Friday, October 26, 2012

Video: Eid Greetings from Hizb-ut Tahrir


A Message from the Director of Central Media Office of Hizb-ut Tahrir Osman Bakhach Congratulates the Muslim Ummah on the occasion of the Blessed Eid al-Adha May Allah (swt) Restore Our Glory and Authority on Eid al-Adha al Mubarak of 1433 Hijri, Beirut, Lebanon.


Tuesday, October 23, 2012

Tafsir of Surat al-Infitar Chapter 82


Tafsir Surat al-Infitar
Meccan Chapter
No. 82
19 verses
Commentary:
v.1: {when the sky is cleft asunder}: the word “infatarat” can mean: (1) split apart, torn apart (inshaqqat) or (2) to vanish, become abolished.
v.2: {when the stars have fallen}: the word “intatharat” – “meaning when they have scattered and collapsed. Ibn `Abbas said it means: ‘when the stars have fallen all dark and devoid of light’…”[1]
يعني تساقطت، قال ابن عباس، تسقط سوداء لا ضوء لها.
v.3: {And when the seas will burst forth}: The word “fujjirat” could mean: (1) when the seas expand and hurl; (2) when the seas merge on into another with ferocity, confusion and chaos; (3) when the salty water mixes with the sweet water; (4) when the seven seas hurl and amass into one sea and (5) when the seas tremendously overflow in uncontrollable deluge.
v.4: {when the graves turn upside down}: The word “bu`thirat” could refer to a reality where: (1) the contents of the grave are hurled out, i.e. the dead bodies in them; (2) the graves will shake and convulse ready for the Day of Judgment; (3) the graves will rattle, heave and swell; (4) the graves will be turned inside out having been searched.
v.5: {every person will know what it has sent forward and left behind}: This can mean: (1) every person will know what it did and what it did not do; (2) every person will know what acts of obedience it did and what rights of Allah it abandoned; (3) every person will know what acts of charity it advanced forward and what inheritance it has left behind. “It could also refer to what acts of disobedience a person did and what acts of obedience to Allah is abandoned and left behind because it is excluded from the point of the threat. This clause stands as a consequent to the {when the sky is cleft asunder} clause because it is grammatically its predicate (khabr). Hasan considers this to be an oath (qasm) that occurs with the verse {every person shall know….}. The most apparent view is what the majority adheres to which is that it is grammatically the predicate and not an oath clause…”[2]
ويحتمل ما قدمت من معصية وأخرت من طاعة، لأنه خارج مخرج الوعيد، وهذا جواب { إذا السماء انفطرت } لأنه خبر، وجعلها الحسن قَسَماً وقعت على قوله { علمت نفس } الآية. والأظهر ما عليه الجماعة من أنه خبر وليس بقسم
Note:
  • The ‘idha cluster clause’ is important functionally and not morphosyntactically and its construction is regarded as encoding temporal relations between events often simultaneously which is fitting here as the focus is the destruction of the cosmos.
  • The idha clauses also serve to create verse rhythm as well as mimicking motion reflecting the chaos of the cataclysmic events that herald the destruction of the world.
  • The repetition of the idha clauses further serve to reinforce these cataclysmic inevitabilities in the mind of the audience.
  • The verses are short, darting and poised in order to make them sharp and piercing so the mind does not need to make contextual inferences of the information being communicated.
  • Every person will know what it did or did not do. Hence, there will be a point of no escape. Every act of obedience (ta`a) to Allah and every act of disobedience will be made known. > Take the example of the current rulers: these rulers over the Muslim lands have violated the sanctities of Allah and failed on all accounts to protect Islam, its values, laws and thoughts instead employing brutality to repress any Islamic sentiment. They have squandered the resources of the umma and have remained only to serve the interests of external superpower nations who have political and economic designs on Islamic lands. They will be held to account most severely for their violations and transgressions by Allah along with all who have been complicit in it.
v.6: {humans…} which could refer to: (1) all non-believers; (2) Ubay ibn Khalaf; (3) Abu ’l-Ashadd b. Kalda b. Asad al-Jumahi; {made you careless}: the word “gharraka” can mean either shaytan has misled the person and made him an enemy of Allah or utter ignorance of Allah as misdirected him.
Notes:
  • We need to ask ourselves have we abandoned Allah? Have we been diverted and distracted from Allah?
  • Is our tongue moist with the remembrance of Allah or is it fixated on other objects of desire and focus? – women, gadgets, entertainments, games, work, etc.
