated detailed documents containing rules of Shari'ah about the levying of Zakah, and specifying the amount and rate of Zakah in respect of different Zakatable assets. This document was named "al-Sahifah al Sadaqah." ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (ra) says:

"The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم dictated the Transcript of Sadaqah and it was sent to his governors when he صلى الله عليه وسلم passed away. He صلى الله عليه وسلم had attached it to his sword. When he صلى الله عليه وسلم passed away, Abu Bakr acted according to it till he passed away, then ‘Umar acted according to it till he passed away..." (Tirmidhi)

The text of this transcript is available in several books of Ahadith like the Sunan of Abu Da'wud. Imam Zuhri, the renowned scholar of Hadith used to teach this transcript to his pupils. He used to say:
"This is the text of the transcript dictated by the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم about the rules of Sadaqah (Zakah). Its original manuscript is with the children of Sayyidina ‘Umar. Salim, the grandson of ‘Umar had taught it to me. I had learnt it by heart. ‘Umar ibn Abdul-'Aziz had procured a copy of this text from Salim and ‘Abdullah, the grandsons of ‘Umar. I have the same copy with me." (Abu Da'wud)

The Script of ‘Amr b. Hazm
In 10 A.H., when Najran was liberated by the Muslims, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم appointed his Sahabi (ra) ‘Amr ibn Hazm as governor of the province of Yemen. At this time, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم dictated a detailed transcript to Ubayy ibn Ka'b and handed it over to ‘Amr ibn Hazm. This transcript, besides some general advice, contains the rules of Shari'ah about purification, Salah, Zakah, ‘Ushr, Hajj Umrah, Jihad, spoils, taxes, Diyah (blood money), administration, education etc. Sayyidina Amr lbn Hazm performed his functions as governor of Yemen in light of this transcript.

After his death this transcript remained with his grandson, Abu Bakr, Irnam Zuhri learned and copied it from him. He used to teach to his pupils. (Al-Wasaig al Siyasiyyah, Dr. Hamidullah)

The Scripts of Abu Hurairah

It is well-known that Abu Hurairah (ra) has narrated more Ahadith than any other Sahabi (ra) of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. The number of Ahadith reported by him is said to be 5374. The reason was that he, after embracing Islam, devoted his full life for the sole purpose of bearing and preserving the Ahadith of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم.

There are concrete evidences to support the understanding that he had preserved the Ahadith in written form. One of his pupils, namely, Hasan ibn ‘Amr reports that once:
"Abu Hurairah (ra) took him to his home and showed him "many books" containing the Ahadith of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم" (Jam'ia Bayan al lIm and Fath al Bari)

It shows that Abu Hurairah had many scripts of Ahadith with him. It is also established that a number of his pupils had prepared several scripts of his narrations.
The Script of Anas
Anas ibn Malik was one of those Sahabi (ra) of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم who knew writing. His mother had brought him to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم when he was ten years old. He remained with the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم for ten years during which he heard a large number of Ahadith and wrote them down. Sa'eed ibn Hilal, one of his pupils says:

When we insisted upon Anas, he would bring to us some notebooks and say, "These are what I have heard and written from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم after which I have presented them to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم for confirmation." (Mustadrak aI Hakim)

It shows that Anas (ra) had not only written a large number of Ahadith in several note books, but had also showed them to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم who had confirmed them.

The Script of ‘Ali

It is well known that ‘Ali (ra) had a script of Ahadith with him. He says:

"I have not written anything from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم except the Qur'an and what is contained in this script." (Bukhani)

Imam Bukhari has mentioned this script in six different places of his Sahih. A combined study of all those places reveals that this script was substantially large and it consisted of Ahadith about Qisas (retaliation), Diyah (blood money), Fidyah (ransom), rights of Ahlul Dhimma (non- Muslim citizens) of the Islamic State, some specific kinds of inheritance, Zakah rules pertaining to camels of different ages, and some rules about the sanctity of the city of Medinah.

