Monday, December 26, 2011

The Rights & Duties Towards Parents - Part 1

The following is the introduction of the upcoming English translation of the book 'The Son - With his Father and Mother' by Sheikh Yousuf Baadarani (May Allah protect him) from Revival Publications


Young and as an adult, I was near my father and mother, I could do without this world and its comforts. My father (May Allah (swt) have mercy upon him) was one of life's great schools. He was merciful to people and with them as if he was a walking heart, pure and purified of wickedness and meanness in his speech and deeds. He lived eighty years with a pure tongue, no one ever heard him utter an obscene word. In his eighty years no one knew him to have done a bad thing, always abstaining from anything improper, striving to do good and reconciling adversaries.

He used to speak to me about his relationship with his father, how he had raised him, and how he did obey his father. May Allah (swt) have mercy upon him, he had no mother for she died when he was an infant, but his father loved him and brought him up well. Every time his father used to order him to do something and my father was reluctant to do it, his father would tell him "do that and I will be pleased from you and bless you. If so, by His Grace promise I guarantee you bounty from Allah (swt) in this life and paradise in the Hereafter. On other occasions, his father used to tell him "do what pleases me my son and Allah (swt) will do what pleases you in this life and in the Hereafter". Every time-my father (May Allah (swt) have mercy upon him) would say-I used to do without hesitation what my father used to ask me to do, he liked asking me to do things. It seems to me as if Allah (swt) had clothed him with the light of His blessings in this world, for everyone who knew him loved him. Allah (swt) has distinguished him with people's love, so they loved him with gratitude and brotherhood for his fame in his honesty and integrity, through his reputation without ever seeing him. Allah (swt) Most High distinguished the Prophet Yusuf with beauty, kindness and purity when He protected him from falling into the satanic temptation. Allah (swt), Glory be to Him, bestowed on my father a natural disposition for integrity which in my whole life I have not seen its equal from any other man. Allah (swt) honoured him with His good pleasure in this world, it was like an announcement to people that he will be among those forgiven on the Day of Reckoning, and out of dutifulness to him, I beg the Exalted in Might, the Forgiver, to grant him that.

As for my mother, she was absolutely obedient to my father. She used to guard his secrets in his absence, talk about his good qualities, and never leave the house except with his permission. She was keen to do what he liked and refrain from doing what he disliked. She obeyed Allah (swt) in her life with him, loved him, was extremely loyal to him and was generous and giving in trying to make him happy and in raising us on obeying him.

Her loyalty reached to the point that for tens of years of her marriage she invoked Allah (swt) to let her follow him if he died before she did. Her invocation was answered when two months after his death she followed him, even before finishing half the prescribed period of mourning for a wife; maybe souls do meet before they are resurrected. She was an example of a wife's devotion to her husband.

By this great love I have for them, and in order to extinguish the fire of lamentation in my heart, and as an atonement for my failure in not being sufficed of enough Godly reward for dutifulness to them. In fulfillment of my duty to the new generations of Muslims, I found this search into the jurisprudence of dutifulness and undutifulness toward one's parents to be an urgent need for every son and daughter wishing to gain a bigger share of the reward for obeying Allah (swt) through obeying the parents, if the opportunity is still favorable for completing the fortification of the Muslim family so that through it Allah (swt) will defeat Satan and so that it will turn into a fortress which protects the tenets of Allah (swt)'s religion on this earth. What encouraged me to write about the subject of dutifulness to parents is my reading of the book "Kindness to parents" by Abu Bakr al-Tartouchi, verified by Muhammad Abd El-Hakim al-Kadi from the Muassassat al-kutub al-thakafiah publishing firm – Beirut. And the book "Kindness to parents" by Abu Faraj, Ibn al-Jawzi, verified by Muhammad Abd El-Kader Ahmed Ata from the same publishing firm.

Ibn al-Jawzi says in his introduction: (so I saw that I should write a book concerning legally binding matters, so that the heedless will be awakened and the prudent reminded. I have arranged it into sections and chapters, may Allah (swt) guide me to do what is right,) the end. But upon reading the book, I found that it is merely a listing of the sayings of the Prophet (hadiths) with no explanation worth mentioning and some narratives of righteous and pious people handed down through tradition. I found also that the verifier -may Allah (swt) forgive him- did not bother to point out the weakness of many of the hadiths found therein as al-Kadi pointed out in his verification of al-Tartushi book (may Allah (swt) reward him for it). The verifier Ata was satisfied to mention the narrators of hadiths and its sources without paying attention to the viability of the hadith or to its weakness. That is why we have relied in most of the hadiths we cited on the verification of al-Kadi in the Tartoushi book. However, we have used very few hadiths described as weak, pointing out that when citing one of them, and that was for two reasons:

1- Because it is concurrent with a sound strong hadith.

2- Because it is concurrent with correct Islamic understanding of the subject under study.

We did not consider it a basis for understanding because for that we must have an ayah (a verse of the Qur'an) or a correct hadith or the consent of the Prophet's companions (May Allah (swt) be pleased with them). We didn't even consider it as a proof because we have at our disposal the correct hadith concurrent with it. For the two books were mainly made up of listings of the Prophet's hadiths concerning dutifulness to parents, maintaining good relations with one's relatives and undutifulness to parents, and neither of them can be considered as a book treating these subjects. I was amazed to read in the Tartushi book "kindness to parents" what he wrote concerning thankfulness and dividing it into three categories: Thankfulness in the heart, thankfulness on the tongue, and thankfulness with the limbs.

I found the verses which he cited from the Qur'an as an illustration to his division of thankfulness to have no relation to these divisions nor can they be used as a proof of any division. Thankfulness itself is a deed and a duty imposed from Allah (swt), therefore it is one divine command, indivisible, because it is similar to all the other obligations carried out after faith has become firmly established in the heart, either by the tongue through advocating or with the limbs, by adhering to it in action. Therefore the divisions he made are in reality the manner in which all legal duties are carried out: belief and action by words and deeds. This is the way to express thankfulness. I can only explain the division he made as the result of being carried away in his explanation and I don't believe he wanted to say it is part of Islamic jurisprudence.