  • Are we remembering His commands in all aspects of our life or are we being deceived away from aspects of His sacred Law? We need to reflect on how it is that we have been deceived into abandoning Allah’s commands in areas such as ruling, economics, politics and civil law to be given incomparably poor and failed human substitutes like secularism and democracy as well as capitalist economic values. This has brought nothing but division, misery, failure and subjugation.
v.7{Who created you, fashioned you perfectly and gave you due proportion}: meaning: (1) Who proportioned you; (2) Who gave you all the necessary limbs to function correctly; (3) Who has made you honourable as opposed to vulgar like animals. “The people of deep reflection (ashab al-khawatir) have commented: ‘who created you with an intellect and has given you the gift of belief’…”[3]
قال أصحاب الخواطر: سوّاك بالعقل وعدلك بالإيمان
v.8: {In whatever form He willed, He put you together}: perhaps meaning: (1) He made you in the likeness of your parents, relatives, etc.; (2) He made you in different forms and shapes whether beautiful or not; tall or small, short or long, etc. (3) He made you in perfect proportion and not like animals.
Notes:
  • Allah created us, honoured us and made us with functionality yet how ungrateful we can be forgetting that. We only have to look to our own selves to be reminded of all His bounties and gifts.
v.9: {Nay!} is a retort and castigation for being deluded and misled from the bounty and grace of Allah; {But you deny the Recompense}: the word “din” can mean: (1) denial of the Day of reckoning (jaza’); (2) denial of the Day of accountability (hisab); (3) denial of justice and judicial decisions (al-`adal wa’l-qada’); (4) denial of the religion brought by the Prophet (saw), i.e. Islam.
Notes:
v.10: {hafizin}: referring to the protecting Angels; all individuals have guardian angels – one on the right that notes down good actions and one on the left that writes down bad actions.
v.11: {honourable and writing down all deeds}: the word “kiraman” can mean: (1) honourable to Allah; (2) honourable because of belief; (3) honoured because they do not leave human beings (except when humans enter toilets and times of sexual intercourse); (4) honoured because they fulfil their duties without fail.
v.13: {delight}: Referring to the Afterlife meaning the righteous (abrar) will be in paradise a place of bliss, perfect rest and tranquillity as a reward for their actions whereas the iniquitous will be in a blazing fire, i.e. Hellfire for their rejection and denial. Another opinion states it refers to this world: “The second opinion is that the verse refers to this world which would then give four interpretations as mentioned by the people of deep reflection: (1) the first is that na`im means satisfaction, conviction and contentment (qana`a) whereas jahim means greed (al-tam`); (2) the second is that na`im means utter reliance on Allah (tawakkul) whereas jahim means desire, avarice and covetousness; (3) the third is that na`im means being pleased with the determination of things (qada’) and jahim means anger and displeasure with everything Allah has decided and decreed and foreknows; (4) the fourth is that na`im means obedience (ta`a) and jahim means disobedience (ma`siya)…”[4]
والقول الثاني: أنه في الدنيا، فعلى هذا فيه أربعة أوجه ذكرها أصحاب الخواطرأحدها: النعيم القناعة، والجحيم الطمعالثاني: النعيم التوكل، والجحيم الحرصالثالث: النعيم الرضا بالقضاء، والجحيم السخط فيما قدر وقضىالرابع: النعيم بالطاعة، والجحيم بالمعيصية
vv.17-18: {yawm al-din}: repeated here again for emphasis and for underscoring the graveness of that day which is generally held to refer to the Day of Judgment.
v.19: {[It will be] the Day when no person shall have power [to do] anything for another and the matter that Day will be [wholly] with Allah}: “[It will be] the Day when no person shall have power [to do] anything for another} meaning no person can either harm or help another. {the matter that Day will be [wholly] with Allah} which has two views: one of them is that on that day no one can reward or punish except Allah and the second is that on that day the power to punish will be with Allah.”[5]
}يومَ لا تَمْلِك نفسٌ لنَفْسٍ شيئاً} يعني لا يملك مخلوق لمخلوق نفعاً ولا ضراً} والأمر يومئذٍ للَّهِ} فيه وجهانأحدهما: في الجزاء بالثواب والعقاب.الثاني: في العقوبة والانتقام
Notes:
  • Only Allah has the power to harm or benefit. From this we confirm that in Allah alone we have trust, conviction and hope. So, our duty is to adhere to His commandments and fulfil the obligations required of us and have full confidence in His victory and recompense.
And with Allah alone is success.
Peace and blessings be upon our Master Muhammad,
His family and Companions.
Amin.
s.z.c.