The Script was written by ‘Ali (ra) in the days of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. Then, during the early days of the Khilafah, he felt that the Ahadith of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم should be spread among the people to widen the range of Islamic knowledge.

It is reported by the famous historian Ibn Sa'd that he stood in the mosque and delivered a lecture. Then he asked the people, "Who will purchase ‘knowledge' for one Dirham only?"

He meant that whoever wanted to learn Ahadith, should buy writing paper for one Dirham and come to him, for dictation of the Ahadith of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم.

Scripts of Ibn ‘Abbas
‘Abdullah ibn Abbas (ra) was the cousin of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. When the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم passed away, he was very young. In order to preserve Ahadith, he began to compile what he himself heard from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم as well as those narrated by other Sahabah (raa). Whenever he came to know of any Sahabi (ra) having some Ahadith, he would travel to him to hear them. All such Ahadith were compiled by him in several scripts. These scripts numbered so many that they could be loaded on a camel. These scripts remained with his pupil, Kuraib. Musa ibn ‘Uqbah, the famous historian says:

"Kuraib left with us a camel load of Ibn Abbas' books. When ‘All ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Abbas would need a book from them, he wrote to Kuraib, "Send for me such and such books:' He would then transcribe the book and send to him one of the two copies." (Takat ibn Sa'ad)

The pupils of Ibn Abbas (ra) would copy these scripts and read them to him to confirm the correctness of the copies. (Tirmidhi)
Sometimes Ibn Abbas (ra) would narrate the Ahadith to his pupils while they would record them. (Darimi)

Therefore, this is a proof for those Muslims with a defeated mentality and for those outside the pale of Islam who attack the Islamic Aqeedah claiming that the Ahadith are not authentic or reliable.
This brief article proves without doubt that the Sunnah of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was indeed given scrupulous attention during the life of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم.

In conclusion, the Protection of Allah سبحانه وتعالى extends over the Qur'an and the Sunnah.

Friday, October 01, 2010

Babri Masjid Verdict - The failure of the judicial system of Capitalist India

This article is Brother A. Khalid Addehlawi

The verdict on the Babri Masjid came amid a very tense & heated environment with a curfew like situation all over India. In some of the cities, an emergency holiday was declared for schools as well as offices.

The verdict on the title issue was announced and read to the public in the late after noon at the high court in Allahabad, UP. The verdict came to be a source of happiness for some and sadness for others. For the Muslims whose right to the property was taken away and their hopes to rebuild the babri masjid broken it was a sad day since they were given only 1/3rd of the disputed land and the would be allocated land for them will not be where the babri masjid stood since the title to it goes to the Hindus. The remaining 2/3 rd would go to two different Hindu parties where the Ram Janambhoomi Temple and other Hindu religious structures would be built.

This verdict which evidently is not based on solid evidences rather on possibilities and assumptions establishes a dangerous precedent and shows the fallacy and the failure of the Secular democratic system which proves that the rights of the minorities cannot be guaranteed in this system.

The major premise upon which the final verdict was given was the finding of the Archaeological survey of india (ASI) where they found certain idols and scripts in sanskrit which they claimed could have been from a temple that existed before the mosque was built, there is no historical proof that a temple ever existed in the disputed place. Further the ASI's verdict which is based on their archaelogical study is an incomplete one and prone to errors as any archaeological survey is open to debate and different inferences. It is noteworthy that the ASI did not take into consideration the fact that during the excavation there were graves and other artifacts which would prove that the site belonged to muslims prior to the building of the mosque.
The Application of the same premise with regards to the existence of artifacts or other assumptions used during this trial on an international senario will lead us to certain other conclusions, The Red Indians will have a larger right to Run the white house (and they dont need archaeological evidences to prove that, history itself is a testament to it) and further, the aborigines will have the right to drive the Aussies out of Australia and the illegal entity of Israel will have a right to build a temple in the place of Masjid al Aqsa (they already are excavating tunnels under the masjid so as to weaken its foundation after the collapse of which they will have reason to debate the existence of the temple and hence their right to build it much akin to the reality of the Babri masjid, its destruction and eventually the muslims losing the case in the favour of the hindus). There are certain evidences that even prove the visit of Israeli Security officials visiting india just before the destruction of the Babri Masjid.

