Saturday, January 31, 2015

The ISIS 'Caliphate' 6 Months on

Two recent events took place which received some global media atten­tion and would indi­cate ISIS is expand­ing its capa­bil­i­ties and reach. On 12 Jan­u­ary 2015 as Barack Obama gave a speech in Wash­ing­ton on cybersecurity,[1] as he was speak­ing, ISIS suc­cess­fully hacked the US Cen­tral Com­mands twit­ter account in an act of cyber Jihad.[2] On 14 Jan­u­ary 2015 Saudi Ara­bia revealed details of its 600-mile-long “Great Wall,” to sep­a­rate the coun­try from Iraq. With much of the Saudi-Iraq bor­der under the con­trol of ISIS the buffer zone will con­sist of five lay­ers of fenc­ing with watch tow­ers, night-vision cam­eras and radar cameras.[3] All of this was after a sui­cide bomb­ing and gun attack killed two Saudi bor­der guards and their com­mand­ing offi­cer on 5 Jan­u­ary 2015, which the King­dom con­sid­ered the first attack by ISIS on Saudi Arabia.[4] It has now been over 6 months since the ISIS announce­ment of the Caliphate and whilst they have expanded their ter­ri­to­r­ial con­trol and faced-off against the other rebel groups, a closer exam­i­na­tion of ISISsuc­cess reveals much of it is a mirage in the desert.
ISIS’s pres­ence in Syria can be traced offi­cially to April 2013 when Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi declared  the  merger between his group in Iraq and Jab­hut al-Nusra in Syria. The rejec­tion of this by al-Nusra leader Muhammed Joulani led to the cre­ation of ISIS which entered into a pro­tracted bat­tle with al-Nusra and every other rebel group in Syria seiz­ing ter­ri­tory from them. Today, most of the Iraqi-Syrian bor­der is in ISIShands and much of the north of the coun­try from Deir ar Zour to ar-Raqqa gov­er­norate and Aleppo  gov­er­norate is under ISIS con­trol – although Aleppo is still being con­tested. Whilst this ter­ri­tory is vast, likely to be in the range of 400 square miles it is of lit­tle strSyriaHeartlandate­gic impor­tance. Ar-Raqqah to Mosul — the tra­di­tional region of al-Jazirah is of lit­tle eco­nomic, his­tor­i­cal or geopo­lit­i­cal weight. It is a desert heart­land and what agri­cul­tural poten­tial is there is usu­ally affected by drought and as a result the pop­u­la­tion in this area of Syria has his­tor­i­cally been extremely small. Deir al-Zour and Ar-Raqqah, even prior to the upris­ing played only a minor role in Syr­ian pol­i­tics. Syria’s core or heart­land is in the West of the coun­try — the cor­ri­dor run­ning from Aleppo in the north to Dam­as­cus in the South. This is why Syria’s his­toric polit­i­cal and eco­nomic cen­tres remain the cities of, Aleppo, Hama, Homs, Dam­as­cus and Deraa. Despite gain­ing most of the global media head­lines ISIS controls none of the key ter­ri­tory in Syria.
ISIS shot to fame due to their rapid con­quest of Iraq’s largest city after Bagh­dad, Mosul, in June 2014. This was a sig­nif­i­cant vic­tory for ISIS as it defeated two army divi­sions that were sta­tioned in Mosul. This was around 30,000 troops, there were also an addi­tional 10,000 fed­eral police and 30,000 local police and likely, some Iran­ian Quds Force offi­cers. The Iraqi army had tanks, planes, and Amer­i­can train­ing. ISIS had never fielded a tank or a plane. The Iraqi army in real­ity was inept, incom­pe­tent, full of nepo­tism and cor­rup­tion and was really com­posed of vol­un­teers look­ing for a reg­u­lar salary than a fight­ing forces secur­ing the coun­try. The mil­i­tary was led by an even more cor­rupt polit­i­cal class and sec­tar­ian lead­ers more inter­ested in pre­serv­ing their own office rather than defend­ing the coun­try. The capit­u­la­tion of the Iraqi army proves their dire state rather than ISIS capa­bil­ity. There iKobani1s also sig­nif­i­cant evi­dence from many Iraqi com­man­ders, who were in Mosul at the time of the attack, that they were ordered to leave the city and to leave their equip­ment behind. This deci­sion to aban­don Mosul could only have come from Malaki him­self. This explains why ISIShas strug­gled after months of fight­ing in Kobani. A town only a tiny frac­tion of Mosul. Despite mainly fac­ing Kur­dish fight­ers and other fight­ers who reside in the town ISIS has been los­ing ground in this north­ern town on the bor­der with Turkey. All this has taken place despite ISIS com­man­der Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi send­ing thou­sands of fight­ers to Kobani, lead­ing many to call Kobani ISIS’s Stal­in­grad.
