Saturday, June 30, 2012

Calling for the democratic civil state is great sin, especially if the call is from the mouths of Muslims!

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Khilafah is the only ruling system obligated by Allah, the Lord of the Worlds
Calling for the democratic civil state is great sin, especially if the call is from the mouths of Muslims!

On Friday 24 June 2012, the Egyptian presidential election committee announced the victory of the candidate Mohamed Morsi over Ahmed Shafik. The committee announced that, "Mohammad Morsi is the new President of the Arab Republic of Egypt." The first principle statement made by the new president is his call for the democratic civil state and he declared that Egypt agrees to abide with its international agreements, and under its cover, of course, is the abiding by the Camp David agreement, a treacherous agreement that recognizes the Jewish occupation of the land of الإسراء والمعراج (Isra'a and Miraaj), the blessed land of Palestine.

O Muslims: The Khilafah system and ruling by all that Allah has revealed, in the smallest of matters to the largest, is a great Obligation, which is well known. It prevailed in Muslim lands for over thirteen centuries. The believers rejoiced and were honored by it, whilst the enemies of Islam were shocked and humiliated by it ... It is a decisive order of Allah سبحانه;

وَأَنِ احْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ وَاحْذَرْهُمْ أَنْ يَفْتِنُوكَ عَنْ بَعْضِ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْكَ

"Judge between them by all that Allah has revealed, and follow not their vain desires, but beware of them lest they beguile you from any of that which Allah has sent down to you." [Surah Al-Maida 5:49]

And it is a decisive order of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم;

كَانَتْ بَنُو إِسْرَائِيلَ تَسُوسُهُمْ الْأَنْبِيَاءُ كُلَّمَا هَلَكَ نَبِيٌّ خَلَفَهُ نَبِيٌّ وَإِنَّهُ لَا نَبِيَّ بَعْدِي وَسَيَكُونُ خُلَفَاءُ فَيَكْثُرُونَ قَالُوا فَمَا تَأْمُرُنَا قَالَ فُوا بِبَيْعَةِ الْأَوَّلِ فَالْأَوَّلِ

«The Prophet said, 'Banu Israeel used to be ruled and guided by Prophets: Whenever a prophet died, another would over his place. There will be no prophet after me, but there will be Khaleefahs in great number.' The people asked, 'O Allah's Prophet! What do you order us (to do)?' He said, 'Obey the one who will be given the pledge of allegiance, one after another » Al-Bukhari narrated from Abu Hurayrah.

And the work for Khilafah saves from the Hellfire. RasulAlllah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said,

مَنْ خَلَعَ يَدًا مِنْ طَاعَةٍ لَقِىَ اللَّهَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لاَ حُجَّةَ لَهُ وَمَنْ مَاتَ وَلَيْسَ فِى عُنُقِهِ بَيْعَةٌ مَاتَ مِيتَةً جَاهِلِيَّةً

« One who withdraws his hand from obedience (to the Amir) will find no argument (in his defence) when he stands before Allah on the Day of Judgment, and one who dies without having bound himself by an oath of allegiance (to an Amir) will die the death of one belonging to the days of jahillyya 'the death of ignorance'» Reported by Muslim from Abdullah ibn Umar.

And the allegiance here is only to the Khilafah, and the death of ignorance metaphor for the great sin for the one who does not work for the Khilafah.

The democratic civil state is the product of secularism, produced by the kafir West, by separating religion from the state, where people rule by man-made rules instead of those of Allah. They forbid and permit, and they allow and prevent ... asking people Instead of asking the book of Allah سبحانه and the Sunnah of RasulAllah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم.

With regard to abiding by international agreements that lost the right of Muslims, and took away their lands and granted authority to the kuffar over them, it is a terrible sin and a wide, open door for shame and humiliation in this world, though the punishment of Allah is the greatest ... All of this is great calamity that invites serious dangers to visit Egypt, Egypt Al-Qanana (Quiver of arrows), Allah's quiver of arrows on earth, Egypt the defeater of Crusaders, the Tartars and the Jewish entity, inshaaAllah, eradicating it completely from the earth ... All of this is a calamity, and invites great dangers to Egypt. But what is a greater shame and more terrible is that it is called for by the mouths of the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), whose candidate won by the votes of Muslims, thinking that they will be ruled by Islam. That they will be shaded by the shade of the Banner (Raya) of Islam, under the Khilafah in which they will be freed after slavery, and feel safe after fear and relieve the Blessed Lands from occupation ... This is why the people gave their votes and gave their support. But they did not give for a new secular order, with a new face, a new tongue, old words renewed, calling for a secular state with its thought, approach and emotion!

O Muslims: We are aware that the second Khilafah is coming, inshaaAllah, by the believing pious hearts, and by pure worthy hands and by strong and powerful arms, over the necks of the enemies of Islam ... this is promise of our Allah سبحانه;

وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ

"Allah has promised, to those among you who believe and work righteous deeds, that He will, of a surety, grant them succession (from the current rulers) in the land, as He granted it to those before them." [Surah An-Nur 24:55]

And it is the glad tidings of our Prophet, صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم;

«ثُمَّ تَكُونُ خِلاَفَةٌ عَلَى مِنْهَاجِ النُّبُوَّةِ»

«Then there will be a Khilafah on the Methodology of the Prophethood» Reported by Ahmad

Therefore the promise of Allah and the glad tidings of His Messenger will both happen, inshaaAllah, and on that Day the believers will rejoice with Allah's victory. He helps whom He will, and He is exalted in Might, Most Merciful.

Hizb ut Tahrir calls you, O Muslims, to follow the call of Allah through following His path alone;

قُلْ هَذِهِ سَبِيلِي أَدْعُو إِلَى اللَّهِ عَلَى بَصِيرَةٍ أَنَا وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَنِي وَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

"Say: "This is My way: I do invite to Allah,- with evidence as clear as the seeing with one's eyes,- I and Whoever follows me. Glory be to Allah. And never will I make shirk with Allah." [Surah Yusuf 12:108]

And to govern between you only by all that the Almighty sent in the Shari'ah;

فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّى يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا

"But no, by the Lord, They can have no (real) Faith, until They make Thee judge In all disputes between them, and find In their souls no resistance against Thy decisions, but Accept them with the fullest conviction." [Surah An-Nisaa'a 4:65]

So, work with us to resume the Islamic way of life in the earth through the establishment of the second Khilafah on the Methodology of the Prophethood, granting allegiance to a Khalifah to implement all that was revealed from Allah, to be protected by him and fighting from behind him,

وَإِنَّمَا الْإِمَامُ جُنَّةٌ يُقَاتَلُ مِنْ وَرَائِهِ وَيُتَّقَى بِهِ

"Indeed, the Imam is a shield, you are protected by him and fight from behind him." Al-Bukhari narrated from Abu Hurayrah.