[1] al-Mawardi, al-Nukat wa ’l-`Uyun, vol.4, p.392.
[2] al-Mawardi, al-Nukat wa ’l-`Uyun, vol.4, p.392.
[3] al-Mawardi, al-Nukat wa ’l-`Uyun, vol.4, pp.392-393.
[4] al-Mawardi, al-Nukat wa ’l-`Uyun, vol.4, p.394.
[5] al-Mawardi, al-Nukat wa ’l-`Uyun, vol.4, p.394.

Monday, October 22, 2012

Tafsir Surah al-Nisa’ verse 58: Fulfill your trusts


Surah al-Nisa’:58
{Verily Allah commands you to
fulfill your trusts to those whom it is due }.[1]
Surah al-Nisa’:58
By S. Z. Chowdhury
Autumn 2003.
Imam al-Baydawi writes the following about this verse in his commentary of the Qur’an:[2]
{ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤدُّواْ ٱلأَمَـٰنَـٰتِ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا } خطاب يعم المكلفين والأمانات، وإن نزلت يوم الفتح في عثمان بن طلحة بن عبد الدار لما أغلق باب الكعبة، وأبى أن يدفع المفتاح ليدخل فيها رسول الله وقال: لو علمت أنه رسول الله لم أمنعه فلوى علي كرم الله وجهه يده وأخذه منه وفتح، فدخل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وصلى ركعتين فلما خرج سأله العباس رضي الله عنه أن يعطيه المفتاح ويجمع له السقاية والسدانة. فنزلت فأمره الله أن يرده إليه، فأمر علياً رضي الله عنه أن يرده ويعتذر إليه، وصار ذلك سبباً لإِسلامه ونزل الوحي بأن السدانة في أولاده أبداً { وَإِذَا حَكَمْتُمْ بَيْنَ ٱلنَّاسِ أَن تَحْكُمُواْ بِٱلْعَدْلِ } أي وأن تحكموا بالإِنصاف والسوية إذا قضيتم بين من ينفذ عليه أمركم، أو يرضى بحكمكم ولأن الحكم وظيفة الولاة قيل الخطاب لهم. { إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ نِعِمَّا يَعِظُكُمْ بِهِ } أي نعم شيئاً يعظكم به، أو نعم الشيء الذي يعظكم به فما منصوبة موصوفة بيعظكم به. أو مرفوعة موصولة به. والمخصوص بالمدح محذوف وهو المأمور به من أداء الأمانات والعدل في الحكومات. { إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ سَمِيعاً بَصِيراً } بأقوالكم وأحكامكم وما تفعلون في الأمانات..
“…this is a general communication of the legislator for those legally responsible before and and related to all matters of the law [...] {and when you rule amongst the people do so with justice} meaning to rule with fairnrss and equality…ruling is linked to those in authority and it is said the communication is addressed to them…”