On the global scene ISIS has con­firmed all the stereo­types many have of an Islamic state. Behead­ings, killings, mur­ders, kid­nap­pings, slav­ery, lack of jus­tice, dic­ta­tor­ship and poverty are the images the world has of the ISIS Caliphate. Despite the slick use of social media, none of this has show­cased the capa­bil­i­ties of a state or why the Mus­lims around the world should immi­grate to the Caliphate. There is no doubt ISIS is com­posed skilled mul­ti­me­dia per­son­nel and acoustics engi­neers, but what is needed to develop a mod­ern state is engi­neers and skills to develop indus­try, weapons and infra­struc­ture. ISIS for the moment is sur­viv­ing on loot from Mosul and as a result can shoot down a mil­i­tary jet or counter a tank, but tack­ling an entire squadron or per­ma­nently neu­tral­is­ing air-sorties against a con­ven­tional army that can con­stantly pro­duce mil­i­tary plat­form is another mat­ter. This is why ISIS can do noth­ing against US air attacks sup­ported by the other air forces in the region as they lack com­plete author­ity over ter­ri­tory they pur­port to con­trol. ISIS con­sists of a loose coali­tion of 20 year olds, for­mer Ba’athists and many for­eign­ers and is at most an insur­gent force with lit­tle capa­bil­ity in run­ning a state.
Anec­do­tal reports sug­gest food, med­i­cine and other essen­tial goods are in scarce sup­ply and that the res­i­dents of cities such as Raqaa in Syria and Mosul in Iraq are becom­ing unhappy with the many taxes the Islamic State has levied to sup­port its econ­omy. With very lit­tle other eco­nomic activ­ity, shak­ing down the local pop­u­la­tion for taxes can work only for so long until peo­ple are bled dry.[5] ISIS has turned most of Iraq and much of Syria into another North Korea, iso­lated in the world and not pre­sent­ing any pos­i­tive image of the Caliphate. ISIS ter­ri­to­ries, which are mostly arable desert, are not con­ducive for eco­nomic devel­op­ment and it would be impos­si­ble to estab­lish a state upon it in order to sur­vive. A mod­ern nation will need to engage in inter­na­tional trade to sur­vive. This requires mutual recog­ni­tion between ‘states’ and some inter­na­tional cred­i­bil­ity. Basic equip­ment such as an MRI machine for a Mosul hos­pi­tal or chem­i­cals to treat water, as well as med­ical drugs or the infra­struc­ture for air trans­port requires inter­na­tional rela­tions. The nations that pro­duce such equip­ment and mate­ri­als can­not and will not sell to ISIS, turn­ing them into another North Korea. This is a huge blow to the ‘Islamic project’ and its credibility.
ISIS is con­sid­ered by many as the most suc­cess­ful Jihadi group that con­trols large sec­tions of Syria and Iraq. Although it has accom­plished a lot over the past 6 months, jihadi emi­rates have gen­er­ally been rel­a­tively short-lived. ISIS has grown on the ground in Iraq and Syria, both by absorb­ing other groups and by recruit­ing new local and for­eign fight­ers. It has how­ever not expanded beyond its core areas of oper­a­tion. The organisation’s growth out­side its core area has only been when other groups rebranded them­selves. Only a lim­ited num­ber of groups that have declared alle­giance to ISIS, these groups have gen­er­ally been splin­ters off exist­ing jihadi groups rather than new enti­ties. ISIS sup­port­ers around the world have gen­er­ally been online and a few pseudo-clerics with lit­tle cred­i­bil­ity. After 6 months ISIS pos­sesses sub­stan­tial ter­ri­tory but lit­tle else that is needed to func­tion as a mod­ern state.