The subject of kindness to parents is part of the subject of life and of the point of view of Islam concerning life. It holds special importance at this time, the time of isolating Islam from the mainstream of life. The time of purposely keeping Islamic thoughts and concepts from influencing the way a Muslim lives. The time of banning actual adherence to Allah (swt)'s religion, the time of living totally in the obedience of evil and under its total control of all aspects of our lives, whether moral, financial, educational, social or political. At this time of total assimilation into currents lost in aberrance, a time in which the Islamic Ummah (the community of Muslims) lives like sheep; one generation after another dies without any of them leaving a trace that they had lived in the obedience of Allah (swt). Each generation after the other or rather each individual of one generation after the other dies the death of ignorance prevailed before Islam. That he died without pledging allegiance to any Caliph ruling in accordance with the great Qur'an of Allah (swt), the traditions of His Messenger, Muhammad, the son of Abdullah (peace is upon him) and the consent of his righteous honoured companions. Yet, he is accorded funeral prayers, and mercy of Allah (swt) asked for him, as though he died after a life lived in accordance with Allah (swt)'s religion!

The Prophet (peace is upon him) used not to perform funeral prayer for a believer who had died owing money, no matter how small is the amount. His honourable companions refrained to perform funeral prayer for a believer who died without carrying out the hajj to the House of Allah (swt) at Mecca. All of that, while the rule according to Allah (swt)'s religion was present, and the Caliph, successor of Allah (swt)'s Prophet (peace is upon him) was at the head of the state. Ruling according to the injunctions of Allah (swt) and His Prophet, raising the banner of Jihad, working day and night to uproot the systems of unbelief and to establish the rule of Islam. Carrying Allah (swt)'s call to Islam through actual application of the rules of Allah (swt)'s religion among people in their relationships, in solving their problems and in their entire daily concerns and affairs. While all the people are taking upon themselves the call to Islam by actually applying its rules in every case, concern, relationship, issue, need, desire, emotion, idea, deed, movement, wherever they settle and whatever they encounter

At this time, the time of the rule of evil, the human Satan, evil refuses to let us organize a single relationship or solve a single problem according to our religion - which we claim to profess - the religion of Islam. Not because he hates us, for Satan hates the believers who adhere to Islamic rules, as for those whom he succeeded in convincing that they are believers while they do not adhere to life of Islam, to its thoughts and rules, these are his lovers whom he truly loves. And they are his worshippers who believe him and who obey him in every matter and accept his every word. For he raised them to go through the journey of life and to deal with its concerns in ways other than the Islamic way, not adhering to the tenets of Islam but convinced that they are Muslims and are adhering to Islamic teachings.

At this time, we present dutifulness to parents. A subject, an entrance to a life of belief for subsequent Muslim generations so that they would chose a new path for their lives other than that of those who submitted to and accepted the rule and domination of other than Allah (swt) over their life and death. And a gateway to living the life of the companions of the Prophet (peace is upon him, his family and his companions until the Day of Resurrection).

The lives of the companions of the Prophet (May Allah (swt) be pleased with them) were dedicated to the obedience of Allah (swt). For when they were praying facing Jerusalem and learned that Allah (swt)'s decree has descended making Ka'bah their Qibla (their direction in prayer), they turned in their prayer to face Ka'bah rather than continue facing Jerusalem, not one prayer in the disobedience of Allah (swt). So they performed part of their prayer facing Jerusalem and the remaining part facing Mecca. And then while they were drinking wine, they heard the caller for guidance and faith announcing that a divine revelation was sent down to the Prophet declaring the drinking of wine unlawful, they did not finish swallowing what they had in their mouths. They poured the wine out of their glasses, spat it out of their throats and broke its jugs until the wine streamed down the alleys. And if any of them was with his bride on that first night and the caller to heaven called to Jihad as a short, fast or rather swift way of getting there, the bridegroom would leave his bride, hurrying in taking his purification bath. And in his ablution and prayer and in his farewell, light of burdens, indifferent to what he has left behind. Looking forward with haste to victory from Allah (swt) or martyrdom, fighting the armies of the heathen in order to spread Allah (swt)'s mercy by placing people under the rule of Allah (swt)'s justice. Generations lived in belief, raising the banner of ‘there is no God but Allah (swt) and Muhammad is His Messenger’ and died bearing witness to Allah (swt)'s oneness, with the commitment to abide by Allah (swt)'s rules in every matter and every case.

Our present generations are living in aberrance, they essentially abandoned all of Allah (swt)'s religion, even if they perform their prayers, fast, erect mosques, pay their zakat (obligatory almsgiving), and perform their hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). They abandoned the call to Islam when they abandoned their adherence to Allah (swt)'s rules. Because the root of following all the tenets of Allah (swt)'s religion, of the Qur'an, and of the traditions of the Prophet (peace is upon him) is dependent on having as a ruler a caliph who would rule according to the Islamic system. For in the absence of an entity ruled by the Islamic system, evil, Satan's foster child, will rule.

If the preceding generations had adhered to the tenets of Islam, evil would not have continued to rule and dominate us, not for a single day. Because establishing the rule of Islam is an obligation imposed by Allah (swt), it is an Islamic legal matter. And every legal matter has a legal manner for its application imposed by Allah (swt) and His Prophet; so what if a rule and a duty is at the basis of all of Allah (swt)'s rules for people and among them. The Prophet (peace is upon him) established Allah (swt)'s rule as soon as the Muslims became capable of adhering to the rules of their religion and as soon as the Qur'anic revelations descended from Allah (swt) dictating the Islamic system. when the revelation descended on the Prophet (peace is upon him) explaining Allah (swt)'s rules and system through the Prophet's speech, deeds, and things he kept silent about.

Dutifulness to parents is a call addressed to all Muslims asking them to stop a moment and accept Islam the way Allah (swt) wants them, and orders them by to adopt in comprehension and application. One rule after the other in one matter after the other, whole, encompassing all their lives' concerns; putting their lives in order with its rules and solutions to their affairs and problems. In order to change their lives from living under Allah (swt)'s wrath and displeasure to a life of obedience to Allah (swt) and His Prophet (peace is upon him). In their striving to earn His good pleasure, of aspiring for His forgiveness and mercy, and for the reward of an eternal life in His paradise.

Adhering to Islamic rules, is what turns life into an Islamic life and transforms society into an Islamic society and changes the system of government, which stems from satanic suggestion and thought. The system which rules according to blasphemy and drags the Ummah toward a doomed fate, the hell of the misleader and the misled of this life. And in the Hereafter, on the threshold of a Hell-Fire which was made to burn fiercely by the Avenger, the Supreme Power, the Creator of the universe, and of every animal, plant and inanimate object. The Satan of every individual stands before him, making fun of the stupidity of his follower, ridiculing the insignificance of the one who left Allah (swt)'s religion in this life and believed his deceptions and lies and followed his temptation, and tells him "... I had no authority over you, except to call you, but you listened to me..." Holy Qur'an 14: 22.