1. A verdict like todays may result in devastating results for the Muslim in the geopolitical scenario.
Islam on the other hand guarantee's security and upholds the rights of the minorities that live in the Islamic State, The dhimmis (non Muslims citizens) in the Islamic state have more rights than the Muslim and the Prophet (saw) equated hurting the dhimmis to hurting himself (saw) and Allah (swt).

The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: “He who hurts a dhimmi hurts me, and he who hurts me annoys Allah.” Reported by al-Tabarani in Al-awsat on good authority.

The dhimmi enjoy the same economic benefits as Muslims. They can be employees, establish companies, be partners with Muslims and buy and sell goods. Their wealth is protected and if they are poor and unable to find work they are entitled to state benefits from the Khilafah’s Treasury (Bait ul-Mal).

Cecil Roth mentions that the treatment of the Jews at the hands of the Ottoman State attracted Jews from all over Western Europe. The land of Islam became the land of opportunity. Jewish physicians from the school of Salanca were employed in the service of the Sultan and the Viziers (ministers). In many places glass making and metalworking were Jewish monopolies, and with their knowledge of foreign languages, they were the greatest competitors of the Venetian traders.

2. Umar ibn al-Khattab once passed by an old dhimmi begging at doors, and said: “We have not done justice to you if we have taken jizya from you in the prime of your youth and neglected you in your old age.” He then ordered from the treasury what was suitable for him.

3. It was Aurangzeb the most misrepresented ruler in Indian history about the Mughal empire who constructed a huge temple in Chitrakut (Uttar Pradesh) and made arrangements for the 'bhog' at this temple for generations. The firmaan (edict) for the construction of this temple written by Aurangzeb himself is still in possession of the mahant of the temple in Chitrakut near Allahabad. This is apart from the other firmaans by the same ruler for the allocation and building of temples at mahakaleshwara, Ujjain, balaji , chitrakut, Umanand, Gauhati and the Jain of Shatrunjai and other temples and gurudwaras scattered over Northern India. These Firmaan's were issued from 1065AH (1659) to 1091AH (1685).

4. The verdicts in Islam are not given based on assumptions , hypothesis or possibilities rather they are based on solid evidences and clear proof and it is Islam that honours the rights of the minorities which is evidently non existent in the Capitalist democratic system.

The most famous example of this justice is in the legal trial of a Jew who stole the coat of Armour of Imam Ali (ra) as he was travelling to a battle. The judge Shurayh made no exception for Ali (ra) even though he was the Khaleefah, a Muslim and also off to fight in a battle so was in desperate need of his armour. Shurayh ruled in favour of the Jew and accepted his testimony in court. Although Ali had brought his son as a witness the judge according to the ahkam (rules of islam) didn’t except his son as the witness and awarded the armour to the jew. On seeing the justice the jew excepted that he had stolen the armour and he embraced Islam.

The judge knew that Ali (rA) would not be lying but since he did not have any evidence the verdict was given in favour of the thief. This incident and thousands of other incidents of Islamic history show how just the Islamic system was.

Ironically todays' judgement clearly showed that the judges even had differences among each other with Justice Sibgatullah khan denying the destruction of any temple before the construction of the mosque in the disputed place. This in itself shows the contradiction in the verdict by the court. A move to the Supreme court as proposed by many of the Muslim leaders will clearly result in a similar hopeless verdict , not because of the lack of evidences by the Muslims rather due to the failure of the Capitalist Judicial system.