Then we send this advice, purely for the sake of Allah, to the new president in Egypt, you must fear Allah and desist from calling for the democratic civil state, with a secular thought, approach and sentiment. Returning to Truth is a virtue, so that you do not lose the whole life, after losing most of it through the military council cutting your wings and reducing your authority ... and so that you do not lose the Hereafter through your pleasing of America and the West by calling for the democratic civil state, and angering Allah, the Lord over America and the West, by not working for the establishment of the Khilafah and the implementation of the law of Allah ... There is no doubt that you have read the Hadeeth of the RasulAlllah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم;

« من أرضى الناس بسخط الله وكله الله إلى الناس ومن أسخط الناس برضا الله كفاه الله مؤنة الناس»

«Whosoever pleased the people angering Allah; Allah will give him up to the people, and whosoever angers the people to please Allah; Allah will suffice him of any need of the people» Tirmidhi, Abu Naim in Hulyah from Aisha, رضي الله عنها.

This advice is purely for the sake of Allah سبحانه. We do not seek from you any reward or thanks, but wish to prevent the kuffar gloating, and their agents and all the enemies of Islam mocking when they hear that their project, the democratic civil state has become a call from the Muslims, the Muslim Brotherhood(الإخوان المسلمون), and indeed we are from Allah and to Him we will return. (وإنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون)

Hizb-ut Tahrir
05 Sha'aban 1433

Translated from the Arabic leaflet


Imam al-Awza'i and Accounting Rulers

Imam al-Awza`i (d 177/774) – Exemplar in Accounting the Rulers 
  • Muslims have a duty of accounting the ruler.
  • This is an Islamic requirement.
  • Many hadith-texts establish this such as:
The Messenger of Allah (saw) said:
أفضل الجهاد كلمة عدل عند سلطان جائر – أو أمير جائر
“The best form of Jihad is the just word against an unjust Sultan or sinful ruler…”[1]
  1. Here Jihad is in the linguistic sense as mentioned by al-Munawi.
  2. “Just word” implies it is the truth, what is right, in the best of manner possible.
سيد الشهداء حمزةبن عبد المطلب ورجل قام إلى إمام فأمره ونهاه فقتله
  • “The best of martyrs is Hamza b. `Abd al-Muttalib and a person who stands before an Imam and enjoins the good and forbids the wrong and is killed as a result…”[2]
  1. This hadith indicates the political character of commanding good and forbidding wrong (as it involves rulers/people in power).
  2. The letter “waw” here is grammatically conjunctive (`atf) and thus indicates the best of martyrs is Hamza (ra) andanyone else who accounts the rulers in their wrongdoing, oppression and injustice.
  • The events in north-Africa and the Middle East are indicating the Umma’s strong mobilisation and open opposition against the rulers who have served the interests of the western-alliance of nations.
  • The umma is desiring real change and not cosmetic re-constructions.
  • Real change means structural change, i.e. a total change of systems and not just faces/individuals.
  • The legitimisation of the current Muslim rulers has been clearly exposed and their treachery, betrayal, incompetency, injustice, servitude to western-alliance nations, mismanagement of the regional resources and lies are no longer tolerated.
  • So, as Muslims, we cannot stand by but be involved and act to agents of change from a unjust, hypocritical system in democracy to a divine, just and perfect system: the khilafah.
  • There are certain scholarly individuals throughout the history of this umma who have risen as heros and shown how to account the rulers and carry the knowledge they have acquired practically or demonstrably.
  • One such figure, fitting for our times especially in how the Syrian people have been slaughtered by the cowardly Syrian regime, is the illustrious Imam al-Awza`i (may Allah have mercy on him.
His life:
  • His name: Abu `Abd al-Rahman Ahmad ibn `Amr.
  • Born in Ba`albek.
  • He was extremely pious.
  • He was one of the leading jurists and hadith scholars of his time and attained the level of mujtahid.
  • He was born an orphan and moved to Damascus living in areas populated by various tribes and hence acquired the appellate ‘al-Awza`i’ as his father was from the Awza` a Yemeni tribe or due to a village with the possible name of al-Awza`.
  • He also moved to the coastal city of Beirut and spent the rest of his life there.
  • He was a jurist-scholar with widespread fame especially for his fearless manner in accounting the ruling class of the day (see: Ibn Hibban, al-Mashahir, pp.285-286; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya, 10:123-and al-Zirikli, al-A`lam, 4:94).
 His status: 
  • It was said about him as listed by Ibn Kathir al-Bidaya:[3]
وقال عنه الإمام مالك : كان الأوزاعي إماما يقتدى به
وقال سفيان بن عيينة وغيره : كان الإوزاعي إمام أهل زمانه
وقال محمد بن عجلان : لم أر أحدا أنصح للمسلمين من الأوزاعي
وقال يحيى بن معين : العلماء أربعةالثوري، وأبو حنيفة، ومالك، والأوزاعي
It was said of him by Imam Malik: ‘al-Awza`i was the Imam followed by all’… Sufyan b. `Uyayna said: ‘al-Awza`i was the Imam of his time’… Muhammad b. `Ajlan said: ‘I have not seen anyone who has advised the Muslims more than al-Awza`i…’ Yahay b. Ma`in said: the scholars are four: al-Thawri,  abu Hanifa, Malik and al-Awza`i…”