After reading and comprehending the injunctions concerning kindness to parents found in the verses of the Holy Qur'an, and in the sayings and traditions of the faithful Messenger (peace is upon him). The wise son who understands what he reads cannot but immediately and before finishing the reading of this book, change into a dutiful son if he was not so due to his ignorance of the principles and rules concerning kindness to parents. Or into a more dutiful son to his parents if he was so through a natural disposition given to him by Allah (swt) to do well and obey his parents. This immediate transfer to obeying Allah (swt)'s injunctions in a matter that the Muslim was ignorant of Allah (swt)'s rule is the repentance accepted by Allah (swt) through this mercy for the obedient. And is the only way to adopt Islam in the manner ordered by Allah (swt), and is also the only way to make faith and striving to earn Allah (swt)'s good pleasure prevalent in all of life's concerns. It is the way to carry the call to Islam to be firmly established, clearly explained and taught in Muslim countries, and to call non-Muslims to adopt the Islamic religion through understanding and application in life's matters. It is alone the way for the advancement of Muslims, because for the nation to adopt a certain point of view of life, adherence to the thoughts and conceptions connected to it. And whatever stemming from it of conceptions and mental rules of behavior, is the only path for the advancement of nations, their advancement being tied to the refinement of the principle they adopt.

Thus nations move in their decline and deviation from the ascending line relative to the measure of their deviation from its principle and abandonment of it. The Muslim Ummah having in reality abandoned its Islamic principle as a point of view of life, code of conduct, and systems for life's activities. We find it to have become a nation that has reached the lowest levels of decline that a nation can reach because of abandoning its principle. It is true that the unbelieving nations live in a depraved condition much baser than that of Muslims but that is a measure of degeneration by Islamic standards and not by standard of their principle, for unbelief is the basest level a human being can reach.

Hence we see the unbelieving nations exercising total authority over Muslims. Dominating their existence and the formation of that existence. Imposing on them their systems of rule and their laws, imposing the bad application of those systems and laws. Dominating their human resources and wealth, making plans to build up and manage those resources and the channels for spending that wealth. Dominating every aspect of their public lives, every one of their capabilities and the direction their lives should take in order to keep the Muslim Ummah in life's quagmire in which it lies. All of this is due to the adherence of these unbelieving nations to their principle of which is how to spread their ideas in order to secure its dominance. This adherence to their principle, no matter how corrupt or unsuccessful in dealing with the facts of life, makes it imperative to constantly go forward forcibly in achieving those aims. No matter how base are the roots of those thoughts; and because of that forward force, none of its masters notice how corrupt it is and how failing are its proposed solutions. While we the Muslims are people who have abandoned their principle and became an Ummah without a method for moving forward first. As Islam as an ideology for life is a way of life, a system of relations and solutions of life's matters that stems from it holding the same dogma. And because its values and its aims are defined by Allah (swt) Who defined its dogma and sent down the details of its system in the form of revelations received by the Prophet (peace is upon him). It is the only doctrine that moves the one who adheres to it with an ascending rising force rather than a forward force. When they abandoned Islam as a complete, independent and distinct way of life, they lost the direction of its ascending rising path secondly.

The one who is on an ascending path, if he does not continue to recharge his energy with the necessary force to resist the degree of height he reached, will soon be incapable even of staying at his position. Will fall downward with a force equal to the pressure exerted by the degree of height he was at, and will not stop until he hits bottom, this is the state in which is living the Islamic Ummah with all its different peoples. The Islamic Ummah will remain at this bottom it reached in spite of all the attempts to make it rise without the awareness of and the adherence to the tenets of Allah (swt). That is without adopting Islam as it is in reality, a dogma and a basis for all thought and a system for all of life's matters. Every attempt to make it rise and every call for its regeneration - and hundreds of attempts and thousands of calls were made - using thoughts and methods other than the thoughts and methods of Islam is a call with Satan behind it. Because it is a call and an attempt of falsehood, mere calls to diverting and blinding the sights so that the path for the real advancement of Islam will not be recognized. All of these are outlets through which to channel the renewed vigor of the Islamic Ummah and to lessen the surge of piety passed on from one generation to the next. Attempts of betrayal of Allah (swt)'s religion and its people and a conspiracy to keep the Muslims from following the right path. Every Islamic call through a way different than the Islamic way is a deceit to Muslims. Even if it were opposed by the rule of falsehood, as a deception, on the ground that it is Islam. So people would believe it because of their ignorance of the conspiracies of the human Satan, that it is the right path so that they would support it as Islamic, while in fact a human Satan controls it. It would then be a mere ferry for Muslims from a stable guarded by unbelievers to a stable guarded by those who pretend to be Muslims and pious; and the Muslims will remain in the new Satanic stable at the bottom in which other Muslims live in other stables.

Indeed, dutifullness to parents is a basic duty in Islam, but as with any other Islamic duty, if the Muslim carries it out because Allah (swt) ordered him to and in the manner ordered by Allah (swt) and His Prophet, then it would be a deed and a life lived in faith. But if he does it for a reason of which he is convinced other than that it is a duty imposed by Allah (swt). It would be a deed done for the sake of the deed objective and not for earning Allah (swt)'s good pleasure by carrying out His commands, would be a deed and a life lived in unbelief. For the result of a deed is realized no matter what is the ideology that deed was based on. However, the deed of faith cannot be realized except by combining the belief in faith which is complying with Allah (swt)'s injunctions in carrying out the deed with the deed itself done according to the Islamic legal manner. This applies to all the tenets of Islam, and that is what the companions of Allah (swt)'s Messenger and the generations of believers that followed them did. That is what the successors of the Prophet (peace is upon him) the caliphs who ruled after him did, as well as those who came after them, may Allah (swt) reward them with the best of rewards.

The Muslims did not live a life of unbelief. And their way of life was never one of the ways of unbelief all the time the Islamic Ummah was in existence ever since it was founded by the Prophet's call to Islam and until the demise of the Islamic state in the year 1924. But today the Ummah in its totality is living under the umbrella of unbelief, and most of the Ummah does deeds for the sake of objectives without looking into its legality in Islam. And if one carries out a deed because it is an Islamic duty, he does not look for the manner defined by Islamic law. All of that is an abandonment of Islamic jurisprudence because obeying the tenets of Allah (swt) is realizing an aim from a deed in a way explained by the Islamic law on how to carry out that deed. Abandoning one of these two matters is in fact an abandonment of Allah (swt)'s laws and a carrying out of that deed in a manner contradictory to life direction of striving to be obedient to Allah (swt) and to earn His good pleasure.

