Friday, July 01, 2016

Questions and Answers on Adoption (Tabanne’y) - Sheikh Taqiuddin an-Nabhani

The following is a translation of an Arabic Q&A by Sheikh Taqiuddin an-Nabhani of Hizb ut-Tahrir.

Questions and Answers on Adoption (Tabanne’y)

An ideological party is a structure composed of individuals bonded to an ideology which they believe in and seek towards its implementing in the society. In other words, it is an idea that is embodied in a group of people who aim towards implementing this idea in the relationships of the society. The ideology would be considered the foundation or the soul of the party. Whereas, the existence of the ideological party would be manifested in the life through the party’s structure being based on the ideology and the embodiment of the ideology in the individuals of the party. However, this stage comes after a person is guided to the idea and establishes a party. Also, the strong inclination to establish the ideology in the society is the factor which distinguishes an ideological party from other types of parties.

Therefore, to consider a structure of a party an ideological one, it has to meet the following requirements:
• The ideology
• The structure of the party based on the ideology along with its individuals manifesting the ideology within themselves.
• The ideologically embodied party structure aiming at establishing the ideology in the society.

If these three requirements exists in any structure then it is considered an ideological structure. Whereas, if any one of the requirements is missing then the structure cannot be categorised as ideological. This is the reality of the nature and set up of an ideological party. Therefore, the adoption by each member in the party to each and every rule or idea which the party has adopted is a critical matter. Adoption is as necessary as the soul in necessary for life. Without adoption the individual would not be from the party. As a matter of fact, without adoption the structure would not exist. Because the structure is composed of a group of people adopting the ideology. Consequently, without the ideology there would be no grouping. Therefore, the membership of the individual in the party will not happen unless that person adopts the ideas of the party. Therefore, any individual who seeks to be part of an ideological structure has to adopt the ideas or the ideology which the structure itself has adopted. This is a basic and a vital matter and a prerequisite for joining a party.

The idea which Hizb ut-Tahrir is founded upon and which exists in its members is the Islamic idea or Aqeedah and its rules and corollary ideas. However, the Islamic Aqeedah is not exclusive to Hizb ut-Tahrir since the entire Ummah embraces it which includes other Islamic groups. Consequently, it is not sufficient for the structure of Hizb ut-Tahrir to be based upon the Islamic Aqeedah in a general form to be classified as a unique party. This party must be based upon specific Islamic ideas for it to be classified as a political party. In other words, the party must have the necessary Islamic culture enabling it to establish Islam in the life. Therefore, Hizb ut-Tahrir must adopt specific rules and ideas which emanate from the Islamic Aqeedah and have the initiative to have these rules and ideas govern the relationship in the society and thus govern the affairs of the Ummah. So, to consider Hizb ut-Tahrir a political party it must meet these three requirements:
• The ideology
• The structure of the party based on the ideology along with its individuals manifesting the ideology within themselves.
• The ideologically embodied party structure aiming at establishing the ideology in the society.

Hizb ut-Tahrir has adopted and is established on specific ideas and rules. The adoption was required in order to implement them in the society. The ideas and rules which it has adopted are undoubtedly Islamic and are considered to be the soul of the party. Its ideas and rules enable Hizb ut-Tahrir to be political in nature and without these ideas and rules Hizb would not exist. Adopting what the Hizb has adopted in its entirety is what earns the individual membership or being part of the Hizb. Without the full adoption, membership would not occur and thus he would not be part of the Hizb even if he were associated with the Hizb. One of the requirements of being a member or part of Hizb ut-Tahrir is to adopt whatever the Hizb has adopted. The individual has to be raised and cultured with the same ideas Hizb ut-Tahrir is established upon. If he refuses to do so then he would not be part of Hizb ut-Tahrir.

One would argue that the individual would adopt the ideas of the Hizb in general but would not adopt some ideas due to not being convinced with it or feeling that the daleel for the adoption is weak. Thus this member would still be part of the Hizb not out of it by adopting major ideas and not adopt few ideas and its details.

