Sunday, September 04, 2011

Islam is Concepts for Life and not Information only

The following is the translation of a chapter from the Arabic book 'Al-Fikr al-Islami' (The Islamic Thought) by Sheikh Mohammad bin Mohammad Ismael Abduh, an Assistant Professor at the Egyptian University (now known as Cairo University) in the past.

Concepts of Islam are not priestly ones, nor pure metaphysical (ghaybi) ones. They are rather thoughts that have practical meanings that the mind can comprehend directly when it is capable to do so. Or it comprehends what they indicate of in a definite rather then speculative way when it is unable to comprehend them directly, thus it would comprehend the tangible which these meanings indicate, in a decisive way and without any doubt.

All the Islamic concepts are subject to sensation directly, or what they indicate is subject to sensation directly. In other words all the thoughts of Islam are concepts, for they are either comprehended by the mind, or they result from a thing comprehended by the mind, ie, the mind indicated it. There is not any thought in Islam except that it has a concept (ie it has a reality in the mind) which is comprehended by the mind; or consented to in a decisive way, and has a reality in the mind, which what it indicates is comprehended by the mind.

Therefore, there are no mughayyabat (unseen matters) in Islam. The mughayyabat, which Islam ordered to believe in are not purely metaphysical. They are unseen but connected with the mind, through the comprehension of the mind of what they indicate, which are the Qur’an and hadeeth mutawatir. Therefore, all of Islam is of tangible reality in the worldly life, because each on of its thoughts has a reality in the mind of man, built on sensation and dependent on the mind. Thus, the mind is the basis upon which Islam, as ‘aqeedah and ahkam, is built. Its ‘aqeedah and ahkam are tangibly understood, without difference between the mughayyabat (unseen matters) and the mahsoosat (the tangible matters), and with difference between the views about matters which are the thoughts, the rules about matter which are the ahkam or information of matters or absent matters.

Thus, the thoughts, ahkam, mahsoosat and mughayyabat are all realities that have reality in mind that is dependent on mind, comprehension or thought.

As regards the ‘aqeedah, which is the belief in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day and al-qadhaa’ wal-qadar, all of these are believed in based on a reality (waqi’) they have, and each of them has a reality in the mind.

Belief in Allah took place based on the sensory comprehension of the mind of the existence of Allah (swt), the azali, that has no beginning. The belief in the Qur’an occurred based on the sensory comprehension of the mind that Qur’an is the speech of Allah that comes, every time, from its sensory comprehension of the (i’jaz) incapacitation of Qur’an to mankind (to bring its like). As regards the belief in the prophethood of Mohammad (saw), it is based on the sensory comprehension of mind that Mohammad is the Prophet and Messenger of Allah, from its sensory comprehension, that he is the one who came with the Qur’an, the speech of Allah, that incapacitates mankind. So these three matters: The existence of Allah, that Qur’an is the speech of Allah and that Mohammad is the Rasool of Allah, the mind has directly comprehended their reality (waq’i) definitely, by the means of sensation. So the mind believed in them, and they became to have a reality in the mind and a sensed reality.

As regards to the belief in the Angels, Torah and Injeel and other heavenly (divine) books, the belief in the Messengers and Prophets like Moosa (as), Isa (as), Haroon (as), Nooh (as) and Adam (as), thus existed based on the information of Qur’an and hadeeth mutawatir about them, and the command to believe in them. So they became to have a reality in the mind based on a sensed reality, which is the Qur’an and the hadeeth mutawatir. Thus, they all became concepts for they are meanings of thought; since they have a reality that exists in the mind.

As regards to the belief in al-qadhaa’ wal-qadr, it existed based on the sensory comprehension of the mind of the human action, that it took place from man or on him against his will; and the sensory comprehension of the mind that the attributes of objects are not created by them. The evidence for this is that burning does not occur except at a specific degree. Had burning been created by the object it would have occurred the way it likes without submission to a specific degree, ie, to specific order. Thus the attribute is created by other than it, which is Allah (swt), and not by it. Therefore, the mind comprehended the reality of al-qadhaa’ wal-qadar directly and definitely through using the sensation. So it believed in them, and they became to have a reality in the mind and a sensed reality. Thus, they are concepts for they are meanings of thoughts; since they have a reality that exists in the mind. Therefore, the Islamic ‘aqeedah is concepts that definitely exist, and definitely proved. They have a reality in the mind of Muslim which he senses, or senses what indicates of them. Thus, they have active affect on him.

As regards to the ahkam shar’iyyahah, they are treatments to reality. It is necessary, in their regard, to study and understand the reality. It is also necessary to study the hukm of Allah (swt) regarding this reality by understanding the shar’eeh texts related to it; then this understanding is applied to the reality to realize whether it is the hukm of Allah or not. If it applies to it, in the view of the Mujtahid, then this understanding is the hukm of Allah (swt) concerning him. If it does not apply to it, he looks for another understanding or another text, till he finds an understanding of a text that applies to the reality. Thus, the ahkam shar’iyyahah are concepts that have a reality in the mind, because they are tangible text, so they are concepts.

Thereupon, the Islamic ‘aqeedah and the ahkam shar’iyyahah are not information for memorisation, or thoughts for intellectual entertainment only. They are rather concepts that motivate for action, and make the behaviour of them restricted by them, adjusted in accordance with them. That is why Islam, all of it, is concepts that control man, and not information only.


Anonymous said...

where can I download this whole book in english?


simoom said...

One of our Shabab in Bangladesh, 22 yrs age, unmarried, both parents alive, have another 2 brothers & 1 sister, not eldest among them, undergoing through difficult financial condition. On the other hand, one of his 1st hand maternal uncle has no child, & lives at same city. His uncle wants to take him as an adopted child, his parents & uncle's wife is agreed on it. My questions are as follows:

1. Does Islam condones the concept of adopted child? are the scholars unanimous on the opinion or any difference remain?

2. If Islam does not allow the concept of adopted child as being the legal child, still is there any option remains for that brother to stay with his uncle's family along with his aunt, to be taken cared by his uncle & to take care his uncle? If so, what would be his status in that family regarding Fiqh, both as a member of that family & as a relative to them in context of Mahram-Non Mahram issue? What would his wife's status with his uncle when he would marry in future?

3. Can the uncle make the brother as the sole inheritor of his wealth? If not, what are the Shari'ah process to give him the wealth?

Brother, I need urgent answer which can be followed with detail shari'ah evidences later InshaAllah!

Islamic Revival said...

1) There is no concept of adoption in Islam where the child becomes the child of another. There is a concept of fostering, where a family looks after another child like Zaid (ra) was fostered by the Prophet (saw).

2) The issue of guardianship would apply to a child not to an adult male.

3) It is permitted for him to live with his uncles family but his uncles wife will not become his mahram and therefore the proper rules of interacting with non-mahrams must be applied e.g. she must cover her awra in front of him, he cannot alone with her, etc. Also after the brother marries his wife will not be a mahram to his uncle.

4) The uncle cannot make him the sole inheritor of the wealth, the Islamic laws of inheritance must be applied, however if the uncle is ill he can make a wasiya and give up to one third of his wealth to him if he chooses. If the uncle is normal health and not ill then he can give his wealth in a halal way to whoever he wills including him.

Islamic Revival said...

The whole book is not available online at the moment, we are serialising most if not all of it inshallah.