Friday, September 20, 2013

Q&A: The Authenticity of the Hadith "My companions are like stars..."

Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatahu. Jazakum Allah Khair al-Jaza', may Allah support you with His victory and may He bless your eyes with the establishment of the Khilafah at your hands. My question, honorable Sheikh, I have already posed to the Shabab and they answered me, that this Hadith is contained in the prominent books of Fiqh and this is sufficient. We know that we have to be accurate in researching the strongest evidence (daleel) in our thinking and in what we have adopted from the rulings on Hadith, as present in The Islamic Personality Volume 3 (Ash-Shakhsiya al-Islamiyah 3) on page 294 (Arabic version) on the praise of the Sahabah:
أصحابي كالنجوم بأيهم اقتديتم اهتديتم
"My companions are like stars, whichever of them you use as a guide, you will be rightly guided," extracted by Rizin.
While researching in the Hadith collection "Mausu'at ad-Durar as-Sunnia", it appeared that the aforementioned Hadith is fabricated. So who is Rizain? Does a Musnad (a work of Hadith collection) of Basim Rizain exist?
Your Brother Mohammad Adeeb Khalil

Answer:
Wa Alaikum Assalaam wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatahu.
This Hadith is contained in some of the Hadith works, such as:
1. "Al Ibana al-Kubra" from Ibn Batta, whose full name is Abu Abdullah 'Ubaidallah Bin Muhammad Bin Muhammad Bin Hamdan al-'Ukbari, better known as Ibn Batta al-'Ukbari (died in 387 AH), and this is the text:
وَحَدَّثَنِي أَبُو يُوسُفَ يَعْقُوبُ بْنُ يُوسُفَ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو يَحْيَى زَكَرِيَّا بْنُ يَحْيَى السَّاجِيُّ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْحَاقَ الْأَنْوَارِيُّ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ يُونُسَ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو شِهَابٍ، عَنْ حَمْزَةَ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ دِينَارٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «إِنَّمَا أَصْحَابِي كَالنُّجُومِ، فَبِأَيِّهِمُ اقْتَدَيْتُمُ اهْتَدَيْتُمْ»
I was told by Abu Yusuf Ya'qub Bin Yusuf who said: We were told by Yahya Zakariya Bin Yahya al-Sajiy who said: We were told by Musa Bin Ishaq al-Anwariy who said: We were told by Ahmad Bin Yunus who said: We were told by Abu Shihab from Hamza Bin Abi Hamza from 'Amru Bin Dinar from Ibn Abbas who narrated that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
"Verily, my companions are like stars, whichever of them you use as a guide, you will be rightly guided."
2. "Jami' Bayan al-'Ilm wa Fadlihi" from Abu 'Umar Yusuf Bin Abdullah Bin Muhammad Bin Muhammad Bin Abdul-Birr Bin 'Assem an-Nimri al-Qurtubi (died in 463 AH) and this is his text:
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عُمَرَ قَالَ: نا عَبْدُ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ، ثنا عَلِيُّ بْنُ عُمَرَ، ثنا الْقَاضِي أَحْمَدُ بْنُ كَامِلٍ، ثنا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ رَوْحٍ، ثنا سَلَّامُ بْنُ سُلَيْمٍ، ثنا الْحَارِثُ بْنُ غُصَيْنٍ، عَنِ الْأَعْمَشِ، عَنْ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ، عَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «أَصْحَابِي كَالنُّجُومِ بِأَيِّهِمُ اقْتَدَيْتُمُ اهْتَدَيْتُمْ»
We were told by Ahmad Bin 'Umar who said: I was told by 'Abdu Bin Ahmad and Ali Bin 'Umar and al-Qadi Ahmad Bin Kamil and Abdulla Bin Rauh and Salam Bin Sulaim and al-Harith Bin Ghusain from Al-A'mash from Abu Sufyan from Jabir who narrated that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "My companions are like stars, whichever of them you use as a guide, you will be rightly guided"
And Abu 'Umar said: "This is a chain of transmission (Isnad) that cannot be used as a juridical evidence (hujja), because Ibn Ghussain is unknown."
None of the two Ahadith is free from criticism, as such some of the Scholars of Hadith have categorized them as weak (Da'if). Nevertheless we count this Hadith to be Hasan, because it is found in the books of the Fuqaha and they used it to derive rulings. As we have defined the Hasan Hadith in the book, The Islamic Personality Volume 3 (Ash-Shakhsiya al-Islamiya 3):
"The Hasan Hadith is of two types:
1. The Hadith whose transmitters are not free from weakness and whose eligibility is not verified, although the transmitter is not overtaken by many errors in what he transmits, nor is he accused of lying in the Hadith.
