Sunday, June 15, 2014

Q&A: Authenticity of the Hadith about the Sahaba Marching out in Two Rows in Makkah

Question:
To: Moadh Seif Elmi
Our honourable Sheikh, Assalamu Alaikum. Is the hadeeth regarding the Muslims going out in two rows, one headed by Omar (ra) and the other by Hamza (ra), weak? Thank you.
And
To: Andalusi Maqdisi Andalus
Asalamu Alaikum our honourable Sheikh,
In your answer regarding demonstrations, may Allah protect you, you gave reference to this hadeeth:
Abu Na'eem Ahmad bin Abdullah bin Ahmad Bin Ishaq bin Musa bin Mahran Al-Asbahani (deceased in 430 AH) narrated in his book "Huliyat Al-Awliaa' Wa Tabaqat Al-Asfiyaa'" from Ibn Abbas, he said: I asked Omar (ra): Why were called Al-Farouq? He said: Hamza converted to Islam three days before me, Allah then opened my heart to Islam... I said: Where is the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم? My sister said, "He is in the house of Al-Arqam ibn Al-Arqam at As-Safa." So I went there... and said, "I bear witness that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is his slave and Messenger." He said that the people in the house chanted Takbeers loudly which the people outside in the Masjid heard. He said, "I said, O Messenger of Allah, are we not upon the truth, if we are dead or alive?" He said: "Yes, by whose my soul is in His hand, you are upon the truth, if you die or if you live? He said, "I said, so why are we hiding? By the One who sent you with the truth you will go out, so we marched out in two rows, Hamza lead one line, and I lead the other like the flour warms until we entered the Masjid, he said: Qurayish looked at me and they looked at Hamza, they were hit with depression that they never experienced before, on that the Prophet called me Al-Farouq, who differentiated between truth and falsehood."
When studying this hadeeth, we find that Al-Albani said that it is odd and most scholars of hadeeth graded it as weak. My question is in two parts: First, is it allowed to refer to weak evidence? If the answer is yes, then, when do we use it as evidence and how do we judge it?
If the answer was no, do you therefore have another narration other than what is mentioned in the question? May Allah make us benefit from your knowledge; May Allah Bless you and open doors for you. Abdullah Ash-Shami