His accounting the Amir of Damascus:
ولما دخل عبد الله بن علي – عم السفاح الذي أجلى بني أمية عن الشام، وأزال الله سبحانه دولتهم على يده – دمشق فطلب الأوزاعي فتغيب عنه ثلاثة أيام ثم حضر بين يديه.
When `Abd Allah b. `Ali entered Damascus – the uncle of al-Saffah banished the Umayyads from Syria and Allah (Glorified is He!) removed their state from their hands – he sought al-Awza`i. He went missing for three days but then appeared before the court [of the ruler].
قال الأوزاعيدخلت عليه وهو على سرير وفي يده خيزرانة والمسودة عن يمينه وشماله، ومعهم السيوف مصلتة – والعمد الحديد – فسلمت عليه فلم يرد ونكت بتلك الخيزرانة التي في يده ثم قال: يا أوزاعي ! ما ترى فيما صنعنا من إزالة أيدي أولئك الظلمة عن العباد والبلاد؟ أجهادا ورباطا هو؟
…al-Awza`i said: ‘I went in to see him and he was reclining on his bed with a staff in his hand and soldiers to his right and left bearing menacing swords and iron rods. So, I imparted the Islamic greetings to him but he didn’t reply. He banged [s: or indicated with] the staff in his hand and asked: ‘O, Awza`i, what’s your view regarding what we have done to the people and this land in removing the oppression of those [Umayyads]? Was it considered Jihad and defending Islam?’
قال: فقلت: أيها الأمير ! سمعت يحيى بن سعيد الأنصاري، يقولسمعت محمد بن إبراهيم التيمي، يقول سمعت علقمة بن وقاص، يقولسمعت عمر بن الخطاب، يقول:سمعت رسول الله يقول : «إنما الأعمال بالنيات، وإنما لكل امرئ ما نوى، فمن كانت هجرته إلى الله ورسوله فهجرته إلى الله ورسوله، ومن كانت هجرته لدنيا يصيبها أو امرأة يتزوجها فهجرته إلى ما هاجر إليه».
He said: ‘I said: O Amir! I heard Yahya b. Sa`id al-Ansari say: I heard Muhammad b. Ibrahim al-Taymi say: I heard `Alqama b. Waqqas say: I heard `Umar b. al-Khattab say: I heard the Messenger of Allah say: “Actions are based on intentions and every person will get what he intended [...]”
قال: فنكت بالخيزرانة أشد مما كان ينكت، وجعل من حوله يقبضون أيديهم على قبضات سيوفهم، ثم قال: يا أوزاعي ! ما تقول في دماء بني أمية؟
He said: [The ruler] stamped his staff harder than than before and made all those around him seize their swords with their hands saying: ‘O Awza`i! What do you say regarding the blood of the Umayyads being spilled?’
فقلت: قال رسول الله : «لا يحل لمسلم دم امرئ مسلم إلا بإحدى ثلاث: النفس بالنفس، والثيب الزاني، والتارك لدينه المفارق للجماعة».
I said: ‘The Messenger of Allah said: “A Muslim may not spill the blood of another except in three cases: [1] a life for a life, [2] and adulterer and [3] and someone who leaves his religion by separating from the community”…’
فنكت بها أشد من ذلك ثم قال: ما تقول في أموالهم؟
He stamped his staff [s: or waved it ] even more fiercely than before and asked: ‘what do you say regarding their wealth?
فقلت: إن كانت في أيديهم حراما فهي حرام عليك أيضا، وإن كانت لهم حلالا فلا تحل لك إلا بطريق شرعي.
I said: ‘if they acquired it by unlawful means, then it would be unlawful for you but if they attained it through lawful means then it is permitted for only if you acquire it through lawful means.’
فنكت أشد مما كان ينكت قبل ذلك ثم قال: ألا نوليك القضاء؟ فقلت: إن أسلافك لم يكونوا يشقون علي في ذلك، وإني أحب أن يتم ما ابتدؤني به من الإحسان.
He then banged his staff down even harder than before that and said: ‘shall we give you a position of authority [in the courts]?’ I replied: ‘your predecessors were not fond of offering me such a position. I wish to complete the excellence that was begun by them for me’.
فقال: كأنك تحب الانصراف؟
He said: ‘so, you desire to leave?’
فقلت: إن ورائي حرما وهم محتاجون إلى القيام عليهن وسترهن، وقلوبهن مشغولة بسببيقال: وانتظرت رأسي أن يسقط بين يدي، فأمرني بالانصراف. فلما خرجت إذا برسوله من ورائي، وإذا معه مائتا دينار، فقاليقول لك الأمير: استنفق هذه. قال: فتصدقت بها، وإنما أخذتها خوفا
…He said: ‘I was waiting for my head to be severed from my shoulders in front of him. So he ordered me to leave. When I left with his messenger following behind me, he had with him 100 dinars and said I should take it and spend as it was from the Amir. So I did take but distributed it to the needy as sadaqa because I took it out of fear…’[4]
  • The fearlessness of Imam al-Awza`i. How encouraging and inspiring it would be to see our scholars today do the same; but some are deliberately mute.
  • The etiquette of of Imam al-Awza`i, e.g. “O Amir”, imparting the Islamic greetings, calm, collected, composed, polite, etc.
  • The procedural orthodoxy in debate byImam al-Awza`i, e.g. he was always prompted for his own view, i.e. ‘what do you think?’ but he always replies with the words of the Messenger of Allah (saw), the best proof, the best evidence and the best of speech after the word of Allah.
  • Imam al-Awza`i’s diassociation from any form of bribery, temptations, compromising offerings in exchange for abandoning his accounting. Many today offered positions in the Lajnas and Diyars compromise their integrity as religious jurist-consults.
This is exemplary conduct from one of the greatest jurists in our history. We and any engaged in the field of da`waand learning must make him our model.
May Allah raise us up with the likes of Imam al-Awza`i. Ameen.
 Abundant salutations and blessings upon the best of examples, his family, companions and the best of those who follow them.