Let us not forget that the Capitalist system has been unable to secure the rights of the people that live under it not to mention its failing values and systems. It is the capitalist system which has been unable to uplift the 300 Million odd dalits who are considered to be a backward caste from amongst the Hindus. Paradoxically its mind boggling that how can this system give justice when they have not even provided the dalits with the basic right to enter any Hindu Temple (Dalits, considered to be a scheduled backward caste are looked down upon by the higher castes and do not have a right to enter temples except for the ones that are earmarked for them).

Much unlike the English who massacared the Red Indians and eliminated them from existence and their culture or the Aryans who butchered the Sub Continental population thousands of years ago and destroyed their temples and drove the original population towards the south or the Spanish who undertook the inquisition and were responsible for the destruction of the Inca civilisation & the Aztecs, The khilafah made sure that the security of places of worship of all religions whether the minority or the majority was taken care of, the millions of majority Hindus, Christians and Jews and the thousands of temples existent today all over india tell a story of tolerance , peace and justice of the Islamic Khilafah.

It is the Islamic system which through its sincere leadership, The Khilafah will be able to guarantee the rights of the minorities , muslims and non muslims and uphold the sanctity of their sacred lands and establish a just and peaceful society much like it did during the Khilafah al Rashida.

The Prophet (saw) said "the Imam is a shield behind whom you fight and protect yourself.


2. Cecil Roth, ‘The House of Nasi: Dona Gracia
3. Abu ‘Ubayd al-Qasim ibn Sallam, ‘The Book of Revenue,’ Translation of Kitab al-Amwal, Garnet Publishing Ltd, p. 42
4. Singhal, Damodar Prasad (2003). A History of the Indian People, Cosmo (Publications, India); New Ed edition. ISBN 8170200148.

Nigeria: 50 Years of Colonialism

This article is written by Brother AbuAbdullah

The 1st Oct 2010 is the 50th anniversary of Nigeria. 50 years is sufficient time for a nation to formulate and execute far-reaching development programs and achieve many strategic goals. With the correct outlook, Nigeria's 900,000 square kilometers of fertile real estate coupled with its teeming population of 130 million and vast natural resources should have propelled it on an ascending trajectory of sound development and sustainable growth. Regrettably, the reality is far from this. In five decades of self-determination it has little to show that is proportional to the bounties Allah سبحانه وتعالى has blessed it with.

From the outset, the formation of pre-independence Nigeria implanted seeds of decline, chief among them - tribal division. In 1939 the British colonialists carved out 3 regions dominated by the major tribes of the Igbo from the East, the Yoruba of the West and the Hausa-Fulani of the north resulting in an uneasy coexistence lasting beyond independence. Instead of creating social cohesion, the colonial construct introduced a confused national identity concerning what it means to be Nigerian that is inadequately defined to this day (as attempted by the "federal character principle", formulated in 1975). The absence of a comprehensive and distinct unifying factor amplified the ethnic disparity of over 250 ethno-linguistic groups. The situation remained unresolved until the departure of the British in 1960. Ethnic enmity, vying for political supremacy and military coups and counter coups, became the defining factor of the post independence relationship. The Igbo's attempt to secede from this unstable arrangement ignited the flames of the Biafra Civil War, which lasted from July 1967 to January 1970, claiming nearly 2 million lives to the war and famine.

The Federal system of governing imposed by the colonial masters accentuated the divisions of society contributing to Nigeria's defragmentation. This is most clearly displayed at the Local Government Area (LGA) level which have multiplied six-fold since 1963, from 131 to 774. In the absence of viable options, this weak man-made system drives the disheartened to identify with alternative structures based on faith, ethnicity or region. This exacerbates the issue as it contributes to further breakdown of social cohesion in society, spiraling dangerously into decline. Inter-communal tensions (like the recurring crises in Plateau State) that have caused more than 14,000 deaths since 1999 and displaced more than 3 million are direct outcomes of this. Creeping State failure is a widespread consequence of this cycle.