[5] Jihadism in 2014: Assess­ing the Islamic State, Strat­for, Jan­u­ary 8 2015,

Video: Al-Aqsa: Only the Khilafah Defend and Protect the Creed and the Holy Sites

Recent video in Arabic with English subtitles from the grounds of Masjid al-Aqsa in Palestine.

Mafaheem Islaamiyah: Islamic concepts - Part 2: Ar-Rooh (the spirit/soul)

The following is a translation from the book: Mafaheem Islaamiyah Al-Juz’u-l-Awwal, Islamic concepts – Volume One by Muhammad Hussein Abdullah published in 1994.

Ar-Rooh (the spirit/soul)

وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الرُّوحِ
And they ask you concerning the Rooh
The human is a living entity composed of matter and Allah (swt) created Aadam (as) from Teen (clay). Allah Ta’Aalaa said:
إِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي خَالِقٌ بَشَرًا مِنْ طِينٍ (71) فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِنْ رُوحِي فَقَعُوا لَهُ سَاجِدِينَ
(So mention) when your Lord said to the Angels verily I am creating a human from clay. So when I have proportioned him and breathed into him of my Rooh, then fall down to him in prostration (Saad 71-72).
So man has questioned and asked about the essence of the Rooh and the Messenger of Allah (saw) was questioned about it, and so the Wahi came with an answer from the Lord of the worlds and all creation:
وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الرُّوحِ قُلِ الرُّوحُ مِنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّي وَمَا أُوتِيتُمْ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا
And they ask you concerning the Rooh. Say the Rooh is from the command of my Rabb (Lord) and you have not been given of the knowledge except a little (Al-Israa’ 85).
So the Rooh is the secret of life, a command from Allah (swt) which He placed within the human whilst attributing it to himself: ‘and breathed into him of my Rooh’ meaning a Rooh from or of my creation whilst not meaning a part from myself. This is because He (swt) says: ‘Say the Rooh is from the command of my Rabb’ meaning that it has been created by the command of Allah Ta’Aalaa.
The human being does not perceive the reality of this Rooh and this Rooh has remained since the time of Aadam (as) until this day and will continue until the last human being on the face of this earth. It passes from one human to another with the fertilisation that occurs between the male sperm and female egg. And then the new body begins its growth until it becomes a complete and full human after passing through a number of stages.
Allah (swt) said:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِنَ الْبَعْثِ فَإِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ مِنْ تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ عَلَقَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ مُضْغَةٍ مُخَلَّقَةٍ وَغَيْرِ مُخَلَّقَةٍ لِنُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ وَنُقِرُّ فِي الْأَرْحَامِ مَا نَشَاءُ إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى ثُمَّ نُخْرِجُكُمْ طِفْلًا ثُمَّ لِتَبْلُغُوا أَشُدَّكُمْ
O people, if you are in doubt in regards to the resurrection then (consider that) indeed We created you from earth (soil), then from a sperm drop, then from a clinging clot, and then from a lump of flesh, formed and unformed, that we make clear to you. And we settle in the wombs who We will until an appointed (fixed) term, then we bring you out as a child and then (we develop you) so that you may reach your maturity (adulthood) (Al-Hajj 5).
This is a matter that is perceived and sensed within all of mankind with the exception of the creation of ‘Iesaa (as) because Allah Ta’Aalaa breathed into him the Rooh without the process of fertilisation when Allah (swt) commanded for the Rooh to enter him directly.
Allah (swt) said:
إِنَّ مَثَلَ عِيسَى عِنْدَ اللَّهِ كَمَثَلِ آَدَمَ خَلَقَهُ مِنْ تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ
Indeed the example of ‘Iesaa to Allah is like that of Aadam. He created him from Turaab (the earth), then said to him ‘Be’ and he was (Aali ‘Imraan 59).
This means that the Rooh was brought into being within him from nothing just as it was brought to exist within Aadam (as). And in respect to Maryam He (swt) said:
وَالَّتِي أَحْصَنَتْ فَرْجَهَا فَنَفَخْنَا فِيهَا مِنْ رُوحِنَا وَجَعَلْنَاهَا وَابْنَهَا آَيَةً لِلْعَالَمِينَ
And the one who guarded her chastity, so We blew into her of Our Rooh, and We made her and her son a sign for the worlds (all creation) (Al-Anbiyaa’ 91).
And so Maryam (as) was chaste, she had not practised any indecency nor had she married and the Rooh did not transfer to her womb by the fertilisation of the male aspect to her egg. Rather Allah (swt) placed within her a Rooh by His command from nothing just as He Ta’Aalaa had placed a Rooh in the Teen (clay) from which He created Aadam (as).
So the Rooh is the secret of life. It is a command from Allah Ta’Aalaa to the matter that constitutes the human body so that this matter then has the disposition and susceptibility for growth (development), movement and to increase whilst the body loses these abilities when the Rooh is removed from it.
As for the Rooh which the Westerners or the Greeks who preceded them spoke of, then they claimed that it was a part of the human being’s make-up when they stated that the human is composed of both material and Rooh (spirit) and that this Rooh represents a part from Allah’s essence. They claimed that if the Rooh is dominant over the matter or material then the human will elevate and his conduct will move closer towards divine perfection whilst if the matter was to dominate the Rooh then the human’s behaviour would then decline. This Rooh that they have claimed to be present doesn’t in fact exist and it is not the same as the secret of life. This is because the witnessed and sensed reality informs us that the human being is composed of matter alone and that the secret of life does not decrease or increase in accordance to the decline or elevation of the human.
The Rooh by which the human can be elevated by is something else and it is not a part of the human being. It is rather an external descriptive attribute that the human acquires from outside himself which then has an influence upon his conduct. This attribute would not exist however unless the human was regulating his actions by a system that was external to him and emanated from a power that was greater and higher than the human; Allah (swt). This regulation and commitment would not occur unless the human is a believer in Allah Ta’Aalaa and realises his relationship and connection to Him. Therefore this Rooh which is being discussed and by which the human being can be elevated by is not the same Rooh which is the secret of life but rather it is the realisation of the relationship and connection to Allah (swt).