 [1] See Abu Dawud, Sunan (#4344) and al-Tirmidhi, Sunan (#2174); al-Bayhaqi, Shu`ab al-Iman, 6:2577 and al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya, 1:243.
[2] See al-Mundhiri, al-Targhib wa ’l-Tarhib, 3:229; al-Haythami, Majma` al-Zawa’id, 7:269 al-Suyuti, al-Jami` al-Saghir (#4747).
[3] See Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya, vol.10, p.123.
[4] See Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya, vol.10, pp.124-126.

Friday, June 29, 2012

Tafsir Surah al-Rahman Part 2

Surat al-Rahman pt 2– Tafsir
Basic notes and commentary:
 V31. {sa-nafrughu}: sa- = the near future particle prefix; {nafrughu} means ‘we will account you both’.
 {al-thaqalan}: literally ‘the two weighty ones’/‘the two burdened ones’, i.e. human beings and Jinn. 
V33. {tanfudhu}: pass beyond something, exceed something, coming out of something (like an arrow from the bow).
The entire verse has 3 meanings and more:
[1] If you are able to explore and know more about the heavens and the earth then try and proceed.
[2] If you think you are able to escape death by escaping passed the areas and zones of the heavens and the earth then try and do so.
[3] If you think you will be able to escape the last day by passing beyond the zones of the heavens and the earth then try.
{sultan}: power, dominion, permission, authority.
Note: Section on Hereafter depiction/eschatological matters here related:
V35. {shawadh}: 1. the flames of fire (lahb al-nar); 2. Smoke (al-dukhan), 3. Smokeless fire.
{nuhas}: 1. The smoke of intense billowing fire or 2. Molten brass/melted brass (poured over their heads). > this is for the disbelieving men and jinn in the hereafter.
V37. {wardatan}: red in colour (i.e. chestnut or reddish brown?){ka’l-dihan}: like the hide of a horse or like red oil.
V39. This verse has at least 3 meanings: “The first meaning is that: they will not be asked in order to know about their condition because Allah Most High alone knows it better than anyone. The second is that: no-one will ask anyone else about their condition because each will be preoccupied regards to himself and both interpretations are narrated from Ibn `Abbas. The third is that: they will not be asked about their sin because it will be apparent from their faces and signs. The disbeliever will have black faces whereas the believer from the effects of his wudu’. This is what al-Farra’ held. al-Zajjaj commented: they will not be questioned about their sins in order to recognise them but questioned out of rebuke and scorn and ridicule (al-tawbikh)…” (Ibn al-Jawzi, Zad a-Masir, 8:117-118):
أحدها: لا يسألون ليُعلم حالهم، لأن الله تعالى أعلم منهم بذلك. والثاني: لا يسأل بعضهم بعضاً عن حاله لاشتغال كل واحد منهم بنفسه، روي القولان عن ابن عباس.والثالث: لا يُسألون عن ذنوبهم لأنهم يُعرفون بسيماهم، فالكافر أسود الوجه، والمؤمن أغر محجَّل من أثر وضوئه، قاله الفراء. قال الزجاج: لا يُسأل أحد عن ذنْبه ليُستفهم، ولكنه يُسأل سؤال توبيخ.
V41. {mujrimun}: literally, ‘criminals’ but here refers to anyone who has denied the Truth of revelation (deniers of truth, disbelievers, polytheists, atheists, etc.). 
{simahum}: ‘their signs’ which is said to be: ‘black faces’ (suwad al-wujuh),
{nawasi}: forelocks {aqdam}: feet; suggesting imagery of humiliation as well as arousing terror.
V43. ‘This is the Hell they will be told of or shown’. 
V44. {yatufuna}: made to encircle, made to go between.
{hamim}: boiling water.
{al-aani}: ‘something that is more severe than hot’ (alladhi qad intahat shiddatu harrihi); extremely hot, fiercely hot.
V46. {maqam rabbihi}: the standing before his lord on the day of recompense.
V48. {dhawat afnaan}: it can mean: [1] the long and outreaching branches of a tree (al-ghusn al-mustaqim tulan); [2] the colours of all types and hues from the fruits (hanging on the branches) or [3] both long and reaching branches with a multi-coloured bloomage of fruits.
V50. In both these two gardens will be two springs flowing with [1] specifically paradisal water (al-zilalal-salsabil,al-tasnim…) or [2] with absolutely pure water or with [3] wine (khamar). An interesting interpretation is given by one early ascetic Abu Bakr al-Warraq (d. 903): “And Abu Bakr al-Warraq said: in [these two gardens] are two flowing springs for he who had two eyes flowing with tears out of weeping…” (Ibn al-Jawzi, Zad al-Masir, 8:120):
وقال أبو بكر الورّاق: فيهما عينان تجريان لِمَن كانت له في الدنيا عينان تَجْرِيان من البكاء  
Note: Thus, the suggestion being that paradise and its delight await one who weeps out of love for Allah, His Prophet, the Qur’an, humility, others and their concerns, one’s own sins, etc. The flowing tears of each eye caused by the recognition of one’s own weaknesses and failings and turning to Allah out of acknowledgement of wrongdoing will be rewarded with a spring of flowing paradisal water.
V54. {mutakki’in}: reclining, leaning back, relaxed, in soft and safe posture; dignified and elegant.
{furush}: sing. firash = couches.
{bata’inuha}: its exterior, outer lining.
{istabraq}:  a thick silk brocade.
Thus we have the suggestion that Paradise is:
  1. Luxurious.
  2. Opulent.
  3. Elegant.
  4. Beautiful.
  5. Indulgent.
  6. Exquisite.
V56. {fi-hinna}: in them/it. The pronoun can refer to either [1] the gardens from v.46 or [2] it refers to the couches in v.54 (i.e. chaste females with restrained glances reclining on couches).
{qasirat al-tarfi}: This has a number of meanings and can refer to: “[...] women who have eyes only for their husbands, i.e. they do not cast glances at anyone else. The original meaning of ‘qasr’ (restrained, restricted) is ‘habs’ (imprisonment, seclusion, solitariness, confinement…). Ibn Zayd said: ‘there will be women who will say to their husbands, ‘by the Might and Dignity of my Lord! I have not seen anyone in paradise for handsome than you! So praise belongs to Allah who has made me your wife and made you my husband!’ The second meaning is that these women have curtailed their husbands’ glances from other than themselves because of their perfect beauty. This I heard from my teacher Abu Muhammad ibn al-Khashshab al-Nahwi…” (Ibn al-Jawzi, Zad al-Masir, 8:121-122).
أحدهما: أنهنَّ النِّساءُ قد قصرن طَرْفهنَّ على أزواجهنَّ فلا يَنْظُرْنَ إلى غيرهم، وأصل القَصْر: الحبس، قال ابن زيد: إنَّ المرأة منهنَّ لَتقولُ لزوجها: وعِزَّةِ ربِّي ما أرى في الجنَّة شيئاً أحسنَ منكَ، فالحمد لله الذي جعلني زوجكَ وجعلكَ زوجي. والثاني: أنهنَّ قد قَصَرن طَرْف الأزواج عن غيرهنَّ، لكمال حُسنهنّ، سمعتُه من الشيخ أبي محمد ابن الخشّاب النحوي.
{lam yatmithhunna}: can mean 1. Not married by any human or jinn before or 2. Not touched by any human or jinn (untouched, unblemished) because they are created in Paradise.
V60. {Is the reward for ihsan…}: this means: “[...] al-Zajjaj said: what is the reward for one who has done good in this world except good in the hereafter? Ibn `Abbas said: is the reward for the one who says, ‘la ilaha illa Allah’ and acts on everything that the Prophet has brought (Allah bless him and grant him peace) nothing less than Paradise? [...]” (Ibn al-Jawzi, Zad al-Masir, 8:122):
قوله تعالى: { هَلْ جزآءُ الإحسانِ إلاّ الإحسانُ } قال الزجاج، أي: ما جزاءُ مَنْ أحسنَ في الدُّنيا إلاّ أن يُحسَنَ إِليه في الآخرة. وقال ابن عباس: هل جزاءُ من قال: «لا إِله إِلاّ اللهُ» وعَمِل بما جاء به محمدٌ صلى الله عليه وسلم إلاّ الجنة. وروى أنس بن مالك قال:” قرأ رسولُ الله صلى الله عليه وسلم هذه الآية، وقال: «هل تدرون ما قال ربُّكم»؟ قالوا: اللهُ ورسُوله أعلمُ، قال: «فإن ربَّكم يقول: هل جزاءُ مَنْ أنْعَمْنا عليه بالتوحيد إلاّ الجنّة»
V62. {wa min dunihima jannatan}: other than the two gardens of paradise for those who fear the standing before their Lord (v.46) there are another two. These gardens are entirely different and perhaps lesser in both rank (daraja) and bounty (fadl) according to some interpreters.
V64. {mudahaammataani}: dark green and luscious.
V66. {naddakhataan}:gushing forth in: 1. In misk and kaafur (i.e. fragrance); 2. Water; 3. Blessing (baraka) and 4. Fruits.
V70. {fihinna}: in all four of the gardens are{khayratun hisan}: beautiful women in their faces, their looks, striking. Some say it refers to a multiplicity of beautiful and delightful things.
V72. {hur}:
{maqsurat}: guarded, hidden, secluded, restrained.
{al-khiyam}: pavilions of castles or houses (buyut).
V74. Refer to commentary on v.56.
V76. {rafraf}: [1] any tousle of hanging over cushions; [2] cushions and [3] small gardens of paradise.
{`abqari}: rich carpets, mattresses.
V77. Conclusion with praise to Allah for all the bounties He has just mentioned.

And Allah knows best.
Peace and blessings upon our beloved Master
The Messenger of Allah,
Upon his pure family,
Upon his noble companions
And those who follow them until
The Last Day.