This, emphatically is a manifest source of unbelief that no one can deny. It is the unbelief lived by the Islamic Ummah and it is the reason why it remains at the bottom, which is the quagmire in which it lives. All of this, made it imperative to ask our rising generations in this book ‘The son with his Father and Mother’, to undertake the procedure of faith and belief to be a part of every deed. By making sure that the deed to be carried out is a duty, or is recommended, allowed, forbidden or undesirable. If it were forbidden, to immediately refrain from doing it, if allowed leading to something forbidden one knows that it has become forbidden also refrains from doing it. If it was an obligation, to explore the lawful way to do it then immediately carry it out. If it was recommended or allowed and wanted to do it, he should also ask for the lawful way to do it and abide by it. If it was undesirable and he chose not to do it, Allah (swt) will reward him generously for that, but if he decides to do it, he should do so according to the Islamic lawful way.

If these generations were dutiful to their parents because this is a duty imposed by Allah (swt) and in the manner described by Allah (swt)'s Messenger (peace is upon him). A duty equals to Jihad in the religion of Allah (swt) if the Muslims do not need the participation of a lone dutiful son in the call to Islam through Jihad. It would become easy for them to pave their way in this life by adhering to Allah (swt)'s injunctions in all their worldly matters. Through this adherence, the Ummah will return, with the blessings of Allah (swt), the Mighty, the Supreme Power, to the path of regeneration which was lost for a period of time.

By this second book and the first ‘The wife with her husband’, the system of living within the family - A fortress fortified by Allah (swt) and His Prophet is complete – as per Allah (swt)'s guidance to us in His piety. It is a complete system sent from Allah (swt), the Exalted One, the Knowing, an integral part of the Islamic system of life with its joys and sorrows, achievements and failures, prosperity and calamities. A definite duty of every Muslim who believes in Allah (swt) as the Lord, Creator, Master of the Day of Judgment. And in the Qur'an, an honourable book relayed by the Most Gracious, Most Merciful upon the heart of Allah (swt)'s Prophet and Messenger, the faithful Muhammad (peace is upon him). A book which does not leave a small or a great matter in life without clarifying the laws connected to it, a book free of shortcomings and contradictions, complete in its laws, sent by Allah (swt) out of mercy for those who believe in Him. And a warning to all of those who oppose Him and disbelieve in Him; and every Muslim who believes that the Prophet and Messenger Muhammad, the son of Abdullah (peace is upon him) is the last of Allah (swt)'s messengers to all of mankind. He sent him as a mercy for all the people; whoever believe in him and in his message and abide by that message will escape Allah (swt)'s wrath and the torment of Hell.

He is who thinks or believes that to abide by the rules of the family, a fortress fortified by Allah (swt) and His Messenger, enrich him enough not to obey Allah (swt)'s rules in other matters of life, for Islam is an indivisible whole. And the one who believes that it can be divided into areas: one area in which it is not permissible for him to disobey Allah (swt), and an area in which it is permissible for him to disobey Allah (swt), is living with the mentality and psyche of Satan itself. That is because only Allah (swt) decrees what are Allah (swt)'s injunctions and what are His prohibitions. The one who decree what is allowed and what is prohibited, places himself in a seat in which he is equal to the Divine Power; I seek refuge with Allah (swt) from this unbelief which is the highest level of unbelief and the most contemptible to Allah (swt). Obedience and dutifulness are in fact obedience to Allah (swt) and dutifulness to Allah (swt)'s covenant. All of which is compliance with Allah (swt)'s injunctions, striving and endeavoring to earn Allah (swt)'s good pleasure, for the sake of earning His reward and justification to have His mercy and blessings. We ask Allah (swt) to have mercy on us and to guide us to His religion and help us know the lawful method He imposes in adhering to His Prophet's rules. We ask Him that the reader of Allah (swt)'s injunctions on obedience or dutifulness transforms into an adherent to Islamic thought and dogma. And a carrier of the call to Islam as a way of life by adhering to the rules of Allah (swt)'s laws in the way he lives, in forming his ideas and in the manner in which he carries out his deeds.

Saturday, December 24, 2011

The Prohibition of Christmas Greetings or Celebrations

The celebration of Christmas or any of the holidays and occasions of the Kuffar is certainly Haram in Islam. Muslims are not permitted to celebrate them at all since it is considered an imitation of the Kuffar. Imitating the Kuffar in any of their religious affairs or in any gesture that distinguishes them is forbidden.

Al-Bukhari narrated in his Sahih that Abu Said Al-Khudri (ra) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

“You will indeed follow the ways of those before you, hand span by hand span, and an arms length after another. Even if they enter into a lizard’s hole, you will follow them.”

We asked, “Is it the Jews and the Christians” He (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) replied, “Who else!”

This hadith condemns the imitation of the Jews and the Christians. It is an evidence for the prohibition of imitating the Jews and the Christians in their religious occasions, symbols or any matter related to their belief. Celebrating Christmas is an act of imitation that is forbidden in Islam. The Messenger (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) warned us against it.

At-Tirmidhi narrated that Ibn Abbas (ra) reported that the Prophet (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

“He is not one of us who imitates other than us. Do not imitate the Jews or the Christians.”

At-Tabarani and Abu Dawud narrated that Ibn Umar and Hudhaifah (ra) reported that the Prophet (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

“Whoever imitates a people, he is one of them.”

Furthermore, there are many Islamic evidences that forbid the Muslims from having holidays other than Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha. Al-Baihaqi reported in his Sunan that Anas bin Malik (ra) said: “When the Prophet (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) came to Madinah, the people had two holidays from the days of Jahilliyah.” He (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

“When I came to you, you had two days which you used to celebrate in Jahilliyah. Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’ala) has replaced them for you with better days, the days of slaughter (Adha) and the day of Fitr.”

Also Imam Ahmad in his Musnad reported that Uqbah bin Amir (ra) reported the Prophet (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) to have said:

“The day of Fitr and days of Tashriq are our holidays, the people of Islam.”
In the chapter entitled
"on the abhorrence of entering the churches of Ahl Al-Dhimmah (people of the covenant) on the occasion of their New Year and other celebrations" Al-Bayhaqi reported the following narration:

"'Umar (ra) said: "Do not enter upon the polytheists in their churches on their feast-days, for the Wrath (of Allaah) is descending upon them." He also said: "Avoid the enemies of Allaah on their festivals."

