Saturday, March 03, 2012

Nafsiya: Chapter 1 - Hastening to adhere to the Sharī’ah

The following is the translation of a chapter of the book 'The Essential Elements of the Islamic Disposition (Nafsiyah)' issued by Hizb ut Tahrir and published in Beirut, Lebanon in 1425 AH.

He (swt) said:
]وَسَارِعُوا إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْضُهَا السَّمَاوَاتُ وَالأَرْضُ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ. [
“And march forth in the way (which leads to) forgiveness from your Lord, and for Paradise as wide as are the heavens and the earth, prepared for Al-Muttaqeen (the pious).” [TMQ Aali ‘Imrān: 133]
He (swt) said:
]إِنَّمَا كَانَ قَوْلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذَا دُعُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَهُمْ أَنْ يَقُولُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا وَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ الْمُفْلِحُونَوَمَنْ يُطِعْ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَخْشَ اللَّهَ ويتَّقْهِ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ. [
“The only saying of the faithful believers, when they are called to Allah (His Words, the Qur’ān) and His Messenger, to judge between them, is that they say: “We hear and we obey.” And such are the prosperous ones (who will live forever in Paradise). And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, fears Allah, and keeps his duty (to Him), such are the successful ones.” [TMQ An-Nūr: 51-52]
He (swt) said:
]وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلاَ مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُمْ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَمَنْ يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلاَلاً مُبِينًا. [
 “It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed in a plain error.” [TMQ Al-Ahzāb: 36]
He (swt) said:
]فَلاَ وَرَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّى يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ يَجِدُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا. [
“But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.” [TMQ An-Nisā: 65]
He (swt) said:
]يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ وَأَهْلِيكُمْ نَارًا وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ عَلَيْهَا مَلاَئِكَةٌ غِلاَظٌ شِدَادٌ لاَ يَعْصُونَ اللَّهَ مَا أَمَرَهُمْ وَيَفْعَلُونَ مَا يُؤْمَرُونَ. [
 “O you who believe! Ward off from yourselves and your families a Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, over which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe, who disobey not, (from executing) the Commands they receive from Allah, but do that which they are commanded.” [TMQ At-Tahrīm: 6]
He (swt) said:
]فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ مِنِّي هُدًى فَمَنْ اتَّبَعَ هُدَايَ فَلاَ يَضِلُّ وَلاَ يَشْقَى. وَمَنْ أَعْرَضَ عَنْ ذِكْرِي فَإِنَّ لَهُ مَعِيشَةً ضَنكًا وَنَحْشُرُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَعْمَى. قَالَ رَبِّ لِمَ حَشَرْتَنِي أَعْمَى وَقَدْ كُنتُ بَصِيرًا. قَالَ كَذَلِكَ أَتَتْكَ آيَاتُنَا فَنَسِيتَهَا وَكَذَلِكَ الْيَوْمَ تُنسَى. [
“Then if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My Guidance shall neither go astray, nor fall into distress and misery. But whosoever turns away from My Reminder (i.e. neither believes in this Qur’ān nor acts on its orders, etc.) verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection. He will say: “O my Lord! Why have you raised me up blind, while I had sight (before).” (Allah) will say: “Like this, our came unto you, but you disregarded them (i.e. you left them, did not think deeply in them, and you turned away from them), and so this Day, you will be neglected (in the Hell-fire, away from Allah’s Mercy).” [TMQ Taha: 123-126]
The Messenger of Allah (saw) said:
}بادروا بالأعمال فتناً كقطع الليل المظلم يصبح الرجل مؤمناً ويمسي كافراً، ويمسي مؤمناً ويصبح كافراً يبيع دينه بعرض من الدنيا{
“Be prompt in doing good deeds (before you are overtaken) by turbulence which would be like a part of the dark night. During (that stormy period) a man would be a Muslim in the morning and turn an unbeliever in the evening or he would be a believer in the evening and turn an unbeliever in the morning, and would sell his Dīn for worldly goods” [Sahīh Muslim: Kitāb ul-Iman, 213]
Those who used to rush to the forgiveness and Jannah of Allah and the good deeds existed in the time of the Messenger of Allah (saw) as well as in subsequent eras. The Ummah still produces the likes of those people who answered the Call of their Lord and sold themselves seeking the Good Pleasure of Allah (swt).