S. Z. Chowdhury

Failure of the politics of pragmatism and compromise - lessons for the Ummah

The Arab uprising kindled hope for a new dawn and a break from tyranny and dictatorship. Whilst opinions on the ground reflect the various political shades and colours, the desire predominantly amongst the masses for Islamic rule is overwhelming. This rise in “Islamist” tendency in the region has been a source of tension in Western capitals as well as amongst the supporters of the old guards in the region. Egypt represents the epicentre of this struggle between the supporters of change based on an Islamic outlook and those who seek to ensure that Western domination and secularism subsist.
Following much tension in Cairo’s Tahrir Square, it was finally announced on 24th June that the Muslim Brotherhood’s Mohammed Mursi won Egypt’s presidential election through a narrow victory with just over 51% of the votes.
This article explores some pertinent questions in the face of this election “victory”. Will Egypt now witness an Islamic dawn under a new president? What is the real cost of this presidential triumph in Egypt? How should such political engagement be perceived in light of the Shari’ah? Indeed, are the actions of the “Islamists” in line with Islam?
The reality behind the election “victory”
Although Hosni Mubarak has been removed, it is common ground amongst observers that Mubarak’s regime remains intact. Since Mubarak’s departure, the head of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (Scaf), Field Marshal Mohammed Hussein Tantawi, has been the de facto ruler of Egypt. Although the Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party, together with the Al-Nour Party (Hizb Al-Nour), won the 2011 parliamentary elections, on 15th June the Scaf issued a decree that dissolved Egypt’s parliament in line with an earlier Supreme Constitutional Court ruling. This effectively nullified the powers of the Egyptian parliament and sent the “Islamist” parties back to square one.
What followed was similarly shocking for the Muslim Brotherhood, as the Scaf announced the re-establishment of a National Defence Council, formally putting the generals in charge of Egypt’s national security policy. The army and the infamous intelligence service (mukhabarat) now retain the powers to arrest, detain, torture and prosecute civilians without judicial warrants. The military’s overall powers in executive decisions as well as the detainment of Egyptians render the civilian rulers little more than symbolic figures.
In addition, the Scaf has formally announced that it will be in charge of drafting a new constitution for Egypt. With a dissolved parliament and the military effectively in charge of running the Egyptian state, the “Islamist” camp will very soon realise that despite their early hopes, the Mubarak regime is in reality still in charge. Little wonder that commentators have regarded the latest moves by the Scaf as a coup against the Muslim Brotherhood and its allies. Thus, Mohammed Mursi’s presidency will be nothing more than a toothless executive post subservient to the dictates of the Scaf with his powers severely curtailed before he even takes office.
This bleak reality was aptly summarised by Anthony Cordesman, a former American intelligence official and now at the Washington-based Centre for Strategic and International Studies, “This is more an episode in an ongoing power struggle than a real election. It is unclear who will rule, who the real leaders will be, and who – if anyone – represents the people. What is clear is that Egypt is no closer to stability and a predictable path to the future than before”.
Some commentators have already likened this scenario to that of Algeria in 1992 when the military, with the blessings of France, dissolved parliament after the Islamic party had won the election. Only time will tell how the current quagmire will take shape. However, one point is very clear: the West is unwilling and unlikely to permit any Islamic rule so long as democracy and manmade politics rules the roost. Nor will America and Israel, so long as the status quo remains, allow Egypt’s 1979 peace treaty with Israel to be shred to pieces.
In fact, Mursi has already indicated that he would honour international treaties, which is a codeword to mean the treaty with Israel. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that Israel perceives business as usual despite Mursi’s victory. Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said, “We expect to work together with the new administration on the basis of our peace treaty”.
Installing a toothless president is the military’s insurance policy against the Muslim Brotherhood’s “victory” and rule over Egypt. The events of the past few days demonstrate that the Scaf (no doubt with America’s blessing) has systematically removed the carpet beneath the feet of the “Islamist” camp. Therefore, little change, if any, to the old regime can be expected from the Muslim Brotherhood’s president.
The real cost of compromise and playing in the democratic game
The so-called “Islamists” vying for power through the democratic manmade system do so at the cost of compromising the well-established values and principles of Shari’ah. Moreover, these parties have repeatedly and publically sought to distance themselves from their Islamic roots since the Arab uprising begun. Whether it is the Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt or Ennahda party in Tunisia, appeasement of the West has been the principal goal in their political engagement. To placate the West, Mursi has already indicated the possibility of appointing the former chief of IAEA, Mohamed El-Baradei, in a role within Mursi’s government. El-Baradei enjoys a cosy relationship with the Europeans and was previously paraded with tacit European support to replace Mubarak in 2011.
We can find similar examples in Tunisia. Demonstrating the art of compromise and pragmatic political attitude, Rachid Ghannouchi, one of Ennahda’s main leaders told the media recently, “We believe that all Tunisian people can survive peacefully within a moderate vision of Islam which can be compatible with democracy. Our vision of Islam is a moderate one and since 1981… we have declared that we accept democracy without any restrictions and we accept the decision of the people whether they come with us or against us. We accept the notion of citizenship as the basis of rights, so all citizens are equal whether they are Islamist or not Islamist”.
It is therefore evident that these parties are far from keen to implement the Shari’ah; rather, their principal aim is to reach the throne, by hook or by crook, and placating the West occupies a major part of their political discourse. Moreover, their pragmatic democratic politics leaves the Shari’ah at the mercy of the electorate and the West. Thus, it is not Allah (swt) but the West that would ultimately determine what, if any, elements of the Shari’ah is implemented.
It is beyond the scope of this article to discuss about the Shari’ah position towards democracy. Suffice to say that democracy is a manmade system that originated in Europe, and any system that makes man sovereign over the Creator, is a non-Islamic system, as Allah (swt) says, “The command (or the judgement) is for none but Allah. He has commanded that you worship none but Him, that is the (true) straight deen, but most men know not” [Surah Yusuf: 40].
As demonstrated in this article, the politics of pragmatism and compromise has not led to success in Egypt. In fact, the cost of participation in democracy far outweighed the gains. Notwithstanding the Muslim Brotherhood’s compromise of the Islamic principles, it has made very little practical gains from the political process. And in any event, so long as democracy survives, Islam will not be allowed to call the shots because the rules of the game are rigged by Western colonial powers. One cannot play football but expect to play by the rules of rugby.
Arguably, the Islamic parties have catastrophically failed on two fronts. Firstly, they failed to make any significant political gains for Islam, and secondly, by compromising Islam, they have distorted the pure political method of Islam and Islamic politics that is well-established by the sunnah of the Prophet (saw), namely, the Khilafah.
The lessons for the Ummah
Although many of the verses in the Qur’an narrate to us about the Jews and Christians, these are not mere fairytales! Indeed, Allah (swt) with His infinite mercy narrated these stories so that this final Ummah could avoid the same errors and pitfalls. If, however, we imitate the Jews and Christians, we would fall into the same errors and earn the wrath of Allah (swt).
Allah (swt) repeatedly orders the Ummah to preserve the purity of His deen and not to compromise. Allah says, “Therefore fear not men but fear Me and sell not My Verses for a miserable price. And whosoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, such are the Kafirun” [Surah Al-Ma'idah: 44].
Although the above verse was revealed after a dispute between two Jewish tribes in Medina, Bani An-Nadir and Bani Quraydah, and referred to the Jews, it would be a grave error to assume that such verses are devoid of any application upon the Muslims. In fact, Imam Al-Hasan Al-Basri maintained that this verse also applies to the Muslims.
Regarding “whosoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, such are the Kafirun”, Ibn Abbas (ra) said, “Whoever rejects what Allah has revealed, will have committed kufr, and whoever accepts what Allah has revealed, but did not rule by it, is a zalim and a fasiq and a sinner” (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol-3).  Therefore, we cannot simply disregard this verse under the false pretext that it does not apply to us.
Allah also says, “…and buy not with My Verses a small price, and fear Me and Me Alone. And mix not truth with falsehood, nor conceal the truth” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 41-42]. These two verses were revealed in the context of the Jews but are by no means restricted to them. The essential message is clear: Allah’s deen and His Kitab must not be sold in return for paltry worldly gains where such “gains” are at the mercy of the West and are bound to end.
Allah (swt) warns the Ummah about the trap of compromise and orders us against it. He (swt) says,“They wish that you should compromise with them, so they (too) would compromise with you” [Surah Al-Qalam: 9].
Imam At-Tabari reports that Ibn Abbas (ra) said regarding this verse, “That you would permit them (their idolatry) and they would also permit you (to practice your deen)”. Moreover, the great mufassir, Mujahid, commented on this verse, “This means that you should be quiet about their gods and abandon the truth that you are upon” (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol-10).
The salient lesson in the above verse is that the disbelievers would constantly seek to derail the Ummah from implementing the deen of Allah and would desire the Ummah to compromise because such concession is at the cost of disobedience to Allah (swt).
The abovementioned verses clearly command us not to compromise, nor sell the deen of Allah for petty gains, as is the case in Egypt presently (or Tunisia for that matter). The Ummah will not progress, nor make any gains through pragmatic political approach by surrendering Allah’s deen; rather, it will delay the revival of the Ummah and further entrench non-Islamic values and systems in the minds of the Muslims. If the Ummah treads on a non-Islamic democratic trajectory, the ultimate winner will be the West because they will have succeeded in their attempts to force us to capitulate our deen of truth.
The way forward for the Ummah
The demise of the tyrants across the region offers the ideal opportunity to the Islamic movements to build the Ummah at grass roots level. Society is composed of collective thoughts, emotions, practices, values and systems that shape every individual. This is true today as it was true at the time the revelation was sent to Prophet Muhammad (saw).
If we are to elevate and revive this Ummah, the focus must be to change society, its common thoughts, emotions, practices, values and the capitalist systems by which the Ummah is ruled. However, this revival must occur outside the non-Islamic democratic political process; otherwise the reformers will have to compromise.
The collective objective must be to implement the Shari’ah in society and state. This can only occur if the Ummah re-establishes the Khilafah. However, the Khilafah will not emerge through democracy because a Shari’ah obligation cannot be achieved through compromise and pragmatism. In the process of dawah to revive the Ummah, reliance on Allah (swt) (tawaqqul), patience and steadfastness (sabr) are essential. When the victory of Allah (swt) will come is indeed within His infinite knowledge. The Islamic movements must not compromise nor bend the Shari’ah rules to reach an objective which in origin is fard and noble. Essentially, the process and the destination must both be permissible under the Shari’ah because the former is no less important than the latter.
If the Ummah perseveres steadfastly in this righteous path, the victory of Allah will certainly come. Allah says, “Allah has promised those among you who believe, and do righteous good deeds, that He will certainly grant them succession to (the present rulers) in the earth, as He granted it to those before them, and that He will grant them the authority to practise their religion, that which He has chosen for them (i.e. Islam). And He will surely give them in exchange a safe security after their fear (provided) they (believers) worship Me and do not associate anything (in worship) with Me” [Surah An-Nur: 55].
Wakil Abu Mujahid