A system of Failure
Systemic failure has also caused shrinkage of citizen loyalty and gradual disconnection between the public and the State. Consequently, Nigeria's citizens have ceased to expect reliable social services, functioning public utilities, infrastructure, security and corruption-free administration from their government. It is a deplorable, yet common, feature in this resource rich country to discover households generating electricity for personal consumption from generator units, sinking boreholes or wells for water supply and employing private security firms for their safety requirements.

Nigeria's misfortunes were immediately blamed on military dictators that ruled the country for 29 out of the 50 years of its post-independence. Six successful military coups contributed to the crystallization of this opinion. Consequently, tremendous public expectations accompanied the 20 May 1999 transfer of power from General Abubakar's military government to civilian rule of General Olusegun Obasanjo (rtd). Nonetheless, the transfer to democracy did little to improve the lot of the majority of the population. High hopes were completely dashed as continuing political malpractice, economic banditry and social frustration were the only ‘dividends of democracy'. Nigerians deplored the new situation observing that corruption was as high as under military rule or even higher. Muted calls to revert to military rule started to surface in some quarters.

The Majority of the population do not see an exit strategy from the ills and social upheavals bedeviling Nigerian society. A sense of hopelessness and despair prevails causing large swathes of the masses to retreat into the comfort of prayer, pursuing religious deliverance from temporal adversity. Religious establishments and networks have sprouted everywhere catering to, or cashing in on, this new spiritual commodity.

The despair of the population is only matched by its extreme level of poverty. The scale of economic decrepitude is most apparent in the oil sector. It is remarkable that a nation, which is the world's seventh largest crude oil producer, has 70 percent of its population eking out a living on less than N150 ($1) a day. Nigeria has earned more than $400 billion in oil revenues since the early 1970's yet it has not transformed into a better standard of living for the masses. Overdependence on oil has skewed the economy rendering once productive areas like agriculture and solid minerals into non-performing sectors. Despite the massive exports of 2.1 million barrels of oil per day Nigeria fails to refine sufficient petroleum products for its own domestic consumption forcing it to resort to importation. An industrialized base to support national development never materialized from the riches gushing from the ground either. Industrialization projects were liable to experience slow and gradual deaths. An ambitious steel industrialization project at Ajaokuta Steel Mills was started in 1979. 31 years later the complex is yet to roll off a single steel sheet, having succumbed to Nigeria's unwritten rule of non-sustainability.

The nation began to unravel from Independence and the subsequent descent into chaos of the first Republic set an unfortunate tone for the future of the country. Nigeria appears doomed to oscillate between the twin disasters of military rule and ‘the democratic experiment'. It is in freefall as the political-elite class scurry to plunder its wealth. Racially based secessionist groups like O'Odua People's Congress (OPC) from the Yoruba and the Movement for the Actualisation of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) of the Igbos emerged, indicating persistent frailty in the governing system of the country.

Nigeria's chronic problems transcend proposed remedial solutions like constitutional reform, administrative transparency and institution building or mere policy recommendations. What is required is a complete alternative outlook that will transform the foundation of society and change the current systems. This is a practical possibility with historical precedence.

This alternative is Islam, which has a unique propensity to initiate quantum changes in society. This derives from its universal viewpoint that provides solutions to human problems in life. The universal viewpoint, which is the aqeedah, maintains that Allah سبحانه وتعالى created the universe and all that it contains, organizing and sustaining it. Messengers were sent to direct mankind to the recognition of their Creator and subsequent submission to the Organizer of life. Man's devotion and servitude is expressed by his adherence to the systems that resolve the numerous challenges he faces in life. These systems came codified in general principles, rules and regulations best known as the Shari'ah. The widespread misconception that Islam is a limited set of personal beliefs and rituals is a secularized view that truncates its real scope and purpose.