The answer to this argument is that the issue is not just the ideas or adopting specific ideas. The issue at hand is the concept of adoption. Outlining the purpose of Hizb ut-Tahrir based on specific ideas is in reality the adoption, which is the subject at hand. The embodiment of the ideas is considered an adoption for it and establishing a party based on specific ideas is the adoption as well. If Hizb ut-Tahrir adopted any idea or rules regardless of its type or quantity it makes the Hizb a party. The individual becomes part of this party by adopting these ideas. Not adopting the ideas forces the person to be outside the party. Therefore, it is incorrect for the member not to adopt what the Hizb has adopted regardless of its type and kind. Not adopting equates to rejecting the idea of adoption and rejecting the concept of establishing the party based on specific idea. Therefore, the question of adopting specific ideas and rules is necessary and required since these adopted ideas transform the structure to be political and distinguishes it from other parties. In summary, the adoption of each member of the ideas and rules of the Hizb is a fundamental and vital requirement in order to be from the party.

Hizb ut-Tahrir works to create the revival in a correct manner. After achieving the revival it will work to maintain it and to prevent any decline. Consequently, it paves an ascending path for the Ummah. The method which Hizb ut-Tahrir views for revival is through the idea. Revival is defined as an intellectual elevation and maintaining it is through the idea. Hizb restricts its actions to carrying and discussing the idea. Hizb embraces the idea which creates the revival in the Ummah. Upon being in a ruling position, Hizb will initiate a fierce material campaign against any ideology which opposes Islam in order to maintain the revival. However, in other situations in which Hizb does not have the authority it struggles purely intellectually based on ideas. Hizb adopts ideas in a correct manner from the Aqeedah of the ideology since it is the only source for the revival in the Ummah and it is Ummah’s ideology.

Laws are ideas that provide solutions to a problem whereas an idea is an understanding to an issue. Both the ideas and the laws have to be derived from the Quran and Sunnah or built on it. Adopting necessary ideas and laws for the revival requires accuracy in understanding the issue along with the text of both Quran and Sunnah. However, the understanding could be subject to mistakes, meaning it could be right or wrong. So, there must exist a correct standard which guarantees the purification of ideas and minimizes the possibility of ever adopting erroneous ideas. All of this should guarantee that the Hizb stays on the right path and is able to come back to it if it is diverted. Due to this, Hizb has adopted a standard which it adheres to for perfection. Hizb measures its ideas based on the following principle:

What the Hizb has adopted is correct but could be wrong. What others have adopted is wrong but could be correct. Additionally, the Hizb aims for perfection in order to guarantee the purity and correctness of its ideas. This will assure that what Hizb adopts is correct whether related to ideas or laws. At the same time, to ensure the correctness of its understanding, Hizb continuously scrutinises its ideas and purifies it from an alien idea. It scrutinises each and every one of its adoption with its full capacity along with a continuous watch and study towards the situation and affairs in the society whether related to the rules or the ideas. Furthermore, it observes and is aware in order to maintain what it has adopted to be very accurate and best such that no one would be able to surpass its adoption in matters of accuracy, soundness, credibility, and leadership. Additionally, Hizb instils in itself as an entity and particularly in each of its members not to attach any concept of infallibility to its ideas. Hizb has always categorically mentioned that what it has adopted is correct but could be wrong. Therefore, there is no holy or sacred adoption while at the same time we do not overlook the soundness and accuracy of our adoption either. The original case is that the adoption is correct but it could be wrong which is not the original case though. Also, it has to be proven that Hizb’s adoption is wrong. By not viewing our adoptions from a holy or sacred point of view and maintaining a high standard for perfection this will lead to the revival and prevent any backwardness. If the adoption is viewed in this manner then it will not be considered an obstacle in the path of progress.

The adoption done in this manner will never be an obstacle in the revival since Hizb ut-Tahrir is a political party. This is because a political party addresses issues related to life’s affair whether it is in authority or not. Hizb is the best in understanding life’s affairs since it is in a continuous interaction with individuals and groups which enables it to perform research. Therefore, it should be the best in understanding the text or its application in the life. Consequently, Hizb ut-Tahrir is the most capable group amongst the people to understand ideas and recognise the factors required for progress along with the factors which will cause backwardness. Therefore, Hizb should be the most proficient in carrying and choosing ideas which will lead to revival and fighting the factors which lead to the decline. Therefore, adoption by itself is the best tool to create the revival and to prevent backwardness. It cannot be said that adoption prevents its members from progress and creativity. On the contrary, adoption is the force behind creativity. It makes each member to be the party. The party is one homogenous entity both emotionally and intellectually. Since, Hizb is a homogenous entity then its ideas and culture will manifest itself in its members not just as members but even as individuals. Therefore, adoption in this way produces creativity not only amongst its members but in the individuals of the Ummah.