This extraneous attribute does not come to the human unless he has first believed that this existence has a creator who created it. Then after the human has perceived the relationship and connection that every created thing including the universe, man and life has with this creator where if the human was to regard any created thing like the moon for example and then perceive its relationship with Allah (i.e. that Allah Ta’Aalaa is the creator of the moon), then in this case this realisation and comprehension would represent the Rooh in respect to the human whilst if he did not perceive this relationship or did not possess this realisation then he would be absent of this Rooh.
Therefore the Rooh which has been claimed by the Westerners is not a part of the human or his composition but rather it represents the realisation of the connection to Allah (swt) whilst the realisation of this connection makes the human regulate his actions by the commands of Allah and his forbiddances. It is this regulation that indicates the existence of this Rooh within the human being.
The feelings of the human in awe of the greatness of the creator, His power and knowledge which is built upon this realisation represents the Roohaniyah (spirituality). If these feelings were to continue then the human would live through them within an atmosphere of Imaan which would assist him to confine himself to the commands and prohibitions of Allah (swt) in a state of contentment and tranquillity.
As for the spiritual aspect that exists within things, then this arises from the fact that they have been created by the creator. So the spiritual aspect in respect to a mountain for example or an animal or even the human comes from the fact that all of these are creations of the creator and nobody perceives this aspect apart from the one who believes in the existence of a creator who created these things.
Islaam has encouraged the human to comprehend the spiritual aspect within things and within himself and this is in order to strengthen the Rooh in respect to this being the connection of the created things with Allah (swt).
Allah (swt) says:
أَفَلَا يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَى الْإِبِلِ كَيْفَ خُلِقَتْ (17) وَإِلَى السَّمَاءِ كَيْفَ رُفِعَتْ (18) وَإِلَى الْجِبَالِ كَيْفَ نُصِبَتْ (19) وَإِلَى الْأَرْضِ كَيْفَ سُطِحَتْ
Then do they not look at the camels, how they were created? And at the sky, how it was raised up? And at the mountains, how they were erected firmly. And at the earth, how it was spread out? (Al-Ghaashiyah 17-21).
And immediately after these Aayaat Allah (swt) says:
فَذَكِّرْ إِنَّمَا أَنْتَ مُذَكِّرٌ
So remind (them) (for) verily you are only (one who) reminds (Al-Ghaashiyah 21).
And so the Messenger of Allah (saw) was asked to remind the people of this connection between Allah Ta’Aalaa and the created things which is the connection of creation. This is in order to strength the Rooh of the people.
Allah (swt) said:
إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ لَآَيَاتٍ لِأُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ
Verily in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day (there) are signs for those (men) of understanding (Aali ‘Imraan 190).
This means that there are evidences for the person who realises the relationship and connection of the created things with their creator. And Allah (swt) began Makkan Soorahs by mentioning the creations in which the spiritual aspect appears clearly.
Allah (swt) said:
وَالشَّمْسِ وَضُحَاهَا (1) وَالْقَمَرِ إِذَا تَلَاهَا (2) وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا جَلَّاهَا (3) وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَاهَا (4) وَالسَّمَاءِ وَمَا بَنَاهَا (5) وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا طَحَاهَا
By the sun and its brightness, And by the moon that follows it. And by the day when it displays it. And by the night when it conceals it. And by the heaven and (He) who built it. And by the earth and (he) who spread it out (Ash-Shams 1-6).
And He (swt) said:
اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ (1) خَلَقَ الْإِنْسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ
Read in the name of your Lord who created. Created man from a clot (Al-‘Alaq 1-2).
Islaam has demanded from the Muslim to mix the matter (i.e. his action) with the Rooh i.e. It has demanded from him that he restricts himself to the commands of Allah and His forbiddances.
Allah (swt) said:
اتَّبِعُوا مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا مِنْ دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ
Follow what has been revealed to you from your Lord and do not follow any (as) allies besides Him (Al-A’araaf 3).
And He (swt) said:
وَأَنَّ هَذَا صِرَاطِي مُسْتَقِيمًا فَاتَّبِعُوهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا السُّبُلَ فَتَفَرَّقَ بِكُمْ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ
And verily this is my path, which is straight, so follow it and do not follow other ways so that you would become separated (or taken away) from His path (Al-An’aam 153).
وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَمَنْ يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُبِينًا
It was not for the male believer of female believer when Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter for them (then) to have any choice in respect to their affair and whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger then he has gone manifestly astray (Al-Ahzaab 36).
He (swt) has made clear and explained to man the ruling for every one of his action, so for example Allah (said:
وَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا
And He has made trade Halaal and made Ribaa Haraam (Al-Baqarah 275).
And He ‘Azza Wa Jalla said:
وَيُحِلُّ لَهُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْخَبَائِثَ
And He has made Halaal for them the Tayyibaat (good Halaal things) and has made Haraam upon them the Khabaa’ith (the bad and Haraam things) (Al-A’araaf 157).
Adhering to these Ahkaam when undertaking the actions represents the mixing of the Rooh with the matter because the one adhering and sticking to these Ahkaam perceives and fully comprehends his connection and relationship to Allah Ta’Aalaa when he undertakes the action.