Answer:
Wa Alaikum us Salaam Wa Rahmatullah Wa Barakaatuhu,
Both questions are concerning the same subject, so here is your answer:
My dear brothers,
When you read that someone graded a narration as weak, it does not necessarily true that it is definitely weak. For example there are "Shuyookh" who graded the Ahadeeth of Bukhari and Muslim as weak, i.e. that they ranked Ahadeeth which were extracted by the two who the Ummah accepted and were reassured by their narrations. Bukhari and Muslim had set great standards in finding the correctness of narration, through the chain of narrators and the text... despite this there were those who came and said that some of their ahadeeth were weak!
Yes, it is true that if the hadeeth is found to be weak, it is not allowed to use it as evidence. However, Muhadiths or some of them might grade a hadeeth as weak while others grade it as Hasan and can be used as evidence. Those acquainted with the science of Hadeeth and its fundamentals know this, it is well known amongst Muhadiths and Mujtahideen, so when some use a hadeeth as a reference, another does not. We have given detailed explanation of this in our book, The Islamic Personality Volume One under: "Accepted and Rejected Hadeeth" and the chapter on: "When to consider a hadeeth as an evidence in the Shari'ah rules"
Now I will answer your question on the March of the Sahaba in Makka after the conversion of Omar (ra) to Islam:
1. The narration mentioned in the answer to the question was that of Abu Na'eem Ahmad bin Abdullah bin Ahmad Bin Ishaq bin Musa bin Mahran Al-Asbahani (deceased in 430 AH) narrated in his book "Huliyat Al-Awliaa' Wa Tabaqat Al-Asfiyaa'", Abu Na'eem is from the trusted memorisers, in "A'lam An-Nubala", Az-Zarkali said regarding him:
"Abu Nu'aim [330-430 AH = 948-1038 CE] Ahmad Bin Abdullah Bin Ahmad Al-Asbahani, Abu Na'eem: is a memoriser, historian, from the trusted in memorisation and narration.
He was born and died in Asbahan. From his books are: "Huliyat Al-Awliaa' Wa Tabaqat Al-Asfiyaa'-T" in ten volumes, and "Ma'rifat As-Sahaba" al-Kabeer, only one left in two volumes, it is the 551 AH version found in the library of Sultan Ahmad III in Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, number 497 as mentioned in Al-Maimani's Memoires-Kh.
And "Tabaqat Al-Muhaditheen Wa Ar-Riwat" and "Dala'il An-Nubuwa-T" and "Zikr Akhbar Asbahan-T" in two volumes, and the book "As-Shu'ara'-Kh". End.
This is why his narration regarding the Marching of Muslims in two rows after the conversion of Omar (ra) can be taken as evidence.
2. However, it is not the only narration, there are other correct (Saheeh) narrations:
- In Al-Mustadrak regarding the two Sahihein by Al-Hakim: "From Othman bin Abdullah Bin Al-Arqam, from his grandfather, who was from the people of Badr, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was in his house at Safa, until the number of Muslims reached 40, the last one to embrace Islam was Omar bin Al-khatab (ra), when they became 40 they marched out to the Mushriks..." Al-Hakim said this is a Sahih hadeeth in transmission, and they did not extract it, Az-zahabi agreed with him.
- In at-Tabaqat Al-Kubra to Ibn Sa'd: he said on the authority of Yahiya bin Imran bin Othman bin Al-Arqam, he said, "I heard my grandfather Othman bin Al-Arqam say: I am the son of the seventh man who embraced Islam, his house was in Makka at Safa. It is the first house the Prophet called in it for Islam and many people embraced Islam in it. On Monday night he صلى الله عليه وسلم made this supplication: اللهم أعز الإسلام بأحب الرجلين إليك: عمر بن الخطاب أو عمرو بن هشام "O Allah strengthen Islam by two of the most loved men to you: Omar bin Al-Khatab or Amr bin Hashim".
Omar bin Al-Khataab came the next morning to the house of Al-Arqam and embraced Islam, they marched out and chanted Takbeers and did Tawaf around the Ka'ba openly, and the house of Al-Arqam was called the house of Islam."
- Ibn Ishaq said in As-Seera An-Nabawiyah: "Omar then said: By Allah we have a greater right to call for Islam... let the Deen of Allah become highest in Makka, If our people were unjust to us we fight them, if they support us we accept it from them, Omar and his companions marched out and sat in the Masjid, when Qurayish saw that Omar joined Islam."
- The subject of the two rows was also mentioned by Taqqi-udDeen Al-Maqreezi in "Imta' Al-Asma'", and by Hussain bin Muhammad Ad-Diyyar Bakri in "Tareekh Al-Khamees Fi Ahwal Anfus An-Nafees", and by Muhammad Abu Shabha in "As-Seera An-Nabawiyah Ala Dhaw' Al Qur'an Wa As-Sunnah", and by Saffiy Ar-Rahman Al-Mubakfoory in "Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtom"... and others.
3. Not to mention that this is not the only evidence that permit demonstrations and marches. Demonstrations and marches are styles that are used to express an opinion and spread ideas similar to leaflets, talks and seminars, videos and other means and styles. In origin, means and styles are permitted unless there is evidence that prohibits some of them, which will restrict their use. These means and styles move people to carry Islam and adhere to it, and interact with it. The Hizb carries out these actions when it is possible on the condition that the Hizb organises them and manages them alone and under its Banner and Chants, and unites people by its leadership ... and not in partnership with others who raise their banners and has their chants... The Hizb does not carry out such actions. What we are able to do with our own leadership and management we carry it out, they may come a time when we cannot carry out these actions and they may come others when we can. This is similar to the style of Media Offices. It was difficult to open Media Offices during the time of Abu Ibrahim (May Allah, have mercy on him), but was more feasible during the time of Abu Yusuf (May Allah have mercy on him) who appointed me as the Official Spokesman in Jordan, and today as you can see our Media Offices are many.
4. In conclusion dear brothers, every action that we undertake, and every step we make, we think and reflect upon, we do not just abstain from that which is prohibited, but from anything that comes near the dust of the prohibited dust; we trust in Allah سبحانه وتعالى inwardly and outwardly, in the minor and major. We carry a burden that mountains cannot bear, did you think we can continue without the adherence to the Shari'ah rules was in our hearts, tongues, and all our sentiments?! We ask Allah for assistance and guidance to the wisdom in issues. And Allah supports the righteous.
Your brother,
Ata Bin Khalil Abu Al-Rashtah
10 Sha'ban 1435 AH
8 June 2013 CE
The link to the answer from the Ameer's Facebook page:
https://www.facebook.com/Ata.abualrashtah/photos/a.154439224724163.1073741827.154433208058098/300830363418381/?type=1&theater

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