The Meaning of the hadith ‘A Zani does not commit Zina while a Believer’

Shaykh `Ata’ Ibn Khalil (Allah preserve him):
“…Hadith: A believer does not commit zina” – An Explanation”
  • Sometimes the contextual indications (qara’in) are necessary to understand what meaning the word ‘iman’ takes because when used in the Qur’an and hadith of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) it is not always in the theological sense (i.e. `aqadi meaning).
  • Shaykh `Ata’ (Allah protect him) comments:
“…likewise is the hadith: ‘an adulterer (zani) does not commit adultery (zina) while he is a believer (mu’min)’[Bukhari, Sahih (#6810)]. The Prophet did not punish the adulterer with the punishment of apostasy but carried the punishment for zina. He was considered a Muslim, was prayed over and given a Muslim burial. The action of the Messenger of Allah is a contextual indication (qarina) that the meaning of the word ‘iman’ in the hadith is not the theological or doctrinal meaning, i.e. iman in the sense whose opposite is disbelief (kufr); rather it is an indication of the enormity of the crime of adultery in that the absence of iman at the time one commits the act is a form of non-literal expression (al-ta`bir al-majazi) that indicates the enormity of the crime…”[1]
  • This hadith does not carry the meaning of negating iman (i.e. where one becomes a non-believer).
  • The meaning of ‘iman’ here is not the theological meaning, i.e. decisive belief that is based on evidence and conforms with reality.
  • The action of the Messenger of Allah offering the funeral prayer over the person as well as burying him is an indication that the meaning of iman is not the theological one.
  • This indication then offers a departure from the literal/technical meaning to a non-literal expression denoting the enormity of the crime.
And with Allah is all success.

[1] Sh. `Ata’ b. Khalil, al-Taysir fi Usul al-Tafsir, p.48.

Wednesday, June 27, 2012

Q&A: Rules regarding obedience to parents?

The following are translations of two question and answers, one from the time of Sheikh Taqiuddin an-Nabhani and the other from the time of Sheikh Abdul Qadeem Zalloom regarding the basic rules of obedience to parents. 

Obedience of parents is obligatory in what has relations to them and their care

Obedience to parents is obligatory in that which is not a disobedience to Allah, for there is no obedience to the created over disobedience to the creator. The obligatory obedience is in that which is related to looking after them and fulfill those economic needs which Allah has obliged for them or obedience in that which is not that is not obliged except with a Shar’I evidence and particular to both. So, if a father requests from his son to marry such and such or to trade in this or that or to travel to such country or such matters, then this matter is not obliged because Shar’a did not give him the right to order in this and it did not oblige obedience in such matters. But if the request of the father is for his son to divorce his wife then (he obeys in that which is not obliged) and he divorces her because it is narrated about RasulAllah that he accepted that Umar ask his son to divorce his wife.


The evidence for the obedience to the parents is obligatory in what is related to them and caring for them
Good conduct to the parents (Bir ul-Walidayn) is fulfilling their permitted concerns. And ingratitude to them (‘Uqooq ul-Walidayn) is not fulfilling their permitted concerns. Accordingly the order of one of them or both of them to perform that which concerns them obliges obedience to them in that, as long as the request is in Maroof and in the limits of possibility. Disobedience in this is Uqooq, which is sinful. Obedience to them in that which does not concern them is mandub because obedience to the parents and increasing benevolence is bringing closeness through which there is closeness to Allah (swt) and it is not obligatory. Accordingly, the order of both or one to marry a specific women or not to marry a specific woman or an order of one of them to divorce his wife, it is preferable for him to obey them in this matter, but it is not obliged to obey them in this, and it is not considered ingratitude if he does not obey them in this. Obedience in this is Increasing Benevolence and the evidence for obedience to them in this case is mandub and not wajib is the story of Abdullah ibn Umar with his father when Umar requested him to divorce his wife and Abdullah liked her and Umar disliked her. Abdullah did not obey his father and Umar mentioned this to the Nabi (saw) and RasulAllah (saw) said to Abdullah, “Divorce her O Abdullah” in a non-compulsory form. And Abdulllah understood that divorcing her was not compulsory upon him to obey his father in divorcing his wife and RasulAllah (saw) consented to him not divorcing his daughter.