Notes:
This verse along with others in ths Surah are often regarded by scholars to be strong evidences for the imposition of a leader (ra’is) or ‘Imam’[3] who must rule the common people with the laws of Allah (SWT) related to both their temporal affairs as well as their religious affairs. Several points are are highlighted by the verse:
Point One:
1. Allah (SWT) has commanded the Muslims denoted here by the 2nd person (mukhatab) plural pronoun ‘kum’ which specifies the audience being addressed. Hence the command (amr) is singled out for Muslims; it is therefore they who must heed it. The other point is that ruling here is specific to a group of people from amongst the Muslims and not all people which are the rulers (al-umara’) as mentioned by al-Tabari in his tafsir through a number of chains of transmission (al-isnad):
“Musa ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Masruqi related to me that: Abu Usama related to us from Abu Makin from Zayd ibn Aslam who said this verse {Allah orders you to fulfill all the trusts to those whom it is due} came down regarding those in authority.
Abu Kurayb related to us that: Ibn Idris related to us that: Layth said to us from Shahr who said: this verse was revealed specifically regarding the rulers…
Abu Kurayb related to us that: Ibn Idris related to us that: Isma’il from Mus’ab b. Sa’d who said: ‘Ali (ra) said: ‘words that hit the mark is that the Imam must rule with what Allah has revealed and to fulfill the trusts [to those whom it is for]. If he does that, then he has the right to be obeyed and listened to by the people as well as for them to respond if he needs them..’”[4]
حدثني موسى بن عبد الرحمن المسروقي، قال: ثنا أبو أسامة، عن أبي مكين، عن زيد بن أسلم، قال: نزلت هذه الآية: { إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤدُّواْ ٱلأَمَـٰنَـٰتِ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا } في ولاة الأمر.
حدثنا أبو كريب، قال: ثنا ابن إديس، قال: ثنا ليث، عن شهر، قال: نزلت في الأمراء خاصة { إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤدُّواْ ٱلأَمَـٰنَـٰتِ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا وَإِذَا حَكَمْتُمْ بَيْنَ ٱلنَّاسِ أَن تَحْكُمُواْ بِٱلْعَدْلِ }.
حدثنا أبو كريب، قال: ثنا إدريس، قال: ثنا إسماعيل، عن مصعب بن سعد، قال: قال عليّ رضي الله عنه: كلمات أصاب فيهنّ حقّ على الإمام أن يحكم بما أنزل الله، وأن يؤدّى الأمانة، وإذا فعل ذلك فحقّ على الناس أن يسمعوا وأن يطيعوا وأن يجيبوا إذا دعوا
Thus, the command to rule and have political authority is for none but the Muslims.
Point Two:
 2. The command of Allah (SWT) is regarding fulfilling the “trusts” (amanat) of the people. This fulfilment must reside within every matter concerning the Muslims, in other words it is a general address (khitab amm) which is indicated by the attachment of the definite article ‘al-’ to the plural noun (amanat) known grammatically as the ‘lam al-jins’.[5]
            This responsibility of fulfilling the trust hence includes all matters as pertinently summarised by Imam al-Qurtubi in his Tafsir:
“al-Hafiz Abu Nu‘aym [al-Asbahani] mentioned in Hilyah [al-Awliya’]: and as for they (i.e. the companions) who said that the verse is in the general meaning (‘ammah) they are the majority such as al-Bara’ b. ‘Azab, ibn Mas‘ud, ibn ‘Abbas and Ubay b. Ka‘b who said: The trust is regarding every matter (kullu shay’) such as the Ablution, the Prayer, the Zakah, Sexual Intercourse (al-janabah), Fasting, Scales and Measurements (al-kayl wa ’l-wuzn) as well as Deposits (wada’i‘)….”[6]
ذكره أبو نعيم الحافظ في الحلية. وممن قال إن الآية عامة في الجميع البراء بن عازب وابن مسعود وابن عباس وأبي بن كعب قالوا: الأمانة في كل شيء في الوضوء والصلاة والزكاة والجنابة والصوم والكيل والوزن والودائع، وقال ابن عباس: لم يرخّص الله لمعسر ولا لموسر أن يمسك الأمانة.
Imam Ibn al-Jawzi is also emphatic about the general applicability of this verse stating:
“The third point is that the verse was revealed with general applicability which has been related form Ubayy Ibn Ka‘b, Ibn `Abbas, al-Hasan and Qatada. It was also preferred by al-Qadi Abu Ya‘la. Know that the occasion for the verse (sabab) being revealed does not restrict the general applicability of its ruling. It is general in all areas such as deposits and other things related to fulfilling the trusts…”[7]
والثالث: أنها نزلت عامة، وهو مروي عن أبي بن كعب، وابن عباس، والحسن، وقتادة، واختاره القاضي أبو يعلى. واعلم أن نزولها على سبب لا يمنع عموم حكمها، فإنها عامة في الودائع وغيرها من الأمانات
Imam al-Razi in his monumental tafsir (‘commentary’) entitled Mafatih al-Ghayb confirms this same point:
“[…] he then commanded the believers in this verse to fulfil the trusts given to them in all affairs regardless of whether these matters are related to religious doctrines and opinions or worldly matters and communal relations…”[8]
اعلم انه سبحانه لما شرح بعض أحوال الكفار وشرح وعيده عاد إلى ذكر التكاليف مرة أخرى، وأيضا لما حكى عن أهل الكتاب أنهم كتموا الحق حيث قالوا للذين كفروا: هؤلاء أهدى من الذين آمنوا سبيلا،أمر المؤمنين في هذه الآية بأداء الأمانات في جميع الأمور، سواء كانت تلك الأمور من باب المذاهب والديانات، أو من باب الدنيا والمعاملات، وأيضا لما ذكر في الآية السابقة الثواب العظيم للذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات، وكان من أجل الأعمال الصالحة الأمانة لا جرم أمر بها في هذه الآية
 Point Three:
3. Indeed, the command is given to all the Muslims but the complete and satisfactory fulfillment of these trusts cannot be realised unless a leader, ruler or Imam is in place to fully execute everything necessary to maintain these trusts which would require the requisite systems, structures and so on
This is what is termed in fiqh as the duty of ‘appointing an Imam’ (nasb al-imam). The reasoning is as follows: The fulifilment of all trusts and duties is an obligation which cannot be realised except with an Imam/khalifah (which would require the necessary systems, etc.) hence because of the principle: ma la yatimmu ’l-wajib illa bihi fa huwa wajib (‘that which is essential for the completion of a wajib itself becomes a wajib’) the imposition of a khalifahbecomes an obligation (meaning the system, i.e. the khilafah). The latter becomes necessary to realise the former. The reason being is that the means and the end both fall under the original or same command/obligation (asl al-wajib) and do not constitute two separate commandment.[9]
            Moreover, the command for those in authority to execute the Islamic rulings with justice is actually an implicit command to have them present otherwise the duty commanded to them would be superfluous.
Point Four:
4. The value of the command is said to be that of an obligation (wujub) because of two indications (qara’in): [1.] no other, group, faith or people have been discharged with this duty by Allah (SWT) except the Muslims who must execute it on behalf of the general people – Muslim or otherwise.[10] [2.] The other reason is that the duty to live by the laws and injuctions of Islam is an obligatory matter and not an optional matter and so if Allah commands the Muslims to follow something obligatory (and not optional) it indicates that the value of the command is an obligation.
 Point Five:
5. Allah (SWT) warns that if and when the Muslims rule the people, they must do so with justice (an tahkamu bi ’l-adl). This command is connected to a condition (yuallaqu maa ’l-shart)[11] and such a command entails it must be repeated or continual so long as that condition persisits; and the condition mentioned in the verse is the existence of Muslim rule (idha hakamtum), thus Muslims must regulate the affairs of the people with full Justice, fairness and equity everytime and whenever they rule. Imam al-Shawkani mantions this point:
“[…] and some such as the Hanafiyyah and Shafi’iyyah argued that the form which necessitates repetition [of a command] is that it has to be connected to a condition or an attribute…”[12]
…ويحتمل انهم ارادوا ما ذهب اليه بعض الحنفية والشافعية من ان الصيغة المقتضية للتكرار هي المعلقة على شرط او صفة
“…when it connects to a condition or an attribute…”[13]
…اذا كان معلقا على شرط او صفة