It was also reported that 'Abdullaah Ibn 'Amr (ra) said: "Whoever lives in the land of the non-Arabs (non-Muslims) and celebrates their New Year and their festivals, and imitates them until he dies in that state, will be gathered with them on the Day of Resurrection." He mentioned - and Allaah knows best - the one who lives in their land, because at the time of 'Abdullaah Ibn 'Amr and the other Companions, they used to forbid open celebration of non-Islamic festivals in the Muslim lands, and none of the Muslims imitated them in their festivals; that was possible only when living in the lands of the non-Muslims.

Ibn Al-Qayyim (rh) said in Ahkaam Ahl Al-Dhimmah: "Congratulating the non-Muslims on the rituals that belong only to them is Haram by consensus, as is congratulating them on their festivals and feasts by saying: 'A happy festival to you' or 'May you enjoy your festival,' and so on. If the one who says this has been saved from disbelief, it is still forbidden. It is like congratulating someone for prostrating to the cross, or even worse than that. It is as great a sin as congratulating someone for drinking wine, or murdering someone, or having illicit sexual relations, and so on. Many of those who have no respect for their religion fall into this error; they do not realize the offensiveness of their actions. Whoever congratulates a person for his disobedience or Bid'ah (innovation) or disbelief exposes himself to the Wrath and Anger of Allaah."

Also see:

Christmas – A Celebration of Capitalism

Christmas time - will you be going to the party?