When Hizb ut-Tahrir acquires the authority it will not be similar to other parties in the world whether communist or capitalist. Hizb ut-Tahrir is a trustworthy guardian for Islam. Hizb overseas the society and works for its progress and prevents any backwardness in it. This is the mission and task of this Hizb whether it is in the power or otherwise. If the Hizb happens to be outside the ruling then it will use its ideas to maintain and guard Islam with whatever is needed. It employs the necessary task in overseeing the society as well. Its methodology in this regard is propagating its ideas, questioning the rulers, adopting the interest of the Ummah, and exposing the plots of both the kafirs and the hypocrites. Hizb involves in political struggle against whomever it is necessary. Simultaneously, it struggles against false or alien concepts in the society which lead to backwardness. Hizb is able to achieve this through mass education, concentrated education, debates, lectures, and other means. So the Hizb will utilize these and other means for the intellectual struggle.

Therefore, when Hizb ut-Tahrir is in authority its task will not change. It will still remain guardian for Islam and overseeing the society as it used to before acquiring the authority without any exception except for one. When the Hizb is in authority the ideas which it has adopted will be in application. Fostering the affairs of the people will occur according to its adoption. This is the only difference between its two states of before and after acquiring the power. In reality, it is the ideas of the Hizb which reaches to power. The idea which it is based upon and its details, not its members or individuals of the party. Hizb struggles to lead it ideas to the ruling position not to get its members in a ruling post. Since, the ideas of the party cannot be implemented correctly but by those who adopt it and commit to them by their life, then some individuals of the party should take care of this. This is the only material aspect which people will witness in having the ideas reach the power. This is the meaning of acquiring the power by the Hizb. In other words, acquiring power is to have some individuals in power to have the ideas implemented perfectly. So, in fact it is the ideas which reach the power and when a member acquires authority it is the only material manifestation in order to guarantee its correct application. Hizb must minimize the number of positions which the Shabab will have in the State. The Khalifah, Muawin, and Amir al Jihad, have to be from the Hizb in order to ensure the correct application of the idea. Other posts could or could not be for the Hizb. The guideline is to have the idea implemented. We work in order to have the idea implemented. In addition, to the fact that having the idea lead equates to the leadership of Hizb. Hizb warns adamantly against appointing its members over the people and will make sure that this does not occur. It is reported from Omar (ra) that when he was asked to choose six candidates after the fatal stab for the position of Khilafah, He told Ali (ra), “ Oh Abu Hassan if you are appointed as Khalifah do not employ Banu Hashim” and told Uthman that “ if you are appointed then do not employ Banu Ummayah.” Similarly, if the Khalifah is from Hizb ut-Tahrir then the members of Hizb ut-Tahrir will like Banu Hashim for Ali  and Banu Ummayah for Uthman. Therefore, it is not enough to minimize the number needed to ensure the proper implementation of idea and its application. The Shabab have to stay away from the ruling. Each member should work as a member in Hizb whether it is after or before the ruling.

One issue that needs to be addressed is how will the Hizb question the ruler? Answer to this question is that the Hizb involves in four functions:
1.     Mass education
2. Concentrated education

Both of which do not involve questioning the ruler. Hizb continues the intellectual struggle even after acquiring the ruling position in the same way as before acquiring it.

3. Adopting the interest of the Ummah
4. Exposing the plots of the kafirs and hypocrites

As for adopting the interest of the Ummah and exposing the plots of non-Muslims and hypocrites there are details related to this. When it comes to addressing the problems and adopting the interest of the Ummah, Hizb before acquiring the authority carried this function through its Leadership committee and Wilayah committees. However, after acquiring the authority, the Wilayah committee will address this function.

As for the fourth function, exposing the plots of the kuffar and hypocrites it is irrelevant because there will be a state, jihad, implementation of Islam and the Hudud. The Islamic State will shoulder this function. Hizb will function the same way as before and after acquiring the power except for questioning the ruler and exposing the plots of the kafirs which will not happen since the State will shoulder this duty. Questioning the ruler will remain in issues related to conducting the affairs of the Ummah and will be carried by Wilayah committees in the State.