Friday, January 30, 2015

Mafaheem Islaamiyah Al-Juz’u-l-Awwal: Islamic concepts – Vol 1, Part 1

The following is a translation from the book: Mafaheem Islaamiyah Al-Juz’u-l-Awwal, Islamic concepts – Volume One by Muhammad Hussein Abdullah published in 1994.

The Fikr (thought) is a Hukm (judgment) upon a reality and the vessel of this thought is the language. As such the language is not a thought but rather it is only a tool to express this thought. So our statement: ‘The human is a speaking animal’ is a sentence based on language that contains a Madlool (indicated meaning) and this Madlool is the thought. If this Madlool (what is indicated) has an external reality to it that the mind comprehends like in the sentence: ‘The human is a speaking animal’ then this Fikr would represent a Mafhoom (concept) for the one who perceives this Madlool (indicated meaning). However if this thought did not have a Madlool like the statement: ‘The human being is composed of matter and spirit’ then there will not be a ‘Mafhoom’ (concept or conception) for this Fikr (thought). This is because the senses do not fall upon the Madlool (indication) of this thought because the human mind does not perceive a reality for what is being implied or indicated to. As such this indicated meaning (Madlool) would remain a thought that has no Mafhoom (conception) for it. So the thoughts of Plato about his ‘Republic’ are not concepts (Mafaaheem) because the indicated meanings (Madloolaat) of these thoughts which Plato expressed in his language do not have a sensed reality to them within life. Therefore in order for the Afkaar (thoughts) to be concepts in respect to the person it is necessary for the Madlool (indicated meaning) of these thoughts to have a reality for that person.
This book deals with some of the concepts which the human mind perceives their Madloolaat (indicated meanings) directly in the external reality and this is like the concept: ‘The human being is composed of matter alone’. This is because this expression does not merely represent meanings fro wordings but rather it represents an expression of a concept which has a Madlool (indication) in the external reality that the human mind perceives and understands directly.
The book also deals with some of the concepts that the ‘Aql (mind) cannot comprehend and perceive directly and are only comprehended by a perception of their effect or through a perception of their manifestations and this is like the concept: ‘Within the human is a particularity (or specific feature/reality) that is the Ghareezah An-Naw’i (procreation instinct or instinct of kind/species)’. This is because the human does not perceive this instinct directly because his senses do not fall upon it. Rather he only perceives its manifestations and so he senses that the human loves his children, that he inclines in affection to his parents and that he inclines towards the opposite sex. In the case where these perceived manifestations serve the preservation of human kind the mind then perceives that the human has within him a particularity or specific feature that drives him towards these inclinations which has been named the Ghareezah An-Naw’i.
From amongst these concepts is that relating to the ‘Rooh’ (the secret of life). Man has perceived its existence from his perception of the presence of its manifestations and these are represented in the capacity to increase (multiply), grow and move. The Noble Aayah has come explaining to mankind their inability to fully comprehend its essence when Allah (swt) states:
وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الرُّوحِ قُلِ الرُّوحُ مِنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّي وَمَا أُوتِيتُمْ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا
And they ask you concerning the Rooh. Say: The Rooh is from the affair of my Lord and you have not been provided with knowledge of it except for a little (Al-Israa 85).
There are also Mafaaheem (concepts) that relate to the Mughayyibaat (unseen matters) like Al-Jannah (paradise), An-Naar (the fire) and the Malaa’ikah (angels). These are from amongst the concepts that the mind cannot directly perceive and they can also not be perceived by way of their effects and manifestations because the senses do not fall upon them or their effects and manifestations. Rather the mind perceives them by way of the Daleel An-Naqliy (transmitted evidence) that is definite in respect to its correctness and validity like the Qur’aan Al-Kareem or the Prophetic Mutawaatir Ahaadeeth which indicate them decisively where it is not possible to understand from their wordings other than one single meaning for them alone. As such the Naar and its punishment and the Jannah and its bliss are concepts related to the belief of the Muslim and he perceives their reality from what the divinely inspired revelation has guided to.
Allah (swt) says:
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآَيَاتِنَا سَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِمْ نَارًا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتْ جُلُودُهُمْ بَدَّلْنَاهُمْ جُلُودًا غَيْرَهَا لِيَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا (56) وَالَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَنُدْخِلُهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا لَهُمْ فِيهَا أَزْوَاجٌ مُطَهَّرَةٌ وَنُدْخِلُهُمْ ظِلًّا ظَلِيلًا
Verily those who disbelieve in our verses, we will drive them into a fire. Every time their skins are roasted through We will replace them with other skins so they may taste the punishment. Indeed Allah is ‘Azeez Hakeem. Whilst those who believe and do righteous acts, we will admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide forever. For them there are purified spouses and We will admit them into a deep shade (An-Nisaa 56-57).
And the existence of the Malaa’ikah (angels) is a Mafhoom (concept) of the Muslims as Allah (swt) states:
الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ فَاطِرِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ جَاعِلِ الْمَلَائِكَةِ رُسُلًا أُولِي أَجْنِحَةٍ مَثْنَى وَثُلَاثَ وَرُبَاعَ يَزِيدُ فِي الْخَلْقِ مَا يَشَاءُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
All praise is (due) to Allah, Creator of the heavens and the earth, (who) made the Angels messengers having wings, in twos, threes or fours. He increases in creation as He wills. Verily He is over all things powerful (Faatir 1).
The behaviour and conduct of the human is tied to the concepts about life because the concepts represent a controller for the behaviour. Therefore if we wish to change the conduct of a person, from a declined behaviour to an elevated and refined one, it is essential for us to change his concepts about life from the erroneous, incorrect and declined concepts to the correct and elevated concepts.
In the case where the Islamic concepts represent the highest and most elevated concepts about life it becomes necessary to explain these concepts so that they becoming controllers for the conduct of the Muslims and so that they can revive with a correct revival upon their basis. This book then only represents a modest contribution to the lofty heights represented in the Islamic culture that have been provided by those who preceded us and I ask Allah for it to be a matchstick that lights up the candles for the Islamic concepts to be crystallised and clarified by and so that they are purified from the stains that have become attached to them. And verily Allah is with the Muhsineen.