Friday, December 16, 2011

The Khawarij and the Rulers of the Muslim world

With the beginning of the uprisings in the Arab world some scholars now and again issued fatawa against the revolutionaries and the groups active in the uprisings and declared it haram to rebel against the rulers, some even termed them as "Khawarij". This article will discuss the "Khawarij" and its meaning and its application in detail and reality and the ruling of rebelling against the ruler and whether those who protest/rebel are be considered as "Khawarij".
Who are the Khawarij ?
As the word "Khawarij" denotes, It is a group that is involved in the disruption of the unity of the Muslims, so they rebel against the Khaleefah who has been given the Bai'ah (pledge of allegiance) by the people of power (ahlul halli wal aqd) and has been appointed as the Imam for the Muslims.
قال الشهرستاني في كتابه الملل والنحل : كلّ من خرج على الإمام الحقّ الذي اتّفقت الجماعة عليه يُسَمّى خارجيّاً سواء كان الخروج في أيّام الصحابة على الأئمة الراشدين أو ( من) كان بعدهم على التابعين لهم بإحسان والأئمة في كلّ زمان 
Shahrastani says in his book "al malal wan nahal": "Everyone who rebels against the right Imam who has been appointed by the Muslims is called "Khariji" "rebel" , be it the rebellion against the righteous Khulafaa during the era of the companions or the tabieen or those who succeeded them" [Vol 1/page 144]
وزاد عليه ابن حزم رحمه الله في كتابه الفصل في الملل والنحل : ويلحق بهم مَن شايعهم على أفكارهم أو شاركهم في آرائهم في أيّ زمان
Ibn Hazm adds on to the definition in his book "al Fasal fil malal wan nahal" : And those who adhere to their thought and hold their opinions are also part of them i.e "the Khawarij".
As for when did the "Khawarij" came into existence, their origin was during the time of the prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, it is reported in a hadith in Bukhari:
Narrated by Abu Sa'id: While the Prophet was distributing something, 'Abdullah bin Dhil Khawaisira At-Tamimi came and said, "Be Just, O Allah's Apostle!" The Prophet said, "Woe to you ! Who would BE JUST if I were not?" 'Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "Allow me to cut off his neck ! " The Prophet said, "Leave him, for he has companions, and if you compare your prayers with their prayers and your fasting with theirs, you will look down upon your prayers and fasting, in comparison to theirs. Yet they will go out of the religion as an arrow darts through the game's body in which case, if the Qudhadh of the arrow is examined, nothing will be found on it, and when its Nasl is examined, nothing will be found on it; and then its Nadiyi is examined, nothing will be found on it. The arrow has been too fast to be smeared by dung and blood. The sign by which these people will be recognized will be a man whose one hand (or breast) will be like the breast of a woman (or like a moving piece of flesh). These people will appear when there will be differences among the people (Muslims)." Abu Sa'id added: I testify that I heard this from the Prophet and also testify that 'Ali killed those people while I was with him. The man with the description given by the Prophet was brought to 'Ali. The following Verses were revealed in connection with that very person (i.e., 'Abdullah bin Dhil-Khawaisira At-Tarnimi): '
وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَلْمِزُكَ فِي الصَّدَقَاتِ
"And among them are men who accuse you (O Muhammad) in the matter of (the distribution of) the alms.'"(9.58)
As for their formation as a group with specific ideas and opinions, this happened after the matter of arbitration which they had requested that occurred between Ali (Ra) and Muawiyah (Ra), they were in the army of Ali (ra) and they had requested him to accept the arbitration upon which they rebelled saying that Ali (ra) had accepted the rule of man instead that of Allah سبحانه وتعالى by accepting arbitration.
With time they divided into groups and only a few exist today who follow their views.
With regards to the opinion of the companions (ra) regarding them,
وكان إبن عمر رضي الله عنهما يَراهم شِرارخلق الله، وقال: "إنطلقوا إلى آيات نزلت في الكفار فجعلوها على المؤمنين
Ibn Umar (ra) would call the "Khawarij" as the evilest of the creatures of Allah سبحانه وتعالى and he said that "they studied the ayaat that Allah revealed regarding the disbelievers and they applied them on the believer"
عن علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه، أنه قال: سمعت رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم يقول: سيخرج قوم في آخر الزمان، أحداث الأسنان سفهاء الأحلام، يقولون من خير قول البريّة لا يجاوز إيمانهم حناجرهم، يمرقون من الدّين كما يمرق السّهم من الرّمية، فأينما لقيتموهم فاقتلوهم فإن في قتلهم أجراً لمن قتلهم يوم القيامة
Imam Bukhari reports in his isnad from Ali ibn Abi Talib (ra) that he said "I heard the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم say : There would arise at the end of the age a people who would be young in age and immature in thought, but they would talk (in such a manner) as if their words are the best among the creatures. They would recite the Qur'an, but it would not go beyond their throats, and they would pass through the religion as an arrow goes through the prey. So when you meet them, kill them, for in their killing you would get a reward with Allah on the Day of Judgment."
From this it is evident that the term Khawarij applied on those individuals and the group of people who rebelled and disobeyed the Khaleefah of the Muslims.
Obligation of obeying the ruler
The obedience of the Khaleefah or the Ameer is an important matter. The Shari'ah obliges the obedience of the legitimately appointed ruler through Bai'ah and that is the Khaleefah.
Muslim narrated from 'Abdullah Ibnu 'Amru Ibnul A'as that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "Whoever gave Bai'ah to an Imam giving him the clasp of his hand and the fruit of his heart shall obey him as long as he can. If another comes to dispute with him, you must strike the neck of that man."
Naf'i said 'Abdullah Ibnu 'Umar told me: I heard the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم say: "Whoever takes off his hand from allegiance (Bai'ah) to Allah, he will meet Allah on the Resurrection Day without having any proof to show for himself; and whoever dies while having no allegiance (Bai'ah) on his neck he dies the death of the days of ignorance (Jahiliyyah)", narrated by Muslim.
Ibnu 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "If anyone sees in his Ameer something that displeases him let him remain patient, for behold! He who separates himself from the Sultan (authority of Islam) by even so much as a hand span and dies thereupon, he has died the death of Jahiliyyah", narrated by Muslim.
Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "The Prophets ruled over the children of Israel. Whenever a Prophet died, another Prophet succeeded him, but there will be no Prophet after me. There will soon be Khulafa'a'a, and they will number many." They asked: 'What then do you order us ?' He صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "Fulfil (Bai'ah) allegiance to them one after the other, and give them their dues, for verily Allah will ask them about what He entrusted them with", narrated by Muslim.
These 'Ahadith demonstrate two important matters, first that the Khaleefah only takes the authority by this Bai'ah, second that Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم has commanded his obedience: "Whoever pledged allegiance to an Imam ... shall obey him." So, he is appointed Khaleefah through the Bai'ah, and his obedience becomes compulsory because he is a pledged Khaleefah. Thus he took the authority from the Ummah by giving her Bai'ah and her obedience to the one whom she pledged to i.e. to the one who has a Bai'ah on her neck.
The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم forbade the Muslims from disobeying the Khaleefah and considered disobedience similar to rebellion.
He صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "If anyone sees in his Ameer something that displeases him, let him remain patient, for behold! He who separates himself from the Sultan (authority of Islam) by even so much as a hand span and dies thereupon he has died the death of Jahiliyyah."
Therefore it is clear from the text that it is not allowed for the Muslim to rebel against the Khaleefah. This brings us to another question and that is what is the limit of obedience? Is the Muslim obliged to obey the ruler even in the case he is an oppressor or does not rule by the Qur'an and the sunnah.
Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Junada b. abi Umayyah who said: We went to 'Ubadah b. as-Samit when he was sick and we said: May Allah سبحانه وتعالى guide you. Inform us of a Hadith from the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم so Allah may benefit you from it. He said, the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم called upon us and we gave him the Bai'ah, and he said, of that which he had taken from us, that we should give him the pledge to listen and obey, in what we like and dislike, in our hardship and ease, and that we should not dispute the authority of its people unless we saw open Kufr (kufr buwah) upon which we had a proof (burhan) from Allah.
The hadith was reported by At-Tabarani as "kufran Surahan (open kufr)", and as "unless the disobedience of Allah is bawahan". It was also reported by Ahmad as "unless they order you of ithmin bawahan (open sin)".
'Awf Ibnu Malik Al-Ashja'i said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم say: 'The best of your Imams are those whom you love and they love you and whom you pray for and they pray for you, and the worst of your Imams are those whom you hate and they hate you and you curse them and they curse you.' We asked: 'O Messenger of Allah, shall we not then declare war on them?' He said: 'No, as long as they establish the prayer among you', [Muslim]
