Saturday, June 22, 2013

Tafseer Al-Baqarah 83-86 | Sheikh Ata’ Abu Rashtah


Allah (swt) states in His Kitaab Al-Kareem:

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ لَا تَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَقُولُوا لِلنَّاسِ حُسْنًا وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِنْكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ مُعْرِضُونَ
وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ
ثُمَّ أَنْتُمْ هَٰؤُلَاءِ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ وَتُخْرِجُونَ فَرِيقًا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ تَظَاهَرُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِالْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَإِنْ يَأْتُوكُمْ أُسَارَىٰ تُفَادُوهُمْ وَهُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِخْرَاجُهُمْ أَفَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِبَعْضِ الْكِتَابِ وَتَكْفُرُونَ بِبَعْضٍ فَمَا جَزَاءُ مَنْ يَفْعَلُ ذَٰلِكَ مِنْكُمْ إِلَّا خِزْيٌ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ أَشَدِّ الْعَذَابِ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ
أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُا الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا بِالْآخِرَةِ فَلَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمْ يُنْصَرُونَ

And (remember) when we took a Covenant from the Children of Israel, (saying): (That) they do not worship other than Allah (Alone) and be dutiful and good to parents, and to kindred, and to orphans and Al-Masaakeen (the poor), and speak good to people and perform As-Salaah and give Zakaah. Then you turned back, except a few of you, while you are those who turn away (in opposition).
And (remember) when we took your covenant (saying): You do not shed your own blood, nor do you turn out yourselves from your dwellings. Then you ratified this and (to this) you bear witness.
After this, it is you who kill one another and you expel a party from among you from their homes, assist (their enemies) against them, in sin and transgression. And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them, although their expulsion was forbidden to you. Then do you believe in a part of the Book and disbelieve in another part? Then what is the recompense of those who do so among you, except disgrace in the life of this world, and on the Day of Resurrection they shall be consigned to the most grievous torment. And Allah is not unaware of what you do.
Those are they who have bought the life of this world at the price of the Hereafter. Their torment shall not be lightened nor shall they be helped. (Al-Baqarah 83-86).

In the book: 'At-Tayseer Fee Usool At-Tafseer' written by Sheikh Ata Ibn Khalil Abu Rashtah, the following was mentioned in regards to the Tafseer of these Noble Aayaat:

1) Allah (swt) informs us in these Aayaat that he has taken a covenant (Agreement) upon Bani Israa'eel  that they do not worship other than Allah:
لَا تَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ
(That) they do not worship other than Allah.

This has come in the Khabar (informing) form with the meaning of Nahi (forbiddance). So it means: Do not worship other than Allah and that they should be good to their parents, keep good relations with relatives, and treat the orphans an Masaakeen (poor) well. And to speak to the people with the 'Qawlan Hasanan' (Good speech). 'Husnan' and 'Hasanan' are both Mutawaatir readings for this Aaayah. And also to establish (perform) the Salaah and give the Zakaah. However they did not abide by this covenant but rather opposed it and rejected it with the exception small number from amongst them who submitted and believed, and this was the same whether it was at the time of Musa (as) (i.e. the time in which the covenant was taken upon Bani Israa'eel) or in the times that followed them, and as such it also includes the Jews who were present at the time of the Messenger (saw). So the Meethaaq (covenant) that was taken upon the Salaf (those who preceded) also applies to the Khalaf (those that came after them), and the lack of abiding by the covenant of those whom it was made with applies also upon the reality of the Jews who were present in the time of the Messenger of Allah (saw). This is because they twisted and changed the description of the Messenger (saw) whilst knowing the real truth of the matter.

وَأَنْتُمْ مُعْرِضُونَ
while you are those who turn away (in opposition)

Meaning that you are a people who have become accustomed to opposition and turning away from your covenants.

2. Then Allah (swt) informs us that the covenant bound them upon that: They do not kill one another and that they do not turn one another out from their homes.

لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِكُمْ
You do not shed your own blood, nor do you turn out yourselves from your dwellings

Meaning to spill the blood of another group and to expel the people of the other group from their homes. So the fact that they are from one Millah (Religion) then their blood and persons are also considered one.
And in spite of their ratification of the covenant, their agreement to it and their witnessing upon it, they broke the covenant of Allah as they killed amongst themselves and they aided other nations against some of them and they expelled some from their homes, whilst all of that was prohibited for them.

3. From the Mantooq (explicit meaning) of the Aayah it is explained that that which has been obliged upon them in the covenant is for them to leave the killing of some of them and to leave the expelling of some of them.
لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِكُمْ
You do not shed your own blood, nor do you turn out yourselves from your dwellings

And from the Mafhoom (implicit meaning) of the Aayah it is explained that He, Allah (swt) took from them also (in the covenant) that they do not assist others against some of them and ransom the prisoners.

تَظَاهَرُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِالْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَإِنْ يَأْتُوكُمْ أُسَارَىٰ تُفَادُوهُمْ وَهُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِخْرَاجُهُمْ
You assist (their enemies) against them, in sin and transgression. And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them, although their expulsion was prohibited upon you.

And:
وَهُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِخْرَاجُهُم
Although their expulsion was prohibited upon you.
Is Ma'toof (connected) to:
وَتُخْرِجُونَ فَرِيقًا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ
And you expel a party from among you from their homes.