It came in the Hadīth which is agreed upon and narrated by Jabir that:
}قال رجل للنبي يوم أحد: أرأيت إن قتلت فأين أنا؟ قال: في الجنة فألقى تمرات في يده ثم قاتل حتى قتل. {
A man asked the Prophet (saw) on the day of Uhud: “Where would I be if I were to be killed?” He (saw) said: “In Jannah. So the man threw the dates from his hand and plunged himself into the fighting until he was killed.” (Agreed upon)
The hadīth of Anas (ra) reported by Muslim states:
}فانطلق رسول الله وأصحابه حتى سبقوا المشركين إلى بدر وجاء المشركون، فقال رسول الله: قوموا إلى جنة عرضها السماوات والأرض، قال يقول عمير بن الحمام الأنصاري: يا رسول الله جنة عرضها السماوات والأرض؟ قال: نعم، قال بخ بخ، فقال رسول الله: ما يحملك على قول بخ بخ؟ قال: لا والله يا رسول الله إلا رجاءة أن أكون من أهلها، قال فإنك من أهلها، فأخرج تمرات من قرنه، فجعل يأكل منهن، ثم قال: لئن أنا حييت حتى آكل تمراتي هذه إنها لحياة طويلة، قال: فرمى بما كان معه من التمر، ثم قاتلهم حتى قتل. {
“The Messenger of Allah (saw) and his companions reached Badr before the Mushriks. When the Mushriks came Allah’s Messenger said to his companions: Let us go to a Jannah whose breadth is that of the heavens and the earth. ‘Umayr b. al-Hummam al-Ansaari exclaimed: O Allah’s Messenger, a Jannah whose breadth is that of the heavens and the earth? He said: Yes. So Umayr responded: How amazing! So Allah’s Messenger asked him: what made you say that? He said: O Allah’s Messenger, by Allah I did not say this except for the hope that I will be from its inhabitants. Then he (saw) said: Indeed you are from its inhabitants. ‘Umayr took out some dates from his quiver and began to eat them. He then said to himself: If I live to finish eating these dates then indeed this would be long life. So he threw the rest of the dates in his hand and began to fight the disbelievers until he was killed.”
It came in the hadīth agreed upon and narrated by Anas (ra) that:
}غاب عمي أنس بن النضر عن قتال بدر، فقال يا رسول الله غبت عن أول قتال قاتلت المشركين، لئن الله أشهدني قتال المشركين، ليرين الله ما أصنع، فلما كان يوم أحد، وانكشف المسلمون، قال: اللهم إني أعتذر إليك مما صنع هؤلاء يعني الصحابة، وأبرأ إليك مما صنع هؤلاء يعني المشركين، ثم تقدم فاستقبله سعد بن معاذ، فقال: يا سعد بن معاذ الجنة ورب النضر إني أجد ريحها من دون أحد، قال سعد فما استطعتُ يا رسول الله ما صنع، قال أنس: فوجدنا به بضعاً وثمانين ضربة بالسيف أو طعنة برمح أو رمية بسهم، ووجدناه قد قتل، وقد مثل به المشركون، فما عرفه أحد إلا أخته ببنانه. {
“My paternal uncle Anas b. an-Nadr was absent from the battle of Badr. He said: “O Messenger of Allah (saw), I was absent from the first battle which you fought the Mushriks. If Allah allows me to witness a battle with the Mushriks then Allah will see how bravely I will fight.” On the day of Uhud when the Muslims turned their backs and fled, he said: “O Allah I seek pardon from You for what these people have done (meaning the Sahabah) and I denounce what these people have done (meaning the Mushriks).” As he advanced towards Uhud he was met by Sa’d b. Mu’adh. He said: “O Sa’d b. Mu’adh, The Jannah! By the Lord of an-Nadr I can smell its fragrance from the direction of Uhud.” Later Sa’d said: “O Messenger of Allah! I could not do what he Anas has done. We found more than eighty wounds caused by swords, spears and arrows on his body. We found him dead. His body had been so badly mutilated by the Mushriks that none except his sister could recognise him by his fingers.” Anas said: “we used to think that the following verse was revealed concerning him and his like; ‘Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah.’ [TMQ Al-Ahzāb: 23].”