Tafsir of Surah al-Rahman Part 1

Surat al-Rahman pt 1– Tafsir 
Basic notes and commentary:
V1. {al-Rahman}: revealed when the people of Mecca asked the Prophet who this ‘al-Rahman’ was to make prostration to [Q. al-Furqan:60 – usjudu li’l-rahman]. 
  • Allah directly begins a sura with His attribute/Name: it means, “linguistically: al-Rahman is that whose mercy extends to all things…” (al-Tabarsi, Majma` al-Bayan, 3:17).
اللغة: الرحمن هو الذي وسعت رحمته كل شيء
  • It could also refer to three different suras combined in 1: “It is the opening of three chapters if they are combined that are names of Allah {Alif-Lam-Ra}, {Ha-Mim} and {Nun} and so combined they become {al-Rahman}. This was mentioned by Sa`id b. Jubayr and Ibn `Abbas…” (al-Mawardi, al-Nukat wa’l-`Uyun, 5:423).
الثاني: أنه فاتحة ثلاث سور إذا جمعن كن اسماً من أسماء الله تعالى: { الر } و { حم } و { ن } فيكون مجموع هذه { الرَّحْمَنُ } ، قاله سعيد بن جبير، وابن عباس.
  • “[Allah] begins the Chapter with the name of al-Rahman from amongst His other names in order to teach people that everything that will be subsequently described of His actions, His dominions, His power all stem from His attribute of mercy and greatness of His beneficence…” (al-Qurtubi, al-Jami` li-Ahkam al-Qur’an, 17:158).
فٱفتتح السورة بٱسم الرحمن من بين الأسماء ليعلم العباد أن جميع ما يصفه بعد هذا من أفعاله ومن ملكه وقدرته خرج إليهم من الرحمة العظمى من رحمانيته
  • Allah begins with His name of al-Rahman in order to: 1. to give it primacy and 2. to indicate to the reader that everything that will follow in this sura is purely from His contingent act of mercy and benevolence. 
V2. {taught the Qur’an}: 3 meanings:
[1] That Allah taught the Prophet (saw).
[2] That the Prophet taught his umma (ibn al-Sa’ib).
[3] The teaching of the Qur’an was made easy. 
V3. {taught him the bayan}: here the pronoun him/-hu can refer to either 1. All human beings; 2. The Prophet Adam (as) or 3. The Prophet Muhammad (saw).
{bayan}: this has at least 6 meanings:
If –hu refers to all human beings, then bayan could mean:
[1] Speech (al-nutq).
[2] Distinguishing between things (al-tamayyuz).
[3] halal wa’l-haram.
[4] Good and bad (khayr wa sharr).
[5] The path to guidance (turuq ila’l-huda).
[6] Writing (al-kataba).
[7] Logic.
If –hu refers to Adam, then bayan could mean:
[1] The names of all things.
[2] Explanation/meanings/clarifications of all things.
[3] Languages (al-luhgat).
If –hu refers to The Prophet, then bayan could mean:
[1] Everything that has happened and will happen (bayan ma kana wa ma yakunu).
VV5-6. {sun and moon [continue = yajriyan] in fixed courses} and {herbs/stars and trees prostrate}.
{bi-husban}: following a calculated trajectory, a fixed orbit, fixed for ascertaining the different times, etc.
{najm}: singular but plural in meaning, i.e. refers to all of them; the word najm can mean [1] everything that does not have a stalk or stem (kullu nabatin laysa lahu saaq); [2] the stars of the sky.
{shajar}: tree; everything that does have a stalk or stem, trunk, etc (ma kana `ala’l-saaq).
{prostrating}: “al-Farra’ said: both categories of creation prostrating means: they turn towards the Sun when it rises. And then they remain inclined to it until its rays begin to weaken and fade…” (Ibn al-Jawzi, Zad al-Masir fi `Ilm al-Tafsir, 8:106):
 قال الفراء: سُجودهما: أنَّهما يستقبِلان الشمسَ إذا أشرقت، ثم يَميلان معها حتى ينكسر الفَيْىءُ.
  • Sujud/prostration here can also mean:
  1. The rotation of their shadows.
  2. Harvesting their fruits.
  3. Actual prostration.
V7. {and he has set up the mizan}: which has a number of meanings:
[1] Justice (`adl).
[2] A just and good balance that administers all peoples’ rights.
[3] The Qur’an.
[4] The Shari`a (al-Qurtubi, al-Jami` li-Ahkam al-Qur’an, 17:159-160).
[5] The Hukm (law, rule, judgment).
V9. {and do not break the balance}: not to transgress, break, exceed or overstep the balance put down.
Allah has given balance in all things in creation:
  • Capitalism and Communism have destroyed the economic, social and ecological balance:
  1. Created human devaluation.
  2. Generated human misery.
  3. Suppressed natural human religiosity.
  4. Police state.
  5. Impractical policies.
  6. Dictatorship.
  • Ecological degradation.
  • Environmental destruction.
  • Economic inequality.
  • Wars.
  • Exploitation.
  • Monopoly.