2. The Hadith whose transmitter is from those renowned for their truth and honesty, but he did not reach the class of Sahih, because the Hadith is short in such transmitters. Nevertheless the Hasan Hadith can be used as juridical evidence (Hujja) just as the Sahih Hadith. What is found from Ahadith in the books of the Imams and their Students and others from the Scholars and Fuqaha is considered to be from the Hadith Hasan and can be used as juridical evidence (Hujja). This is because they have used it as evidence for judgment, or they have derived from it a judgment, therefore it is a Hasan Hadith, whether contained in the books of Usul al-Fiqh or Fiqh. On the condition that it is an acknowledged book such as al-Mabsut, al-Umm, al-Mudawina al-Kubra and the likes..." End of citation.
This Hadith is recorded in various books of the Fuqaha, such as:
1. Al-Mabsut
Author: Muhammad Bin Ahmad Bin Abi Sahl Shams al-Ummah As-Sarkhasi (died in 483 AH)
On the topic of Judging the following comes in the book:
"..He should judge by what is in the Book of Allah, if he is given something he does not find in it, he judges it by what came from the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم. If he does not find it there, he will look what came from the companions (ra) of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم and will pass his judgment. We have explained this in what preceded, that if he finds a saying from one of the well-known Sahaba (ra) he will judge with it and will prefer it to the Qiyas, due to his saying صلى الله عليه وسلم:
أَصْحَابِي كَالنُّجُومِ بِأَيِّهِمْ اقْتَدَيْتُمْ اهْتَدَيْتُمْ
"My companions are like stars, whichever of them you use as a guide, you will be rightly guide."
Because what he is informed of by a Sahabi (ra) was potentially heard since they heard from the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم, then they would pass judgments when they came across something else..."
2. Hashiyat at-Tahtawi 'ala Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-Idah
Author: Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Ismail at-Tahtawi al-Hanafi (died in 1231 AH)
Concerning the Sunnah the following is found in the book:
"...The Sunnah according to the Hanafiya is what he صلى الله عليه وسلم did and in what he advanced, or his companions after him. He said in al-Siraj 'what the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم or one of his companions did, because he صلى الله عليه وسلم ordered to follow the Sunnah of his companions in his saying (as): "Adhere to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khulafa' after me" and his صلى الله عليه وسلم saying:
أصحابي كالنجوم بأيهم اقتديتم اهتديتم
"My companions are like stars, whichever of them you use as a guide, you will be rightly guided."
3. Al-Bayan wal-Tahsil wal-Sharh wal-Tawjih wal-Ta'lil limasa'il al-Mustakhraja
Author: Abu al-Walid Muhammad Bin Ahmad Bin Rushd al-Qurtubi (died in 520 AH)
On the matter of two groups of believers fighting each other it says the following:
"...because Allah ta'ala has commended them in His Book and through the tongue of His Messenger. The Dearest of Speakers has said:
كُنْتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ
"You are the best nation produced [as an example] for mankind."
(Ali Imran, 3:110)
And He said:
وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُم أُمَّةً وَسَطًا
"And thus we have made you a just community."
(al-Baqara, 2:143)
meaning a just option.
He said:
مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ
"Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those with him."
(Al-Fath: 29)
...the Ayah. The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
أصحابي كالنجوم بأيهم اقتديتم اهتديتم
"My companions are like stars, whichever of them you use as a guide, you will be rightly guided."
And he said:
عشرة من قريش في الجنة
"Ten from Quraish are in Jannah."
Then he counted among them Ali, Talha and Az-Zubair. The Imams of Ahl al-Sunna wal-Haqq say that Ali (ra) and who followed him were on the way of righteousness and truth, and that Talha and az-Zubair were at fault, although they saw it through their Ijtihad so it was their obligation to act as they did, since both of them were from the people of Ijtihad,..."
4. Al-Dhakhira
Author: Abu Al-Abbas Shehab Al-Deen Ahmad Bin Idris Bin Abd Al-Rahman Al-Maliki, better known as Al-Qurafi (died in 684 AH)
He writes in his research on Usul al-Fiqh of Imam Malik:
"...because the methodology of Malik is to proceed in action based on the solitary Hadith, also the Qiyas based on the solitary Hadith, as done by al-Abhariy. If he did not find a Sunnah, then a saying of the Sahaba (ra) was taken. In case they differed in their sayings, the saying that was accompanied by an action was chosen, in case it did not contradict all of them. He was told to perform Ijtihad even if he contradicted all of them, with the primary argument of his saying صلى الله عليه وسلم:
أصحابي كالنجوم بأيهم اقتديتم اهتديتم
"My companions are like stars, whichever of them you use as a guide, you will be rightly guided."
If this is lost, then base it on the Usul after seeking advice from the Scholars."