Muslim reported on the authority of Umm Salama that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "Ameers will be appointed over you, you recognise some of what they do and you disown some. Whoever recognised he is absolved from blame. Whoever disapproved (of their bad deeds) he is safe, but whoever consented and followed them (he is doomed.)" They said: "Should we not fight against them?" He صلى الله عليه وسلم replied: "No, as long as they prayed."
What is meant by establishing the prayer is to rule by Islam, that is to implement the rules of Shari'ah . This is because the whole of Islam is denoted here by naming part of it. This is common in Arabic, for instance Allah سبحانه وتعالى says: "To free a neck" [4:92] which means to free the slave i.e. all of him and not just his neck. In this Hadith he صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "As long as they establish the prayer among you." This means the establishment of all the rules not just the prayer and is a figurative form (kinayah) where basically the part is mentioned to refer to the whole.
Also in another hadith the prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, Al-Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Aiesha (r.a.) that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "Whoever inserted anything in this our matter (Deen) that is not part of it, it is rejected.", this text is general its address and includes every person including the amir of an area, a Khaleefah, the head of a family and so on.
Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: "It is necessary upon a Muslim to listen to and obey the ruler in things he likes and dislikes, as long as he is not ordered to carry out a sin. If he is commanded to commit a sin, then there is no adherence and obedience." (Sunan Tirmidhi)
So a ruler who rules by other than what Allah has revealed or a ruler who becomes an apostate is illegitimate. In that case a Muslim should not obey him rather he is obliged to work to remove him.
What is a legitimate authority in Sharī'ah?
A state becomes Islamic when its rules and policies derive from the Islamic 'Aqīdah (creed) i.e. when their basis is the Qur'ān and Sunnah; meaning the sovereignty lies with the Sharī'ah. That is why obedience to the rulers is restricted and not unqualified. Allāh سبحانه وتعالى says:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ ۖ فَإِنْ تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا
"O you who believe! Obey Allāh, Obey His Messenger and those in authority from amongst you; and if you differ, then refer it to Allāh and His Messenger, if you believe in Allāh and the Last Day. That is the best thing to do and gives the best result." [Al-Nisā: 4:59]
This noble verse in Surah al-Nisā comes after verse 58, which focused on the rulers when they were enjoined to rule by justice – which is nothing other than what Allāh سبحانه وتعالى has revealed (i.e. the Qur'ān and the Sunnah). In this verse, the focus is on the Muslims under the authority of the rulers, and their responsibility. In this respect the message of this ayah is addressed to the Ummah at large and we can learn from it the following matters:
The āyah (verse) begins with the imperative (command) form verb atī'ū ('obey'): the subject of obedience (i.e. those who obey) is in plural form, meaning 'ALL those who believe in Islām'; and the object of obedience (i.e. the one who is obeyed) is Allāh سبحانه وتعالى. The verse then repeats the command atī'ū (obey) and this time the object of obedience is the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم. The repetition of the word 'obey' and the order indicates the two basic reference points that Muslims have: the Qur'ān and Sunnah. Therefore anything in contravention of Qur'ān and Sunnah must be disobeyed, and anything from the Qur'ān and Sunnah must be obeyed. This is the principle upon which Muslims are told to live by and this is the principle on which Muslims are instructed to view their rulers. Here the word for rulers, or those in authority, is ūlul- amr (literal translation: 'the people of Command'). It is not restricted to the Khalīfah, but also includes the wāli's (governors), wazīrs (assistants) and all those who have authority, especially since the word has been used in the plural form (ūlul-amr and not the singular waliyul-amr).
It is significant that the āyah does not repeat the verb atī'ū when it comes to the Rulers, as it did in respect to Allāh and His Messenger; this is an additional indication alongside the clear verses and hadīth that state that rulers must obey Allāh and His Messenger in their ruling and exercise of authority. For example the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said: 'There is no obedience (when this results) in disobedience of the Creator.' [Sahīh Bukhārī]
Here the mantūq (directly apparent meaning) is an absolute prohibition of following an order that goes against the order of Allāh سبحانه وتعالى – whosoever makes that order. This hadīth came specifically in the context of authority and ruling. Its mafhūm (implied meaning) indicates that just as the person cannot obey a ruler who commanded disobedience to Allāh سبحانه وتعالى; so in the same way, a ruler or amīr cannot order, enact laws or rule by anything that is in violation of what Allāh سبحانه وتعالى has ordered.
Consider for example the following hadīth: It has been reported that 'Alī (ra) said, "The Messenger of Allāh sent a troop under the command of a man from Al-Ansār. When they left, he became angry with them for some reason, and said to them, 'Has not the Messenger of Allāh commanded you to obey me?' They said, 'Yes.' He said, 'Collect some wood,' and then he started a fire with the wood, saying, 'I command you to enter the fire.' The people almost entered the fire, but a young man among them said, 'You ran away from the Fire to Allāh's Messenger. Therefore, do not rush until you go back to Allāh's Messenger, and if he commands you to enter it, then enter it.' When they went back to Allāh's Messenger, they told him what had happened, and the Messenger said, 'Had you entered it, you would never have departed from it. Obedience is only in righteousness.'" (Reported by Bukhārī volume 9, book 91, number 363). Here the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم stated that obedience is only in the 'ma'rūf' (good) and not in the 'munkar' (evil).
So the one in authority cannot command anything but ma'rūf, and people cannot obey anything but ma'rūf. What is ma'rūf is what Islām has defined as good, and munkar is what Islām has defined as evil. It is not left to the discretion of man to decide these matters.
The verse also obliges the obedience to the command of the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم and links that to the rulers. As long as the rulers or those in authority obey the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم then there is the obedience to him, otherwise there is no obedience. It is ludicrous after saying that there is no obedience in the disobedience to the Creator, that there can be obedience in the disobedience to the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم as the āyah obliges obedience to Allāh and His Messenger. That is why the Messenger of Allāh, may Allāh bless him and grant him peace, said in a ḥadīth reported by Abū Hurayrah, 'Whoever obeys me has obeyed Allāh and whoever disobeys me has disobeyed Allāh. Whoever obeys the amīr has obeyed me and whoever disobeys the amīr has disobeyed me' [Agreed upon].
As for the statement:
'whoever obeys the amīr has obeyed me and whoever disobeys the amīr has disobeyed me'
In the above hadīth or the following one: 'Anyone who dislikes something from his amīr should be patient. Anyone who abandons obedience to the amīr for even a short time dies the death of the Jāhiliyyah (ignorance)' [Agreed upon]:
This does not mean absolute obedience to the rulers. These ahādīth are about not rebelling against the rulers due to their misappropriation of the people's rights, but not about obeying the rulers in the matters which are a clear violation of the Sharī'ah. Rather, when the ruler commands a clear munkar, the Muslim must disobey that command and cannot say he was following orders.
The verse then concludes that if there is a dispute over a matter, between the Muslims and their rulers, then the final arbiter must be Allāh and His Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم. It states:
فَإِنْ تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ
"If you differ, then refer it to Allāh and His Messenger, if you believe in Allāh and the Last Day."
Just as the young man in the above hadīth disputed with his amīr when he commanded them to enter the fire, and referred the matter to the Messenger; we are also obliged to refer to the Islamic reference point i.e. the Qur'ān and Sunnah when there is a dispute. The last words of the āyah enjoin on the believers the importance of referring to Allāh and His Messenger in ruling, by drawing attention to the fact that not to do so is a negation of imān; hence it says: '...if you believe in Allāh and the Last Day."
This is how the Sahābah (ra) understood this matter and nothing shows this more clearly than the speech of Abū Bakr al-Siddīq when he assumed the post of Khalīfah: "Help me if I am in the right; set me right if I am in the wrong. The weak among you shall be strong with me until Allāh willing, his rights have been vindicated. The strong among you shall be weak with me until, if Allāh wills, I have taken what is due from him. Obey me as long as I obey Allāh and His Prophet; when I disobey Him and his Prophet, obey me not."