V10: {al-anam}: this can have a few meanings such as: [1] people (al-nas); [2] every living creature (ensouled being [kullu dhi ruhin]) – or what sleeps; [3] every creature that walks the earth (kullu ma dabba `ala wajh al-ard) and [4]jinns and human beings.  
V11: {al-nakhl}: here is an example of the specific after the general (khass ba`da ’l-`amm) because: 1. The date is familiar to the Arabs and 2. The extreme health benefits of dates (e.g. high in fibre, reduces constipation, muscle development, prevents abdominal cancer, gives extra energy to the body, has sugar, fats and protein hence essential for a balanced diet, increases sexual stamina with milk and honey, etc.).
V12. {al-habb}: grains, all types such as wheat and barley; {dhu’l-`asfi}, i.e. dry and yellow, when it becomes hard, {al-rayhan}, i.e. can mean 1. the rizq, sustenance; 2. Sweet-scented flowers/plants; 3. Green plants; 4. Leaved plants that are not eaten (non-edible) but beautiful in appearance.
V13. {so, which of the favours of your Lord will you both deny}: why has Allah mentioned the dual form (ithnayn/muthanna)? This is a style of the Arabic language:
[1] The Arabs address one person with the actions of two as in Q. Qaf:24.
[2] The clause intends both humans and jinn.
  • The reason for the repetition of this verse is given as follows: “As for the style of repeating this verse in this sura, it is for affirming the numerous bounties of Allah. The emphasis is in its repeated occurrence. Every time Allah – Glorified is He! – mentions His blessing and bounty that He has given, it affirms it and strengthens it and negates those who deny it and reject it.” (al-Tabarsi, Majma` al-Bayan, 3:19):
فأَما الوجه لتكرار هذه الآية في هذا السورة فإنما هو التقرير بالنعم المعدودة والتأكيد في التذكير بها فكلما ذكر سبحانه نعمة أنعم بها قرر عليها ووبخ على التكذيب بها
  • Ibn Qutayba said: “…when Allah recounts all His blessings in this sura, and reminds His servants of His bounties and warns them of His power and ability, He has put this clause as a separation between every blessing and bounty in order to make them understand and comprehend it as well as to affirm and emphasise it…” (Ibn al-Jawzi, Zad al-Masir, 8:109).
قال ابن قتيبة: فلمّا عَدَّد اللهُ تعالى في هذه السورة نعماءَه، وأذكَرَ عِبَادَه آلاءَه، ونبَّههم على قُدرته، جعل كل كلمة من ذلك فاصلة بين كل نِعمتين، ليُفَهِّمهم النِّعم ويُقَرِّرهم بها،
  • Structural point: “When He – Glorified in He! – mentioned the creation of the larger macrocosm which consists of the sky and the earth everything in them, He then mentioned the creation of the microcosm which is the human being, i.e. Adam…” (al-Shawkani, Fath al-Qadir, 5:133):
لما ذكر سبحانه خلق العالم الكبير، وهو السماء والأرض وما فيهما، ذكر خلق العالم الصغير، والمراد بالإنسان هنا: آدم
  • Thus, the Qur’an focuses on human beings having discussed the wider world and cosmos.
V15. {He created isnan [i.e. Prophet Adam]} from {salsal} which means dried mud or clay (al-tin al-yaabis) where the hollow ringing can be heard if struck or the echo of one’s voice if spoken in it.
{with likes of fakhkhar}: the word fakhkhar means that which is heated or baked in fire (ma tubikha bi’l-nar).
{al-jann}: 1. All jinn (i.e. as a category of created species); 2. Iblis (The Devil, Satan) and 3. The original/father of the jinn species.
{marij}: 1. the flame of the fire without the smoke, i.e. smokeless fire; 2. The intense heat of the fire and its flames without the billowing smoke.
{maraja}: to join, combine, to mix, to make both meet, to overlap two things.
{al-bahrayn}: the two sea bodies, two oceans mixing.
{barzakh}: non-physical barrier, non-material separation, slanted barrier the eye cannot see, etc.
  • This separation allows both seas to separates with its own temperature, salinity and density. (Compare the Gibraltar Strait). The wisdom in this is being discovered by oceanologists in their research.
  • Another interesting meaning is as follows: “Sahl said: the two seas [s: each represent a path]; one path to good and one path to bad and the ‘barrier’ between them is the grace of God and impeccability…” (al-Mawardi, al-Nukat wa’l-`Uyun, 5:430):
وقال سهل: البحران طريق الخير وطريق الشر، والبرزخ الذي بينهما التوفيق والعصمة
  • Note: this ishara (subtle exegetical indication) is worth pondering over. Symbolically, the two seas represent the two paths: good/bad, truth/falsehood, etc. It is never the case that Allah will allow both to overlap, to meet, to come to a middle point, or mix. Thus, it is impossible that truth and falsehood mix and compromise: today the call for compromising Islam/changing Islam/diluting Islam/mixing Islam is very strong (e.g. government agendas for a ‘British Islam’, non-political Islam, spiritual Islam, secular Islam, etc. or false dichotomies such as Islam vs. Islamism, Muslims vs. Islamists, democratic Islam vs. 7th century Islam, etc.).
 V22. {lu’lu’}: pearls, from the root meaning to shine, to dazzle, to glisten, blaze, {marjan}: various beautiful coral gems, mixed stones. 
V24. {al-jawar}, ships that sail on the sea by Allah’s permission; {munsha’at} flows, sails along, moves, carries, etc.
{ka’l-a`lam}: like mountains; imagery of tall ships (think of bird’s eye view, side view of an army, fleet of ships sailing, trade ships, trawlers, etc.). The Arabs call jabal tawil (‘tall mountains’) `alamun (pl. a`lam).
V26. {`alay-ha}: on it, i.e. the earth; refers to humans and jinn and any living creature on the earth.
{faan}, i.e. haalik (‘anything that perishes’).
V27: {wajh} face, but here means ‘essence’ (dhat):
أَيْ وَيَبْقَى الله، فَالْوَجْه عِبَارَة عَنْ وُجُوده وَذَاته سُبْحَانه
“…meaning Allah Himself will remain. The term ‘face’ is an expression that refers to His existence, His Essence –Glorified is He!”
وَقَالَ اِبْن عَبَّاس : الْوَجْه عِبَارَة عَنْهُ كَمَا قَالَ: “وَيَبْقَى وَجْه رَبّك ذُو الجَْلاَل وَالإِْكْرَام
“…Ibn `Abbas said: the face is an expression that refers to Him [s: Allah Himself] as in {and the Face of your Lord will remain forever…}.” (al-Qurtubi, al-Jami` li-Ahkam al-Qur’an, 17:164).
{Full of Majesty…}: “it could also mean: Allah honours those close to Him and increases them in rank or it could mean one of two things: Majesty – i.e. He is Majestic, something ascribed of Allah Most High as a property and attribute and [Ikram/Honour] ascribed to human beings, i.e. something they do…” (Ibn al-Jawzi, Zad al-Masir, 8:113-114)
وقد يحتمل أن يكون المعنى: أنه يُكرم أهلَ ولايته ويرفع درجاتهم؛ وقد يحتمل أن يكون أحد الأمرين ـ وهو الجلال ـ مضافاً إلى الله تعالى بمعنى الصفة له، والآخر مضافاً إلى العبد بمعنى الفعل منه،
  • Which means the da`wa carrier/general Muslim must be people who are with Allah in remembrance, deed and conscience.
  • The desire and need for victory, ascendancy can only be granted if Allah is worshipped sincerely and truly and if a bond is built with Allah.
V29. {everything in the heavens and the earth asks}: meaning is in need of Him, totally dependent on Him, cannot have independent sustenance or existence, contingent entities, etc.
{fi sha’n}, in some affair, i.e.
  1. Sustaining creation,
  2. giving life,
  3. Giving death,
  4. Elevating a people, disgracing another people (yarfa`u qawman wa yakhfadu akharin),
  5. Answers prayers.
  6. Responds to people.
  7. Forgives.
  • The da`wa carrier/general Muslim must be convinced that Help and victory lies with Allah and His Messenger, i.e. what they have said – not what others say.
  • The rules, codes, laws, ideas and concepts of Islam will prevail because Allah will assure it as part of His bargain and promise.
V30: {then which of the favours}: Question: why is this verse mentioned here after mentioning the destruction of everything and how this is a positive or good thing? Reply: “the blessing and bounty in destruction and total annihilation is that the believers are brought nearer to eternal bliss. Yahya b. Mu`adh said: ‘how great and preferable death is! It brings the beloved closer to the beloved!’…” (al-Nasafi, Madarik al-Tanzil, p.478):
والنعمة في الفناء باعتبار أن المؤمنين به يصلون إلى النعيم السرمد. وقال يحيـى بن معاذ: حبذا الموت فهو الذي يقرب الحبيب إلى الحبيب

Allah knows best
Peace and blessings upon our beloved Master
The Messenger of Allah,
Upon his pure family,
Upon his noble companions
And those who follow them until
The Last Day. 
S. Z. Chowdhury