Point Six:
6. The word ‘adl (‘justice’) here in the verse refers to every judgment from the Book of Allah and the sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (saw). Imam al-Shawkani states in his masterpeice on Usul al-Fiqh:
“The word ‘adl means any decision of the government based on the Book of Allah (Glorified is He) and the sunnah of His Messenger (saw) and not any judgment based purely on human opinion because that amounts to nothing of the truth. If however, there is no evidence found by that government directly from the Book of Allah or the sunnah of his Messenger then there is no problem if the ruler makesijtihad so long as he is aware of the ruling of Allah (Glorified is He)…”[14]
والعدل: هو فصل الحكومة على ما في كتاب الله سبحانه وسنة رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم، لا الحكم بالرأي المجرد، فإن ذلك ليس من الحق في شيء، إلا إذا لم يوجد دليل تلك الحكومة في كتاب الله ولا في سنة رسوله، فلا بأس باجتهاد الرأي من الحاكم الذي يعلم بحكم الله سبحانه، وبما هو أقرب إلى الحق عند عدم وجود النص،
The famous classical scholar of Baghdad Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Muhammad al-Khazin in his commentary writes:
“Allah’s saying {and when you rule amongst the people do so with justice} meaning Allah has commanded you to rule by justice so it is a duty upon the ruler to give the right to those it is due and the root of justice is equality and fairness in all things and so anything that is removed from oppresson and aggression is called justice…”[15]
وقوله تعالى : ( وإذا حكمتم بين الناس أن تحكموا بالعدل( يعني وإن الله يأمركم أن تحكموا بين الناس بالعدل فيجب على الحاكم أن يأخذ الحق ممن وجب عليه لمن وجب له وأصل العدل هو المساواة في الأشياء فكل ما خرج عن الظلم والاعتداء سمي عدلاً
Point Seven:
“And Allah’s saying {surely Allah admonishes you with what is excellent} meaning the excellent thing he is admonishing you about is fulfilling the trusts and ruling with justice {surely Allah is Seeing, Hearing} meaning He the Most High hears what you say and sees what you do so when you rule He hears the rulings you issue and when you fulfill the trusts that are due he sees your actions…”[16]
وقوله تعالى: { إن الله نعما يعظكم به } أي نعم الشيء الذي يعظكم به وهو أداء الأمانات والحكم بالعدل { إن الله كان سميعاً بصيراً } يعني أنه تعالى سميع لما تقولون وبصير بما تفعلون فإذا حكمتم فهو يسمع حكمكم وإذا أديتم الأمانة فهو يبصر فعلكم.
Not ruling by the the sacred Shari’ah as revealed by Allah through the Qur’an and the sunnah of His beloved does not go unnoticed. Allah is absolutely aware of whether those charged in authority amongst us are ruling with Islam or not. But this great bounty and excellence Allah admonishes the Muslims with has been unheeded and as a result utter powerlessness, humiliation, disunity and poverty has stricken the ummah. The only way to reverse this is work to revive that system – which is the just khilafah system – that would ensure not only will the entirety of the sacred laws of the Shari’ah be implemented but the trusts too in all affairs of life will be fulfilled and the rights to all citizens given where they are due.
And Allah knows best.
Abundant peace and blessings upon out Prophet, His family and all his Companions.