Al-Bukharī reported on the authority of Abu Saroo’ah (ra) who said:
}صليت وراء النبي بالمدينة العصر فسلم، ثم قام مسرعاً، فتخطى رقاب الناس إلى بعض حجر نسائه، ففزع الناس من سرعته، فخرج عليهم، فرأى أنهم قد عجبوا من سرعته فقال: ذكرت شيئاً من تبر عندنا، فكرهت أن يحبسني، فأمرت بقسمته. {
“I offered the ‘Asr prayer behind the Prophet at Medina. When he had finished the prayer with Taslim, he got up hurriedly and went out by walking between the necks of the people to one of the dwellings of his wives. The people got scared at his speed. The Prophet came back and found the people surprised at his haste and said to them, “I remembered a piece of gold lying in my house and I did not want it to divert my attention from Allah’s worship, so I have ordered it to be distributed (in charity).”
And in another version:
}كنت خلفت في البيت تبراً من الصدقة، فكرهت أن أبيته. {
“I left a piece of gold from the charity money in the house; I disliked leaving it there.” This indicates how Muslims should rush to implement that which Allah obligated upon them.
Al-Bukharī reported on the authority of al-Baraa’ who said:
}لَمَّا قَدِمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَـلَّمَ الْمَدِينَـةَ صَلَّى نَحْوَ بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ سِتَّةَ عَشَرَ أَوْ سَبْعَةَ عَشَرَ شَهْرًا وَكَانَ يُحِبُّ أَنْ يُوَجَّهَ إِلَى الْكَعْبَةِ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى قَدْ نَرَى تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِكَ فِي السَّمَاءِ فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قِبْـلَةً تَرْضَاهَا فَوُجِّهَ نَحْوَ الْكَعْبَةِ وَصَلَّى مَعَهُ رَجُلٌ الْعَصْرَ ثُمَّ خَرَجَ فَمَرَّ عَلَى قَوْمٍ مِـنْ الأَنصـارِ فَقَـالَ هُوَ يَشْهَدُ أَنَّهُ صَلَّى مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَأَنَّهُ قَدْ وُجِّهَ إِلَى الْكَعْبَةِ فَانْحَرَفُوا وَهُمْ رُكُوعٌ فِي صَلاةِ الْعَصْرِ. {
“When the Messenger of Allah saw) came to Madinah he faced the direction of Bayt al-Maqdis for about sixteen or seventeen months. He wanted to face the Ka’bah so Allah (swt) revealed the ayah:
]قَدْ نَرَى تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِكَ فِي السَّمَاءِ فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قبلَةً ترضاها. [
‘Verily We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad) face towards the heaven. Surely we shall turn you to a Qiblah (direction) that shall please you.’ [TMQ Al-Baqarah:144] So when he was made to face the Ka’bah a man was praying ‘Asr with him. Then he went out and passed by some people from the Ansar. He says he bears witness that he prayed with the Prophet (saw) and that he was made to turn towards the Ka’bah and all turned while they were in rukū’ (bowing position) in the Salatul ‘Asr.”
Al-Bukharī reported on the authority of Ibn Abi Awfa (may Allah be pleased with them both) who said:
}أَصَابَتْنَا مَجَاعَةٌ لَيَالِيَ خَيْبَرَ فَلَمَّا كَانَ يَوْمُ خَيْبَرَ وَقَعْنَا فِي الْحُمُرِ الأَهْلِيَّةِ فَانْتَحَرْنَاهَا فَلَمَّا غَلَتِ الْقُدُورُ نَادَى مُنَادِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَكْفِئُوا الْقُدُورَ فَلا تَطْعَمُوا مِنْ لُحُومِ الْحُمُرِ شَيْئًا قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ فَقُلْنَا إِنَّمَا نَهَى النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لأنَّها لَمْ تُخَمَّسْ قَالَ وَقَالَ آخَرُونَ حَرَّمَهَا أَلْبَتَّةَ وَسَأَلْتُ سَعِيدَ بْنَ جُبَيْرٍ فَقَالَ حَرَّمَهَا أَلْبَتَّةَ. {
“We were struck by extreme hunger on the nights of Khaybar. On the day of Khaybar we found some domestic Asses so we slaughtered them. When the pots began to boil the caller of the Messenger of Allah (saw) called out to us and said: overturn your pots and do not eat anything of the meat of donkeys. ‘Abd Allah said: we said that the Prophet (saw) forbade them because the Khumus (i.e. a fifth of the spoils) had not been taken out of it. He said others said that he has prohibited them completely. I asked Sa’eed b. Jubayr who said, he has prohibited them completely.”