Q&A: Developments in Yemen and Salman bin Abdul Aziz Assumes the Rule in Saudi

There are interesting events in Yemen and Saudi Arabia; the Houthis have taken over Sanaa, the government resigned and then the President of the Republic on the evening of 22/01/2015 ... Then King Abdullah in Saudi Arabia, died the morning of Friday, 23/01/2015 and was succeeded by King Salman bin Abdul Aziz. My question is in twofold:
I: Are the events in Yemen still as issued by the party on 1/10/2014? And what is the expected solution?
II: Does the receipt of Salman Bin Abdul Aziz of power after King Abdullah change in the policy of Saudi Arabia or have matters remained the same?
I apologize for asking two questions instead of one, and may Allah reward you with good.

First, Yemen Events:
1. As for events of Yemen; the observer of what is happening finds that they are just as stated in our previous answer dated 1/10/2014... America is acting in Yemen by its known arrogance i.e. by armed force and oppression. Thus, the Houthis occupy Sana'a and other than Sana'a, arresting and killing, under the pretext of the "People's Revolution and People Committees...". The British are working in Yemen through the political cunning in two lines: the first is to exploit Hadi for his powers as the president of the Republic through a calculated maneuver. So whenever he is surrounded by Houthis in all sides he promised them and arouse their hope with agreements and then procrastinate in their implementation ... This continued until his actions were exposed for the Houthis, so they surround him from every side, and insisted on the implementation of all the agreements. Hence, he surprised them by his resignation! And so they were shaken again after they were about to settle.... This is on the first line.
2. The second line is through the former President, Ali Abdullah Saleh, where they made him impose his presence on the Houthis, so he entered among them and became their friend after he was their enemy, helping them with his forces until it became difficult for them to break away from him. What is intended by this second line is that if President Hadi's maneuvers to harass the Houthis do not succeed and they become close to the power, then Ali Abdullah Saleh and his group will share power with the Houthis, so that the English will have a share and America will have its share...
3. This is what is happening in Yemen; Britain is no longer able to dominate Yemen as it previously was, at the same time it is unable to stand up in military confrontation with America and its agents, so it resolved to the political cunningness through its agents Hadi and Ali Saleh, who have perfected their roles:
Thus, Hadi pursued in a round of his maneuvers and procrastinations to the full range then resigned, and demonstrations spread in the country and the Houthis became in trouble. So after they were aiming to achieve dominance through presidential decisions that would give them legitimacy without being exposed to the description of coup, they became described as so, and suffer from treating a heated tense situation, especially in the State Center Sanaa, in addition to the presidential vacancy...
As for Ali Saleh, his engagement with the Houthis has become clear for all to see. Britain, its agents and its channels have contributed in highlighting leaks of Ali Saleh with the Houthis to embarrass them in front of the people. For the people had revolted against Saleh because of his evils, and now he is with the Houthis in one hand making difficult for the Houthis to disengage of it! The follower of these channels, especially al-Jazeera, can realize that, as they have focused in their interviews on that the Houthis are saying that the war is on the corrupters yet they are dealing with Saleh the chief of the corrupters. After that, they spread leaks, and behind them their followers, showing the Houthis' relationship with Saleh ... Thus, al-Jazeera has broadcasted on 21/01/2015 an audio recording between Saleh and the Houthi leader, Abdul Wahid Abu Ras, it said it had received it! The recording, which dates back to late October last year, after the falling of Sanaa in the grip of the Houthis at the end of September, showed coordination between Saleh and the Houthis. Al-Jazeera, in some of its interviews, was questioning the Houthi's remarks that they are against corruption while they allied themselves with the head of corruption, Ali Saleh!
4. As for what is expected, it is difficult for any of the parties to settle the matter in its favor so that it becomes the only dominant power in Yemen. But, what is probable is a compromise solution on the method of the capitalists, which does not end the crisis, rather it is a respite of the warrior until one of the two parties is able to resolve the matter to its advantage ... And nothing will end the crisis with justice and benevolence, except the Khilafah, in which Islam and Muslims will be glorified and Kufr and the disbelievers will be humiliated, and this is not hard to Allah....
5. This is in short what is happening in Yemen and is what we have explained in our political opinion within the answer to the question dated 01/10/2014 CE. And here I convey to you some of its contents to see the soundness of our opinion which we issued more than three months earlier:
"Britain has realized that America is serious about using force to gain access to significant gains in ruling Yemen, and that the Houthis have influential strength from arms and ammunition supplied by Iran... Britain's realization of this matter proceeds to resist it in a bi-parallel manner: The first: is that Hadi should exert effort to exploit his position as a president to prevent the enablement of the Houthis of the effective power. The second line is the introduction of Ali Saleh as a partner for the Houthis in opposing the rule of Hadi; already some of his supporters have already joined the Houthis, carrying the banner of the General People's Congress (the party of the former Yemeni President). When the British Ambassador was asked whether she was communicating with the former President Ali Abdullah Saleh she said: "I do not have a direct relationship with Ali Abdullah Saleh, but I communicate with the General People's Congress including parties close to it." (Middle East, 27/09/2014). It is understood from this that Britain has also instructed its agent Ali Saleh to cooperate with the Houthis, since the British Ambassador admitted her communication with the party of Ali Saleh, the one who runs the party and controls it with no rival or opponent to him.
These measures by Britain to shove Ali Saleh with the Houthis so if Hadi could not use his position as president to prevent America and its followers from the actual access to the rule; then Ali Saleh would be an active partner with the Houthis and then preserve the British influence in Yemen and in particular that the Houthis have no popular support to make them unilateral rulers of Yemen..." 
Then we concluded the answer that describes preambles of what is happening, its results and the correct solution, and we said:
"- This means that the expected solution in Yemen is a compromise between America and Britain on the method of the capitalists, so there will be joint power between the parties... And compromise usually does not last unless they have it as a respite of the warrior until America or Britain is able to resolve the matter to its advantage, which means that the events in Yemen will continue to be volatile, then calm at times, then volatile again according to the balance of political and military forces among the conflicting parties.
d. Based on the above it can be concluded that the issues in Yemen are on the rise without settling decisively only in two cases: First: America or Britain will be able to resolve matters in their favour, and thereby dominating the actual influence in Yemen. This is not easy as we have elaborated above, and the second: that Allah سبحانه وتعالى honours the Ummah with the Khilafah, which will trample the influence of the colonizers Kuffar and uproot them from the land and eliminate their evil amongst mankind, and so Kufr and its people will be humiliated, and Islam and its people will be glorified, and believers will rejoice in Allah's victory
وَيَوْمَئِذٍ يَفْرَحُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ * بِنَصْرِ اللَّهِ يَنْصُرُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الرَّحِيمُ
"And that day the believers will rejoice. In the victory of Allah. He gives victory to whom He wills, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Merciful."
(Ar-Rum: 4-5)
It is a fact that the people of Yemen are a people of faith and wisdom... to establish this matter to win in both realms, Allah is with the righteous." 
Thus, the stream of events is still as we have pointed out in our previous analysis of the 01/10/2014 CE.
Second: Saudi Arabia events:
As for what has been happening in Saudi Arabia; in order to understand what happened: is it on the same previous line in which Abdullah was in with his relations with Britain and America, or has it changed? And what is the political situation for the new king, Salman? I say, for what happened to be understood it is important to mention the following points:
1. American and British influences interfere in the princes of the Saudi family. According to the strength of the followers of both sides, the actual impact on the Saudi rule becomes, hence the characteristic of the Saudi-British or Saudi-American relations.
2. By tracking these relations it shows that the American influence is predominant in the Ministry of Defense, at least since 1382 AH, where the then-minister was Sultan bin Abdul Aziz, who is known as one of the American men. The political situation in the ministry continued the same after Salman bin Abdul Aziz, assumed the Ministry of Defense in 9/12/1432 AH. Then he was succeeded by his son Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdul Aziz as of 3/4/1436 AH when Salman bin Abdul Aziz became the king of Saudi Arabia.
3. The English influence is predominant in the Saudi Arabia National Guard, at least since 1382 AH, where the head of the National Guard then was Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, the former king, and continued until 1431 AH. Then, his son Mit'eb bin Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz took charge from 1431 until 1434 AH, where the National Guard establishment became a Ministry and Mit'eb continued a minister in the Ministry of National Guard until today.
4. According to the Family arrangements of who to become the king, such arrangements do not necessitate that the King comes from a particular establishment always. Thus the king or crown prince could come from the Ministry of Defense, the National Guard or from otherwise... It has become known in recent decades that the influential in the rule is the one who comes from these two establishments, but if he was from other than these two than his impact is less...
5. The former King, Abdullah was from the National Guard establishment and so the English influence was dominant in Saudi Arabia with a policy of appeasement to America. Thus the relations with America were strained at times and calmed at others. However, the general policy was British in its character with no heated confrontation against America, but as we said with the policy of appeasement in the British way where it displays contrary to what it conceals...
6. Whereas the current king is from the Ministry of Defense establishment, and therefore the American influence is expected to be predominant in his reign. King Abdullah was aware of that, and this is why he invented a new tradition in the Saudi Arabia, namely that the King not only appoints his crown prince but the deputy crown prince as well. He was aware that Salman Bin Abdul Aziz marches with America, and in order to prevent him appointing a crown of his reign, as was formerly under way in custom, that the King appoints the crown prince, King Abdullah appointed deputy crown prince to cut the path between the new king and the appointment of a crown to his reign from the men of America. So the former King Abdullah had already appointed a deputy crown prince, he appointed Muqrin as a crown prince for Salman bin Abdul Aziz, for the purpose which we have mentioned above.
7. Muqrin is known for his close ties with the British; he had studied and graduated from there, "the famous Cranwell College in Britain". He was trusted by the former King Abdullah, he was rather close to him. Thus the former King invention to appoint a deputy crown was for the purpose to cut the continuation of the American series after Salman bin Abdul Aziz. King Abdullah has confirmed this appointment by the issuance of a decree that prevents deposing the deputy crown!
8. Based on the above, the political reality now is as follows:
A. The new king is close to America while the crown prince is close to the English.
B. This means that the predominant influence is for America and is disputed by the British influence to some extent.
C. As a consequence of that, there will be a reduction of tension between the United States and Saudi Arabia, and this affects the reduction of the continuing decline in oil prices. This is because the former king, backed by the British wanted to reduce oil prices to derail America from benefiting from the oil shale, because the cost of shale oil extraction is relatively high; around $70 a barrel. Therefore, reducing of the oil price makes the production of oil shale costly and futile, whereas the cost of natural oil is a few Dollars "about $7 per barrel" - We have clarified this in detail in our previous answer of 07/01/2015 CE.
9. In conclusion, it is hurtful to see the Kufr countries, hostile to Islam and the Muslims, having influence in the land, which embraces the Muslims' Qiblah, the place of the Revelation descent to the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم ... and of Dar al-Hijrah, the settlement of the first Islamic State! Nonetheless, Islam has men who work day and night, honestly and sincerely, Allah willing, to re-establish the Islamic State, the Khilafah Rashidah. And it is happening by the permission of Al-Qawei (the Powerful) Al-Aziz (the Exalted in Might). And that day the believers will rejoice in Allah's victory, and the Kaffir colonists will retreat to their own backyard that remained to them backyard...
5th Rabii' II 1436 AH
25/01/2015 CE