[1] This is considered to be one of the “mother verses” (ummahat al-ayat) related to the topic of Ahkam (‘rulings’) as described by Imam al-Qurtubi:
“[...] this verse is one of the mother verses regarding Islamic rulings comprising all aspects of the religion and its law…” al-Jami li-Ahkam al-Qur’an, 1:911.
الأولى؛ قوله تعالى: { إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤدُّواْ ٱلأَمَانَاتِ } هذه الآية من أمّهات الأحكام تضمنّت جميع الدَّين والشرع.
[2] See al-Baydawi, Anwar al-Tanzil, 1:220.
[3] The words ‘Imam’, ‘Amir’, ‘Sultan’, ‘Khalifah’ and ‘Ra’is’ are interchangeable in Arabic and many narrations from the Prophet (SAW) establish their synonymity.
[4] al-Tabari, Jami’ al-Bayan, 8:489-490.
[5] See Sharh ibn Aqil ala Alfiyyah ibn Malik, 1:162. So in Surah ‘Asr:2 where Allah says: (Verily man is in loss) and the term “man” (al-insan) includes all human beings; the letter ‘lam’ denoting the ‘complete inclusion of the genus’ (li-istighraq al-jins).
[6] al-Qurtubi, al-Jami li-Ahkam al-Qur’an, 1:911. The greater portion of the Mufassirun are in agreement that the verse is general in its signification and thus includes all trusts and duties, see for example, ibn al-Jawzi, Zad al-Masir, p.294; al-Zamakhshari, al-Kashaf, 1:456; al-Razi,Mafatih al-Ghayb, 10:132-137; al-Nasafi, Madarik al-Tanzil,p.233; al-‘Izz ibn. ‘Abd al-Salam,Tafsir al-Qur’an, p.108; al-Baydawi, Anwar al-Tanzil, 1:220 as mentioned above where he writes that because the fact of ruling is connected to the office of the governors, the command in the verse is hence addressed to those in power (li-anna ’l-hukm wazifah al-walat wa qila al-khitab lahum); al-Baghawi, Maalim al-Tanzil, 1:443-444; al-Shawkani where he comments that although the verse was revelaed regarding ‘Uthman b. Talhah: “what is considered is the general wording not the specificity of the cause” (al-itibar bi-umum al-lafz la bi-khusus al-sabab), p.391 and Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi in Mahasin al-Ta’wil, 5:1331 also concurs. Moreover, See Abu Nu‘aym, Hilyah al-Awliya’.
[7] Ibn al-Jawzi, Zad al-Masir, p.294.
[8] al-Razi, Mafatih al-Ghayb, 10:132-137.
[9] See al-Zaydan, al-Wajiz fi Usul al-Fiqh, pp.299-300 for more on the principle.
[10] The general rule according to the majority of the scholars of Usul al-Fiqh is that a command (amr) retains the value of an obligation or an emphatic request unless indications (qara’in) demand otherwise, see al-Zaydan, al-Wajiz, p.294; al-Shawkani, Irshad al-Fuhul fi Tahqiq al-Haqq min Ilm al-Usul, p.59; al-Ihkam fi Usul al-Ahkam of ibn Hazm, 3:263; and al-Musawwadah fi Usul al-Fiqh by ibn Taymiyyah, p.5.
[11] Similarly, a command must be repeated if it is connected to an ‘attribute’ (sifah) or ‘cause’ (sabab), e.g. Allah (SWT) says: ﴾Perform the prayer at the decline of the Sun [Bani Isra’il:18]﴿. Thus, whenever the sun sets, the specified time of the prayer arrives and one must hence pray at that time, al-Shawkani, Irshad al-Fuhul, pp.98-99 & al-Zaydan, al-Wajiz, p.279.
[12] al-Shawkani, Irshad al-Fuhul, pp.98-99.
[13] al-Shawkani, Irshad al-Fuhul, p.100.
[14] al-Shawkani, Fath al-Qadir, 2:369.
[15] al-Khazin, Tafsir Lubab al-Ta’wil fi Ma‘ani al-Tanzil, p.549, comm. 4:58.
[16] al-Khazin, Tafsir Lubab al-Ta’wil fi Ma‘ani al-Tanzil, p.550, comm. 4:58.

Chemical Weapons and US Intervention


By Adnan Khan

On Monday October 9th, the US Department of Defense confirmed that a team of US military planners were in Jordan in order to deal with Syria's chemical weapons. The team, led by special operations forces and comprising about 150 troops, mainly from the US army, is constructing a headquarters building in Amman from which operational planning and intelligence gathering will take place. "We have been working with Jordan for a period of time now ... on a number of the issues that have developed as a result of what's happened in Syria," US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta told a news conference in Brussels. Panetta said those issues included monitoring chemical weapons sites "to determine how best to respond to any concerns in that area."[1]


Syria is not a signatory to either the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) or the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). As a result, Syria began developing chemical weapons in the 1970’s and made serious efforts to acquire and maintain an arsenal of such weapons. Its Foreign Ministry spokesman, Jihad Makdissi, at a news conference shown live on Syrian national television on July 2012, confirmed Syria’s possession of chemical weapons, saying: "These weapons are made to be used strictly and only in the event of external aggression against the Syrian Arab Republic, any such weapons were carefully monitored by the Syrian Army."[2]


Syria reportedly manufactures Sarin, Tabun, VX, and mustard gas types of chemical weapons. Western non-proliferation experts have identified 5 production and storage facilities at Cerin, Hama, Homs, Latakia and Palmyra and one suspected weapons base at Al Safir.[3] Independent assessments indicate that Syrian production is a mere few hundred tons of chemical agent per year and its stockpiles prior to international export controls have likely long been exhausted.[4] This is due to Syria’s inability to internally produce many of the necessary precursors to create chemical weapons and its dependence upon importing them; a fact that was documented by the CIA and seen in declassified acquisition report to US Congress. As military commanders learned during World War I and the Iran-Iraq war, chemical agents are volatile, quick to vaporize, and tend to dissipate quickly. Therefore, it will be challenging for the regime to amass enough quantities of chemical agents to cause significant damage in a real-world setting.

Chemical weapons could be deployed using a delivery system such as a missile after being integrated with a chemical warhead. One such option for the Syrian regime is Russian-imported SCUD missiles that are a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.[5] For carrying out tactical military operations, SCUD missiles are an ineffective tool. The SCUD missiles shot into Israel from Iraq in 1991 did not hit any significant military, government, or infrastructure targets. They are suited for larger targets such as bases, airports, industrial sites etc.Using such chemical weapons will only be useful if there are silos' or heavy machinery to target in fixed areas, which is not the case of the rebels in Syria. Additionally, it is questionable if the regime has the technical know-how to do that. In July 2007, a Syrian arms depot exploded, killing at least 15 Syrians. Jane's Defence Weekly magazine believed that the explosion happened when the Iranians and Syrian military personnel attempted to fit a SCUD missile with a mustard gas warhead.[6]

The nature of the uprising in Syria is that it is taking place all over the country. The Free Syrian Army (FSA) does not have fixed positions and a stock of weapons. Using artillery to disperse chemical agents would, also, have little impact as the FSA units are dispersed around the country. Al-Assad is fighting an unconventional, rather than conventional, force that uses asymmetric tactics, which is hard to target through a missile or the use of unconventional weapons without self-annihilation. In Syria there are too many FSA units to target and SCUD’s are notoriously inaccurate. The FSA does not need to match the regime’s forces’ numbers or firepower because they can compel the regime to fight everywhere at once, taking advantage of their superior mobility and flexibility to mount effective raids and ambushes where and when it suits them.