When the Khilafah State applied the Islamic ideology, it completely eradicated tribal discrimination, a source of social friction and division in Nigeria today. It replaced it with the Islamic bond, forming a stable foundation for a cohesive society. History bears witness to this unparalleled success. It transformed peoples, like the Arabs wallowing in the abyss of darkness and bloody tribal feuds, to the elevation of the ideological bond. Consequently, the majority of the peoples which Islam ruled left their religions and entered the deen of Islam willingly and not by force. Allah سبحانه وتعالى says:
لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ
"There is no compulsion in religion." [2:256]

Non-Muslims of Nigeria will not be forced to abandon their religion to embrace the aqeedah of Islam; their lives, rituals, wealth, customs and places of worship are protected. The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

"He who hurts a dhimmi hurts me, and he who hurts me annoys Allah." [Tabarani]

"He who kills a dhimmi enjoying the oath of Allah and the oath of His Messenger, then he has betrayed the oath of Allah so he shall not smell the scent of Jannah; its scent is found the distance of a seventy year march." [Tirmidhi]

Yet the Shari'ah of Islam is applied upon them to solve their societal problems. Islam views man in his capacity as a human being who requires solutions to his problems in life. Non-Muslims in Nigeria taste the bitter pills of insecurity, corruption, resource mismanagement and theft of public wealth by officeholders, similar to Muslims. The Shari'ah of Islam addresses these types of numerous societal problems and solves them comprehensively.

To cite an example, wealth in the Khilafah state is divided into three categories: private property, public property and state property. It is the state that maintains and protects these in accordance with the laws of the Shari'ah.

Focusing on Public property the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
"People are partners in three; Water, Pastures and Fire." [Abu Daud, Ibn Maajah]

The term 'fire' here includes all forms of energy used as fuel in industry. The category of Public ownership includes all minerals whether they are solids like copper, iron or gold, liquid like oil or gaseous like natural gas. The state ensures that every citizen gets his rightful share of public property. Oilfields and the mineral mines in the Khilafah state are not owned by the state where it exercises its will over such resources similar to the Communist system. Nor do individuals own it, as is the case in the Capitalist system.

In Nigeria all oil production is by means of joint ventures with foreign oil companies like between Shell Oil and the government known as Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited (SPDC). Shell Nigeria accounts for fifty percent of Nigerian's total oil production. The company has more than 100 producing oil fields, and a network of more than 6,000 kilometers of pipelines, running through 87 flow stations. Mixing up the categories of property by permitting ownership of public property by private individuals and enterprises on grounds of free market economy, privatization and globalization invariably results in fraud and institutionalized looting of public resources. The primary focus of private business is profit-making, public interests and environmental matters are not accounting measurements on balance sheets. This encourages corruption of officeholders as private companies resort to illegal practices like bribery to obtain favorable contracts or licensing rights. Officeholders collude with private enterprise, using political power to misappropriate valuable resource for personal gain. The Halliburton Bonny Liquefied Natural Gas Project bribery scandal that started in 1994 is an example.

Inadequate oil wealth distribution also illustrates the dangerous outcomes associated with improper classification of property in the current capitalist framework. The ‘derivation principle' designed to address oil revenue allocation since 1960 through to 2004 failed to quell disgruntled elements within the oil producing areas. This contributed to the rise of militant groups like Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP), Niger Delta People's Volunteer Force (NDPVF) and Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) who seek economic redress through violent means.

The problem is not confined to the economic sphere alone, it manifests in ruling as well. Drawbacks associated with military rule like election rigging, national resource mismanagement and strong-arm politics were found to equally exist in civilian rule also. Between 2000 and 2007 Obasanjo's government spent $16 billion fixing the endless power problems with no results after 7 years except a huge gap in the national reserves. Close scrutiny of these bitter experiences reveals the underlying factor hindering the revival of Nigeria is the continued application of the man-made system ruining the lives of the people.

Islam is the only ideology capable of building society on a sound footing, securing the lives of the people and guaranteeing the rights of citizen's, whether Muslim or not. It is the only alternative left for Nigeria today, the exit strategy from British colonial legacy. Nigeria should not spend another 50 years to learn this fact.