Monday, January 26, 2015

Article 33, Explanation of the Draft Constitution of the Khilafah

The following is the translation of an article from the book by Hizb ut-Tahrir entitled 'Introduction to the Constitution and the necessary evidences for it' which is the explanation of its draft constitution for the Khilafah state. This draft translation is from the second edition published in 2009 which was updated from the original published in 1963.

Click here to access the previous article

Article 33
A temporary leader is appointed to take charge of the affairs of the Muslims, and to prepare for the election of the new Khalifah after the vacation of the position of the Khilafah according to the following process:
a.     When the previous Khalifah feels that his life is coming to an end, or is committed to resigning, he has the right to appoint the temporary leader.
b.     If the Khalifah dies or resigns before appointing the temporary leader, or the position of the Khilafah becomes vacant due to another reason, then the eldest of the assistants becomes the temporary leader unless he intended to be a candidate for the Khilafah in which case the next senior assistant is to be given the position and so on.
c.     If all of the assistants intend to be candidates, then the eldest of the executive ministers will become the temporary leader or the one after him in seniority if he intends to be a candidate, and so on.
d.     If all of the executive ministers intend to be candidates for the Khilafah, then the position of the temporary leader is given to the youngest executive minister.
e.     The temporary leader does not have the right to adopt rules.
f.      The temporary leader makes all effort to complete the appointment of a new Khalifah within three days, and it is not permitted for this to be extended except due to overwhelming circumstances approved by the Madhalim court.

When the Khalifah feels that his death is close, close to the time that the Khilafah would become vacant, he may appoint a temporary leader to be responsible for the Muslims’ affairs during the period of steps being taken to appoint the new Khalifah. He would undertake his work after the death of the Khalifah and his main work would be to complete the appointment of the new Khalifah within three days.
It is not permitted for the temporary leader to adopt rules, since this is the right of the Khalifah who has been given a pledge by the Ummah.  In the same manner, it is not permitted for him to be nominated for the Khilafah or to support the nominees, since Umar (ra) appointed someone other than those who were nominated for the Khilafah.
The responsibility of this leader ends with the appointment of the new Khalifah since his task was time-constrained to this goal.
The evidence for this is what Umar (ra) did when he was stabbed and this was done without any opposition from the companions and so is considered to be an Ijma’.
Umar (ra) said to the six candidates “Suhayb will lead you in prayers during the three days that you are consulting on the issue” and then he said to Suhaib, as mentioned in Ta’rikh al-Tabari, “lead the people in prayer for three days….if five of them agreed upon a man while one disagreed, then strike his head with a sword..”. This means that Suhaib was appointed as a leader over them – he was appointed as a leader for the prayer and leadership of the prayer meant leadership over the people. Also, he was given the right to apply the punishment (strike his head) and the only one who can establish punishment by death is the leader.
This issue took place in front of the companions without any dissenters and so it is an Ijma’ that the Khalifah can appoint a temporary leader who undertakes the steps to appoint the new Khalifah. In the same manner based upon this it is permitted for the Khalifah during his lifetime to adopt an article which would state that if he died without appointing a temporary leader to oversee the appointment of a new Khalifah, someone is to be the temporary leader.
Based upon this, it is adopted that if the Khalifah did not appoint a temporary leader during his terminal illness, then the temporary leader would be the eldest of his assistants as long as they are not a candidate, in which case it would be the next senior in age from his assistants, and so on, and then the executive ministers in the same manner.
This is applied in the event of the removal of the Khalifah, so the temporary leader would be the eldest assistant as long as he is not a candidate, and if he is a candidate then the next one in seniority and so on until all the assistants are considered, in which case it would then fall to the eldest executive minister and so on. If all of them want to be candidates then the youngest of the executive ministers is compelled to become the temporary leader.

This leader is different from the one the Khalifah appoints in his place when he goes out for jihad or a journey, as the Prophet  used to do when he went out for jihad or the final hajj, or similar. In this situation the one who is delegated in his stead has the powers that the Khalifah defines for him to take care of the affairs necessitated by the delegation.