5. Al-Hawy al-Kabir fi Fiqh Madhab Al-Imam Al-Shafi'i (Sharh Mukhtasar Al-Mazni)
Author: Abu al-Hasan Ali Bin Muhammad Bin Muhammad Habib al-Basri al-Baghdadi, better known as al-Mawardi (died in 450 AH)
He writes the following in his research on the Sahaba:
"Section: The Fourth Category
The fourth category is the Sahabah. Their imitation differs according to their differing circumstances from what they said. They had four situations:
The third situation: One of them utters a saying which is not known to be spread nor does its contradiction arise among them, therefore it does not reach a consensus. Is this juridical evidence that has to be followed or not? According to two sayings:
The first: It was said in the old times, and it is the Madhab of Malik and Abu Haneefah that it amounts to juridical evidence that has to be followed due to his saying (as):
أَصْحَابِي كَالنُّجُومِ بِأَيِّهِمُ اقْتَدَيْتُمُ اهْتَدَيْتُمْ
"My companions are like stars, whichever of them you use as a guide, you will be rightly guided."
Also because some of the Sahabah used to take a saying without demanding evidence. This points out that a saying of one of them is juridical evidence."
6. Kishaf al-Qina' 'an Matn Al-Iqna'
Author: Mansur Bin Yunus Bin Salah al-Din Ibn Hasan Bin Idris al-Buhuti al-Hanbali (died in 1051 AH)
It is mentioned in the chapter on the penalty for hunting:
("...It is) i.e. : hunting (of two types) (one of them has a congener), namely : a similarity (in the grace of creation there is no value so there has to be in it a similarity) stipulated in the verse (and he), namely: the one that has a congener (of two types, one which was ruled upon by the companions) i.e.: some but not all of them (it contains what they ruled by) the Sahabah, and provide the definition of the Sahabi in the sermon, according to his saying صلى الله عليه وسلم:
أَصْحَابِي كَالنُّجُومِ بِأَيِّهِمُ اقْتَدَيْتُمُ اهْتَدَيْتُمْ
"My companions are like stars, whichever of them you use as a guide, you will be rightly guided.", and his صلى الله عليه وسلم saying:
عَلَيْكُمْ بِسُنَّتِي وَسُنَّةِ الْخُلَفَاءِ الرَّاشِدِينَ الْمَهْدِيِّينَ عَضُّوا عَلَيْهَا بِالنَّوَاجِذِ
"Adhere to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Khulafa' ar-Rashideen al Mahdieen and bite onto it firmly."Narrated by Ahmad and Tirmidhi and classed as Sahih.
Because they are closer to the truth and know the circumstances, therefore their saying was juridical evidence over others, such as the Scholar or the unlearned. (In the cattle there is a body?) as ruled by 'Umar, 'Uthman, Ali and Zayd and more Scholars; because it is similar to the camel in its creation, therefore it was similar to it. It enters the general aspect of the text. Al-Kharqiy has categorized it with birds, because it has two wings."
7. Al-Maghni Li'Ibn Qudama
Author: Abu Muhammad Muwaffaq al-Deen Abdullah Bin Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Qudama Al-Jama'ili Al-Muqaddisi Al-Dimashqi Al-Hanbali, better known as Baban Qudama al-Maqdisi (died in 620 AH)
It is mentioned in the chapter "the sixth section on the punishment for the hunting of a beast and its congener from the cattle":
"...Malik said: The Hukm for it is resumed, because Allah سبحانه وتعالى said:
يَحْكُمُ بِهِ ذَوَا عَدْلٍ مِنْكُمْ
"as judged by two just men among you"
(Al-Ma'ida, 5:95)
and we have the saying of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم:
أَصْحَابِي كَالنُّجُومِ بِأَيِّهِمُ اقْتَدَيْتُمُ اهْتَدَيْتُمْ
"My companions are like stars, whichever of them you use as a guide, you will be rightly guided."
He also said:
اقْتَدُوا بِاَللَّذَيْنِ مِنْ بَعْدِي: أَبِي بَكْرٍ، وَعُمَرَ
"Be guided by the ones after me, Abu Bakr and 'Umar."
Because they are closer to righteousness and better in knowledge. Their judgment was juridical evidence over others, as the Scholar over the unlearned, from what has reached us from their judgments. The hyena for a male sheep, as ruled by 'Umar, Ali, Jabir and Ib Abbas.
As you see, the Hadith is used in the books of the acknowledged Fuqaha from the Hanafiyah, Malikiyah, Shafi'iyah and Hanbaliyah. Therefore it is categorized as Hasan.
Concerning the mentioning of "Rizain", we will review his topic after exerting ourselves in research on him, insha Allah.
Your Brother Ata' Bin Khalil Abu al-Rashtah
26th Shawwal 1434 AH
2nd September 2013 CE

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