Therefore, Hizb ut-Tahrir will maintain all of its functions as it did before acquiring the ruling position. The Leadership committee will function the same way and will oversee the party with one exception. The questioning of the ruler in issues related to the problems of the Ummah. The Wilayah committees will continue to question the ruler as a ruler even though he may be from the Leadership committee that is because the Wilayah committees have the authority to question the ruler even though the Leadership committee exists. In addition, the Wilayah committees have the authority to question the Leadership committee even within the Hizb’s structure.

There is a point which is misunderstood by some Shabab which is the difference in the Yameen (oath) between adoption and executing an order. The Yameen (oath) does not say that I will adopt even if it goes against my opinion. It just says, “adopt.” When the Yameen talked about obeying a command, it said executing the command even if it is against my opinion. If a judgment is issued it has to implemented even if it goes against the persons opinion. This is a natural law in the Universe since the beginning of humanity till the Day of Judgment.

Adoption of the party is different from that of the Khalifah. Adoption by the Khalifah is a command which all Muslims have to obey regardless of their opinion. It is a Fard to obey the Imam whether publicly or privately. His decision has to be implemented even if it goes against the opinion of the one who is implementing it. The adoption of the Khalifah is not to be taken as an adoption rather as a command that people do not have to adopt but implement it. However, when it comes to the adoption of the party then it is an adoption for each and every and every member. The issue is not a command to be implemented rather it is an opinion which represent the party. Hizb is the entire Shabab and its apparatus. The definition of the Hizb as mentioned is a structure adopting an ideology which its member believe in and are willing to apply it. The structure is a collection of people based on one idea, so whatever the structure adopts it has to be adopted by each and every member. Issue of disagreement should not arise on this matter and is not an issue to begin with. So whatever is adopted will be explained, published, and will represent the opinion of Hizb ut-Tahrir. Everyone has the right to discuss, investigate, research the daleel, implementation of the daleel, and consider it their opinion. Since, it is the opinion of the party. If a person did not comprehend or agree then it is still his opinion and he should leave his personal opinion. The example of a Mujtahid leaving his ijtihad for others ijtihad is common. Even the great Sahabah practiced this. It was well known that Umar left his opinion for Ali’s, Abu Bakr left his opinion for Ali’s, and Uthman left his opinion for Umar’s. There are many example of this. If the individual did not agree, he has to leave his opinion and adopt Hizb’s opinion. After Hizb adopts an opinion it becomes his opinion.

This is the difference between adopting the ideas and performing the decisions. The adopted ideas of the Hizb automatically becomes the adopted ideas of each member in the party. The decisions to perform an order is not an adoption but orders to be carried out and performed. They are not adopted but are implemented even if it goes against the opinion of the one who executes it. This is also another difference between the adoption of the Khalifah and the adoption of the Hizb. The adoption of the Khalifah does not bind the Ummah to adopt the adoption at hand rather it binds the Ummah to implement the adoption. Whereas, the adoption of the Hizb does not necessarily manifest in the implementation of the idea. Rather it as an adoption that stays with a person for his entire life even if it is not implemented. Therefore, it is a major error and ignorance on the part of the member to claim that this is Hizb opinion whereas my opinion is something else. No member should have another opinion other than what the Hizb has adopted because every member is the party and the party is one homogenous entity in its thoughts and emotions. Consequently, even if a member is Mujtahid Mutlaq (Absolute Mujtahid), he must leave his opinion and adopt the ideas of the Hizb immediately. If he refuses to do this then he has to leave the party since his membership is no longer valid even if he did not adopt one single idea. Not completely adopting what the Hizb has adopted means abandoning the concept of adoption. When the Shab joined the Hizb he studied the Aqeedah of the party and was aware and convinced of its culture and ideas. He accepted and committed himself to adhere to it. This could have happened whether through studying the ideas in detail or having a general satisfaction with the Hizb. Therefore, after the Shab joined the Hizb he automatically and naturally adopted whatever the party has adopted and will adopt in the future. The question is not being convinced in each and every single idea, rather it is being convinced in the entire set of ideas and its details. The issue is not of Taqleed, a fellowship, ijtihad, or research requiring investigating in every idea and its daleel. The matter is having one party based on one idea and to be part of this group the person has to adopt the party’s opinion. If he does not then he does not have to join the party.

14th August, 1967.

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