Chemical weapons are a weapon of mass fear rather than mass destruction. America’s attempt to use Syria’s chemical weapons as a propaganda tool, shows that in reality if the rebels are on the verge of overthrowing the al-Assad regime the US will use this pretext to intervene. It should be remembered the invasion of Iraq was almost entirely justified on the pretext Saddam Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMD’s). This would explain the military buildup on the Jordanian side to Syria and Turkey’s readiness on its northern border. With the battle raging on in Syria between al-Assad and the FSA, chemical weapons will do little to alter the facts on the ground, but will be used as an excuse for the US to militarily intervene if needed.

1 http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/10/us-usa-jordan-syria-idUSBRE8991O120121010
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/24/world/middleeast/chemical-weapons-wont-be-used-in-rebellion-syria-says.html
http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/syria/cw.htm
4 ibid
5 http://www.missilethreat.com/missilesoftheworld/id.101/missile_detail.asp
6 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_2007_Syrian_arms_depot_explosion

America Forges an "Alliance" with Russia to Prevent the Re-Establishment of the Khilafah in Syria, in Ash-Sham

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

America Forges an "Alliance" with Russia to Prevent
the Re-Establishment of the Khilafah in Syria, in Ash-Sham

Since March of last year, 2011, the Muslims of Syria, in ash-Shaam, have risen up against their ruler, President Bashar of the ruling Al-Assad family, whom America brought to power nearly forty years ago. During this time, the Al-Assad regime ruled by kufr socialism and capitalism, oppressing the people ruthlessly, reserving its greatest venom for those who call for Islam. It supported America in its plans within the region, whether it was surrendering the Golan Heights to the "Jewish State" or supporting America's invasion and occupation of Iraq. However, the anger within the people built until they erupted. They filled the streets demanding Islam; many calling "الشعب يريد الخلافة من جديد". "The people want the Khilafah." Raising the black and white flags of the coming Khilafah.

Deprived of sleep at the thought of the returning Khilafah, America has ordered its agent Bashar to crush the uprising ruthlessly, making weak statements against him to buy him time. The Al-Assad regime destroyed towns and villages. It slaughtered tens of thousands, not sparing women, elderly and children. Its thugs tortured men, raped women and abducted children, seizing them in the streets from their mothers' arms.

However, the Al-Assad regime is failing to halt the revolution. Its pillars are burning and the elements of its existence are collapsing. High ranking figures from the political and military leadership defected from Ash-Sham's tyrant, whilst tens of thousands from the armed forces now stand with the people against the tyrant. The revolution has embraced almost the entire country, overwhelming the two main strongholds, Damascus and Aleppo; that Bashar had boasted of its control.

Had America been able to find an alternative to Bashar, it would have discarded him as it readily discarded others in the previous Arab uprisings. Therefore America gives deadlines as extensions until it finds an alternative or manufactures one. America is concerned if Islam would reach reign and the Khilafah state is established, being the concern of all kafir colonialists. So, America shares with Russia the support of Bashar secretly and publicly, and both have used various means to support him. Thus, Russia shares America's fear of the Khilafah and has fought its arrival in the Muslim Central Asian states in recent times. Russia willingly allied with America, just as it allied with France and Britain during World War I to fight the Khilafah. At the meeting of the Russian President Putin and US President Obama, on 18 June 2012 at Los Cabos, Mexico; America opened the doors to Syria for Russia. And today Russia helps America by supporting the regime of Bashar Al-Assad openly with intelligence and military officials, whilst America supports it from behind the scenes, buying Bashar more time.

As always, America called upon the traitors within the military and political leadership of the Ummah to assist it in its greatest hour of need. It was upon this leadership to mobilize the nearly six million troops of the Ummah to assist the Muslims of Syria and establish the Khilafah within days, dealing a death blow to the American hegemony in the Muslim Lands. However, instead, they chose to assist the kuffar in their fight against Islam and its people. The regional Arab and Turkish intelligence were mobilized both in defense of Al-Assad and in the frantic search of any alternative, whilst Iran sent troops.