Al-Bukharī reported on the authority of Anas b. Malik (ra), he said:
}كُنْتُ أَسْقِي أَبَا طَلْحَةَ الأنْصَارِيَّ وَأَبَا عُبَيْدَةَ بْنَ الْجَرَّاحِ وَأُبَيَّ بْنَ كَعْبٍ شَرَابًا مِنْ فَضِيخٍ وَهُوَ تَمْرٌ فَجَاءَهُمْ آتٍ فَقَالَ إِنَّ الْخَمْرَ قَدْ حُرِّمَتْ فَقَالَ أَبُو طَلْحَةَ يَا أَنَسُ قُمْ إِلَى هَذِهِ الْجِرَارِ فَاكْسِرْهَا قَالَ أَنَسٌ فَقُمْتُ إِلَى مِهْرَاسٍ لَنَا فَضَرَبْتُهَا بِأَسْفَلِهِ حَتَّى انْكَسَرَتْ. {
“I was serving drinks to Abu Talha al-Ansari, ‘Ubaidah b. al-Jarrrah and Ubayy b. Ka’b prepared from unripe dates and fresh dates when a visitor came and he said: Verily liquor has been prohibited. Thereupon, Abu Talha said: O Anas! Stand up and break this pitcher. I stood up and (took hold) of a pointed stone and struck the pitcher with its lower part until it broke into pieces.”
Al-Bukharī reported on the authority of ‘Ayisha (ra) who said:
}وَبَلَغْنَا أَنَّهُ لَمَّا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى أَنْ يَرُدُّوا إِلَى الْمُشْرِكِينَ مَا أَنْفَقُوا عَلَى مَنْ هَاجَرَ مِنْ أَزْوَاجِهِمْ وَحَكَمَ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ أَنْ لا يُمَسِّكُوا بِعِصَمِ الْكَوَافِرِ أَنَّ عُمَرَ طَلَّقَ امْرَأَتَيْنِ. {
“We have been told also that when Allah revealed the order that the Muslims should return to the pagans what they had spent on their wives who emigrated (after embracing Islam) and that the Muslims should not keep unbelieving women as their wives, ‘Umar divorced two of his wives.”
Al-Bukharī reported on the authority of ‘Ayisha (may Allah be pleased with her) who said:
}يرحم اللهُ نساء المهاجرات الأول،لمّا أنزل الله ]وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَى جُيُوبِهِن[ شققن مروطهنّ فاختمرن بها. {
“May Allah have mercy on the Muhajir women. When Allah (swt) revealed the verse: “And let them draw their headscarfs all over necks and bosoms” [TMQ An-Nur:31] they tore their wrappers and concealed themselves with them.”
Abu Dawud reported on the authority of Safiyyah bint Shaybah who reported on the authority of ‘Ayisha (may Allah be pleased her) that:
}أنها ذكرت نساء الأنصار فأثنت عليهن وقالت لهن معروفاً، وقالت: لمّـا نزلت سورة النور عَمِدْنَ إلى حجورٍ فشققنهن فاتخذنه خُمُرا. {
She (‘Ayisha) mentioned the women of Ansar, praised them and said good words about them. She then said: “When Surat an-Nur came down, they took the curtains, tore them and made head covers of them.”