The conclusion therefore is that a ruler becomes legitimate only when he bases his rule on the Kitāb and Sunnah, ie sovereignty is for the Sharī'ah, and it is for this reason that obedience becomes obligatory. We are not asked by the ahādīth to give 'our backs and property' for no reason, i.e. if a ruler oppresses people, but rules by Islām, we are still obliged to obey such rulers, and not obey them in a sin; while at the same time accounting and advising them to stop their injustice. (The obligation to obey and not rebel against a ruler who commits oppression whilst accounting him will be clarified in detail in a separate article inshā Allāh.)
However, when we look to the case of the Saudi regime, we find that the basis of its rule is not the Sharī'ah, as indicated by its persistent and constant explicit contravention of the Sharī'ah; here are a few examples:
• Permission of usury (ribā) and banks trading in usury, which is category prohibited in Islām
• Submission to man-made international law as members of the UN and other international bodies, whose charters and rules are not in accordance with Islām
• The flagrant and persistent violation of Sharī'ah by the Saudi regime, even after having been accounted by the 'ulamā and the da'wah carriers means that the above constitute explicit kufr (kufr buwāh).
Consequently, their rule is not legitimate and they need to be removed by the people of power (nusrah) and a just ruler appointed in their place.
So to claim that demonstrations against the Saudi rulers is prohibited, is misplaced as the Saudi regime does not enjoy any legitimacy whatsoever from the Sharī'ah perspective. Holding on to the rope of Allāh, and unity of the Jamā'ah arises only when Muslims gather under the leadership of a ruler who rules by the book of Allāh and Sunnah of the Messenger, not under the leadership of those who betray the interests of the Ummah and are only interested in being the khādims (servants) of America. A more detailed discussion on the issue of 'Sharī'ah rules regarding legitimacy of Rulers' will occur in a separate article inshā Allāh
Again, it is important not to confuse the issue of legitimacy, with the issue of accounting the rulers, since that is an independent obligation in Islām. Suffice to say, as the following section will show; if public accounting was permitted in the time of our Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and the Khulafā Rāshidah (the rightly-guided Caliphs), who represent the pinnacle of legitimacy and just Islamic leadership, then by greater reasoning (min bāb al-awlā) such accounting is needed in the time oppressive and corrupt rulers, whether they are legitimate or illegitimate.
Evidences for permissibility of demonstrations and protests
As for the proofs (adillah) for the permissibility of demonstration, there are both general and specific:
A demonstration or protest is a public display of opinion, and it is usually carried out by a group, though an individual can demonstrate or protest. So the manāt (reality) of protests and demonstrations is the public display of opinions. The general evidences which allow people to meet and express opinions would permit people to demonstrate their opinions, as long as the opinions expressed are permitted by Islām. As such protests and demonstrations are merely a permissible style, which takes its hukm (ruling) dependent on the reasons and aims of the demonstrations; thus these must be assessed before a hukm can be given for how can a style be labeled harām without consideration of its aims and purpose? For example, if Muslims come out on a demonstration calling for the legalisation of ribā, such a demonstration would not be halāl (permissible), as it calls for something that is harām. However, if people come out to account the rulers for their oppression, and neglecting the people's legitimate rights (given by Islām); then such a demand – whether via a letter, meeting or demonstration – is ḥalāl, because it is regarding a matter that is not only permitted, but obliged by the Sharī'ah.
Another form of general evidences are the 'umūmāt (generality) and unrestricted (mutlaq) import of the multitude of āyāt and aḥādīth that enjoin Muslims to speak the Ḥaqq (truth), enjoin the good and forbid the evil. For example:
Hudhayfah reported that the Prophet, may Allāh bless him and grant him peace, said, 'By the One in whose hand is my soul, you shall command the right and forbid the wrong, or else Allāh may send His punishment on you; then you will call on Him and He will not answer you.' [Muslim]
Or consider the following ayah:
وَلْتَكُنْ مِنْكُمْ أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى الْخَيْرِ وَيَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ
"Let there arise out of you a group of people inviting to all that is good (Islām), enjoining Al-Ma'rūf (good) and forbidding Al-Munkar (evil); and it is they who are the successful." (Āli 'Imrān: 104)
This ayah even includes the permissibility of collective action to forbid a munkar as it is a group that is commanded to enjoin the good and forbid the evil. This means if a group can forbid amunkar as a group and then there is no restriction on collectively accounting the rulers ie forbidding the munkar in the form of a demonstration. Thus these examples, due to the umūmāt (generality) and unrestricted form (mutlaq) of their meaning, allow the option of any style (for accounting) that the Sharī'ah has not expressly forbidden.
To elaborate further, consider the following hadīth:
'The best struggle (jihād) is the word of truth spoken to a tyrant ruler.' (Al-Nasā'ī).
This hadīth encouraging political struggle does not specify the manner in which the truth should be spoken to the tyrant ruler, which means any style that has not been prohibited by another text is permitted. So whether by a letter, distribution of leaflets, publication of a book, article in a newspaper or speaking directly to the ruler, these are all permissible means of fulfilling the obligation. This is similar to the hadīth of the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم when he said: 'Convey from me, even if it be one verse.' (Bukhārī) This hadīth enjoins on us to convey Islamic knowledge or carry da'wah to others, but nowhere in the language of this hadīth did the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم restrict it to any particular style or means. Therefore, it is permissible to impart knowledge via one to one teaching, group lessons or even via the internet. These are all permissible style as the command ballighū (convey) is unrestricted (mutlaq): so whatever action will realise this is permitted, as long as there is no specific nass (text) to the contrary.
The above hadīth for example says 'the best struggle (jihād)': this fits a reality where the accounting is done publicly, since that is truly a struggle, whereas it is easier to account privately. It is when the ruler is accounted in front of everyone that he is likely to kill or imprison the person accounting him. This is also the import (mafhūm) of the following hadīth:
"The tyrant ruler to advise him and was killed" (Reported by al-Hākim and declared sound (sahīh) by al-Albānī in hisSahīh al-Targhīb no. 2308)
The fact that ruler was accounted publicly is the most likely reason for the accounting-person being killed; and therefore such evidences can also be considered as specific evidences in their own right by their implicit meaning (mafhum).
Therefore, the uprisings against the oppressive rulers who have not been legitimately appointed by the Ummah and have been oppressing the ummah and ruling her by other than the Quran and the Sunnah is actually recommended for the Ummah rather than prohibited.
Application of the term "Khawarij" in today's reality
As for the applicability of the term Khawarij today, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said in a hadith:
يقتلون أهل الإسلام ويدعون أهل الأوثان
"They will kill Muslims and spare Idol-worshippers."
Hafiz Ibn Hajr al Asqalani writes in his book "al fath"
أما الخوارج فهم جمعُ خَارجة أي طائفة، وهم قوم مُبتَدِعُون، سُمّوا بذلك لخروجهم عن الدّين، وخروجهم على خيار المسلمين
"As for the Khawarij this is the plural of the word 'kharija''rebel' and they are group of bida'a (innovation) and they have been called as such because of their inventions in the deen and their rebellion against the opinion of the Muslims"
He further writes in the same book:
وعَظُمَ البلاء بهم - أي الخوارج - وتوسّعوا في معتقدهم الفاسد، فأبطلوا رَجْمَ المحصن وقطعوا يد السارق من الإِبط
"And the biggest disaster due to the Khawarij is the expansion in their false beliefs, so they abolished the stoning of the adulterer and they cut the hand of the thief from the arm"
These characteristics truly apply to the rulers of the Muslim world today who came to power after killing thousands and still support the kuffar in butchering the Muslims as we have seen in Iraq & Afghanistan. Had it not been the support of the Arab countries like the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and others, the Americans would never have made the progress they made in occupying Iraq and Afghanistan during which they killed over 2 million innocent Muslims. It is clear that it is these rulers who are fulfilling the characteristic of killing their fellow Muslims and supporting the Kuffar as mentioned in the hadith.
It is clear as day and night that the rulers in the Muslim lands have abandoned the Quran and Sunnah and adopted the western secular laws and they should be called the "Khawarij" for they are the ones who are rebelling against the Ummah and its demand to rule by the Quran and Sunnah.
Maulana Abu Khalid al-Hejazi