And in regards to explaining the Hukm (ruling) in it I say: According to the language, if the Faseeh Arab (The people of the language) separate the Ma'toof (the thing connected) from that which it is connected to, or if they separate an adjective (Na't) from that which it is describing, or the arrangement of the speech varies in terms of bringing forward some words and taking others back (Taqdeem and Ta'kheer), or other alterations in regards to the arrangement of the speech, then the purpose and objective behind doing this is in order to make that which goes against the (normal) arrangement of speech, stand out and be distinguished.

And here the Ma'toof 'Alaihi (Al-Mahkoom 'Alaihi) is:

وَتُخْرِجُونَ فَرِيقًا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ
And you expel a party from among you from their homes

And the Ma'toof (Hukm) is:

وَهُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِخْرَاجُهُمْ
Although their expulsion was prohibited upon you.

So the separation between them both:

تَظَاهَرُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِالْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَإِنْ يَأْتُوكُمْ أُسَارَىٰ تُفَادُوهُمْ
You assist (their enemies) against them, in sin and transgression. And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them.

Means that there is a matter that is intended to be highlighted in relation to the subject of expelling and the Hukm upon it.

And by contemplating upon the Aayah it becomes apparent that what is intended to be highlighted and to stand out, is their condemnation for their expulsion of their brothers in war and not in a peaceful (or amicable) manner.  So it reflects an increase in the condemnation and level of disgrace that falls upon them.
Had the Aayah read as: 'And you expel a party from among you from their homes, although their expulsion was prohibited upon you' (i.e. without the middle part separating the two statements), then we would not have understood the manner of their expulsion as their leaving could have been done by other normal peaceful means like through mutual agreement or trade reasons etc... However this separation:

 تَظَاهَرُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِالْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَإِنْ يَأْتُوكُمْ أُسَارَىٰ تُفَادُوهُمْ
You assist (their enemies) against them, in sin and transgression. And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them.

This explains that they drove them out in war and thereafter the Hukm was mentioned to highlight and make stand out the condemnation and disgrace falling upon them because their expulsion of their brothers was by war and this is worse than had they expelled them by another means that was peaceful and not war. 

Therefore the separation between the two parts that attach together:

وَتُخْرِجُونَ فَرِيقًا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ
And you expel a party from among you from their homes
وَهُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِخْرَاجُهُمْ
Although their expulsion was prohibited upon you.

The purpose of it is to highlight the severity of condemnation and disgrace upon them for the act of expelling there brothers by war and not in a peaceful manner.

From this it becomes clear that they violated the first three matters that there covenant was made upon: The leaving of killing, expulsion and not assisting others against them (i.e. their own people). They turned away from these matters and only stuck to the fourth point of their covenant alone: Ransoming of captives. As such they believed in part or some of the book and disbelieved in some or part of it.

أَفَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِبَعْضِ الْكِتَابِ وَتَكْفُرُونَ بِبَعْضٍ
Then do you believe in a part of the Book and disbelieve in another part?

This is a form of questioning that reflects denunciation and a censure to them upon the level of badness of what they had done.

4. Allah completes the Aayah by explaining the fate of the one who does that:
خِزْيٌ
Khizyun: Meaning: Humiliation, disgrace and degradation/lowliness which is the recompense in the Dunyaa whilst in the hereafter there will not be a severe punishment but rather the severest of punishments awaiting him. And Allah (swt) is not inattentive of your abhorrent acts but rather they are preserved so that they will be recompensed with what they deserve in terms of disgrace and punishment in this life and the next.
وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ
And Allah is not unmindful of what you do.

5. And this Aayah is a description of the reality of the Jews who were in Al-Madinah when Islaam came to them. Banu Qaynuqaa' were allied to the Khazraj whilst Banu An-Nadeer and Banu Quraizhah were allies of the Aws. So the Jews would ignite war between the Aws and the Khazraj whilst each group would assist there ally and they would kill each other whilst fighting on the side of their allies. And resulting from the war some of them would be expelled from their homes however at the end of the battle the Jews would al;l gather together to ransom their captives whether they were from Banu Qaynuqaa', Banu An-Nadeer or Banu Quraizhah.
وَإِنْ يَأْتُوكُمْ أُسَارَىٰ تُفَادُوهُمْ
And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them.

So if your allies have Jewish captives taken from the other side in the war you (i.e. the Jews) pay their ransom and free them.
وَإِنْ يَأْتُوكُمْ
'And if they come to you' means: That they become captives/prisoners at the hands of your allies and so it is like they came to you as captives.

Then when it was said to them: 'How can you kill each other and thereafter come together to pay the ransoms of one another that have fallen into the captivity of the Aws and the Khazraj?' They respond by saying: 'Paying the ransom of prisoners is Fard (an obligation) upon us in the covenant that Allah took upon us.'

They say this whilst concealing that the covenant also prevented them from killing each other, expelling one another from their homes or assisting other outsiders against them. They do this to inflame the fires of war between the Aws and the Khazraj and they break the covenant that was taken upon them for the sake of material benefit of this Dunyaa, so that the affairs of Al-Madeenah remain in their hands whilst weakening the Aws and the Khazraj as a result of the continuous war that they inflame between them.

6. For this reason Allah (swt) describes them in the following Aayah by stating that they have sold their hereafter in exchange for the benefits of this imaginary and short-lived Dunyaa. And He (swt) promises them as a result of what they do, with a severe punishment that will never be lightened for them and which it is impossible to repel.
فَلَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمْ يُنْصَرُونَ
Their torment shall not be lightened nor shall they be helped.



Extract from the book 'At-Tayseer Fee Usool At-Tafseer' written by the Ameer of Hizb ut Tahrir, Sheikh Ata Ibn Khalil Abu Al-Rashtah.

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