Ibn Ishaq said:
} ... وقَدِمَ على رسول الله (saw) الأشعث بن قيس في وفد كِنْدة. فحدثني الزهري أنه قدم في ثمانين راكباً من كندة، فدخلوا على رسول الله (saw) مسجدَه، قد رجَّلوا جُمَمَهم (جمع جُمَّة وهي شعر الرأس الكثيف) وتكحَّلوا، عليهم جُبَبُ الحِبَرَة قد كفَّفوها بالحرير. فلما دخلوا على رسول الله (saw) قال لهم: ألم تسلموا؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: فما بال هذا الحرير في أعناقكم؟ قال: فشَـقُّوه منها فألقَوْه. {
“…Al-Ash’ath b. Qays came to the Messenger of Allah as part of the Kindah delegation. Az-Zuhri informed to me that he came with eighty riders from Kindah. They entered the mosque of the Messenger of Allah (saw). They had long hair and put kohl (in their eyes). They wore Jubbahs with silk hems. When they entered the presence of Allah’s Messenger he said to them: did not you embrace Islam? They said: Yes. He (saw) asked: ‘then what is this silk put around your necks? So they tore the silk and threw it away.”
Ibn Jareer reported on the authority of Abu Buraydah who narrated from his father that:
}بينا نحن قعود على شراب لنا ونحن على رملة ونحن ثلاثة أو أربعة، وعندنا باطية لنا ونحن نشـرب الخـمـر حِـلاًّ إذ قـمـت حتى آتي رسولَ الله (saw) فأسلم عليه إذ نـزل تحريم الخمر ]يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ[ إلى آخر الآيتين ]فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُنتَهُونَ[. فجـئـت إلى أصـحـابي فقرأتها عليهم إلى قوله ]فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُنتَهُونَ[. قال: وبعض القوم شربته في يده قد شرب بعضها وبقي بعض في الإناء، فقال بالإناء تحت شفته العليا، كما يفعل الحجّام، ثم صبّوا ما في باطيتهم فقالوا: انتهينا ربَّنا. {
“While we were sitting down on sand and we were three or four (people), having a jug before us, where we were drinking khamr halāl. Then I went to the Messenger of Allah (saw) to greet him. At that point Qur’ān was revealed prohibiting the khamr (intoxicants) “O you who believe! Khamr and games of chance” upto the end of the two verses “Will you have then desisted?” Some of the people had his drink in his hand, where he drank a part of it while the rest is still in the cup. He would raise his cup to the bottom of his upper lip like the cupper does. Then they flooded off what was there in their jug and said: We desisted O our Lord.”
Hanzalah b. Abi ‘Aamir (may Allah be pleased with him) who was bathed by the angels heard the call to the battle of Uhud. He hurriedly responded to the call. He was martyred on the day of Uhud. Ibn Ishaq said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said:
}إن صاحبكم لتغسله الملائكة فاسألوا أهله ما شأنه؟{
“Your companion is being bathed by the angels, ask his family what happened to him?” His wife was asked. She had been a bride on that night. She said he went out in a state of impurity when he heard the call. The Messenger of Allah (saw) said:
}كذلك غسلته الملائكة. {
“That is why the angels have bathed him”
Imam Ahmad reported on the authority of Rafi’ b. Khadeej (ra) who said:
}كُنَّا نُحَاقِلُ بِالأَرْضِ عَلَى عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَنُكْرِيهَا بِالثُّلُثِ وَالرُّبُعِ وَالطَّعَامِ الْمُسَمَّى فَجَاءَنَا ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ رَجُلٌ مِنْ عُمُومَتِي فَقَالَ نَهَانَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَنْ أَمْرٍ كَانَ لَنَا نَافِعًا، وَطَاعَةُ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ أَنْفَعُ لَنَا نَهَانَا أَنْ نُحَاقِلَ بِالْأَرْضِ فَنُكْرِيَهَا عَلَى الثُّلُثِ وَالرُّبُعِ وَالطَّعَامِ الْمُسَمَّى وَأَمَرَ رَبَّ الْأَرْضِ أَنْ يَزْرَعَهَا أَوْ يُزْرِعَهَا وَكَرِهَ كِرَاءَهَا وَمَا سِوَى ذَلِكَ. {
We used to cultivate land in the time of the Messenger of Allah. We used to lease it for a third, fourth or a specified amount of food. One day a man from my paternal relatives came and said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) forbade us from something which was beneficial for us but the obedience of Allah and His Messenger is more beneficial for us. He forbade us from cultivating the land by leasing it for a third, fourth or a certain amount of food, he ordered the landowner either to cultivate it himself or give it to others to cultivate it for their own and he disliked that it be leased or the like.’

Arabic Source

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