As for the rulers of Pakistan, such is their slavery to America, they did not wish to be left behind in this great treachery of our age. It was not enough for them to fight the arrival of Khilafah in Pakistan, by persecuting officers like Brigadier Ali Khan, who support Islam, as well as those politicians who call for the Khilafah, like Naveed Butt, the Spokesman of Hizb ut-Tahrir. No, they seek to confirm their place in Jahannum (Hell) by assisting America in forging its new alliance with Russia, as much as they can. On July 20, 2012, Pakistan's rulers hurriedly sent a political delegation to co-ordinate with America's new ally Russia over a UN proposal. Then on July 29, the rulers sent Pakistan's Ambassador to Syria to meet with the Syrian Information Minister, so as to control Pakistan's media coverage of the Syrian revolution to mislead the people about the role of America and Russia. After the head of Inter Services Intelligence (ISI), General Zaheer ul-Islam, visited America from 1 August to 3 August 2012, the intelligence agencies were mobilized to conduct a propaganda campaign within the armed forces to mislead them about the reality of the American-Russian alliance. Then, on 3 October 2012, America sent its loyal and trusted agent General Kayani to Russia bearing offerings on behalf of his masters, to further strengthen the American-Russian alliance.

O Muslims of Pakistan!

The voices in Syria resound for the establishment of the Khilafah and it upon us to extend them the support of our armed forces, the seventh largest in the world, armed with nuclear weapons. RasulAllah صلى الله عليه و سلم said, مَا مِنِ امْرِئٍ يَخْذُلُ امْرَأً مُسْلِماً عِنْدَ مَوْطِنٍ تُنْتَهَكُ فِيهِ حُرْمَتُهُ وَيُنْتَقَصُ فِيهِ مِنْ عِرْضِهِ إِلاَّ خَذَلَهُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِى مَوْطِنٍ يُحِبُّ فِيهِ نُصْرَتَهُ، وَمَا مِنِ امْرِئٍ يَنْصُرُ امْرَأً مُسْلِماً فِى مَوْطِنٍ يُنْتَقَصُ فِيهِ مِنْ عِرْضِهِ وَيُنْتَهَكُ فِيهِ مِنْ حُرْمَتِهِ إِلاَّ نَصَرَهُ اللَّهُ فِى مَوْطِنٍ يُحِبُّ فِيهِ نُصْرَتَهُ "There is no man who lets a Muslim down in a situation where his honor is disparaged and his sanctity violated, but that Allah will abandon him in a situation in which he wished for His Support. And there is no man who helps a Muslim in a situation in where his honor is disparaged and his sanctity violated except that Allah will help him in a situation in which he wished for His Support." [Ahmad]

Know that the traitors within our political and military leadership will never mobilize our armed forces to support the Muslims of Syria. Rather, they are willing to shed the blood of our troops to achieve American dominance in any far flung corner of the world, under the flag of the United Nations or any other flag. They will assist America by securing its bases, embassies and supply lines, but will never lift even a finger for the defense of Islam and Muslims. They not only struggle to prevent the arrival of Khilafah here, they cross seas and lands to prevent it arising anywhere else. It is upon us to ensure that our armed forces play their part in giving support to the people of Ash-Sham, which is the centre of the believers as the RasulAllah صلى الله عليه و سلم said in praise of Ash-sham, أَلاَ إِنَّ عُقْرَ دَارِ الإسلام الشَّامُ "Verily, the centre of the believers' abode is Ash-Sham." And he صلى الله عليه و سلم said, أَلاَ وَإِنَّ الإِيمَانَ حِينَ تَقَعُ الْفِتَنُ بِالشَّامِ" "When the Ummah is tested the faith will be in Sham." [Ahmed] And he صلى الله عليه و سلم said, يا طوبى للشام! يا طوبى للشام! يا طوبى للشام، قالوا يا رسول الله وبم ذلك؟ قال تلك ملائكة الله باسطوا أجنحتها على الشام "O bliss for Ash-Sham! O bliss for Ash-Sham! O bliss for Ash-Sham! They asked, "O RasulAllah, why do you say that? He said that angel of Allah has spread its wings all over Ash-Shaam." [Tirmidhi]

O officers of Pakistan's armed forces!
The Ummah has awoken for Islam and will not return to sleep. She is sacrificing and will continue to do so until the matter is decided by Allah سبحانه و تعالى. Her bravery and perseverance upon the Truth has caused America to founder in its resolve and become frantic in its efforts to halt the return of the Khilafah. Does this not inspire you as men of war to come forward and propel this Ummah to its goal? It is high time to remove Kayani, Zardari and their small bunch of thugs that have hijacked your blood, fire and steel, a matter which will take but a few hours, if you were to grant the Nussrah to Hizb ut-Tahrir for the immediate establishment of the Khilafah. And then the Muslims will be dignified by your Nussrah, and you will gain forgiveness and a great reward,

((يَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَيُدْخِلْكُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ وَمَسَاكِنَ طَيِّبَةً فِي جَنَّاتِ عَدْنٍ ذَلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ*وَأُخْرَى تُحِبُّونَهَا نَصْرٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَفَتْحٌ قَرِيبٌ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ))
"Allah will forgive you your sins, and admit you to Gardens beneath which rivers flow, and to beautiful mansions In Gardens of Eternity: that is indeed the Supreme achievement * And another (favour that He will bestow,) which you do love,- help from Allah and a speedy victory. So give the glad tidings to the believers." [Surah As-Saff 61:12-13]

Hizb-ut Tahrir
Wilayah of Pakistan

21 Dhu al-Qi'dah 1433
07/10/2012

Source