Sunday, September 30, 2018

An examination of the issue of An-Nasr (victory)

The following is the translation of an Arabic article.

An-Nasr (victory) in its literal linguistic meaning is the assistance or help provided against another and according to the Shar’a meaning it means the assistance or help of Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla provided to his believing slaves against other than them from the disbelievers or against those who aggress against them or oppress them from amongst the Muslims. It is from the concepts of the Islamic Aqeedah. Indeed, it is from the most important of these concepts because of the great impact it has upon the one who believes in it. That is because the one who believes in the Nasr (victory) of Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla, makes him undertake acts which are difficult for him to surmount had it not been for his Imaan (belief) in the concept of victory.

At the same time the concept of Nasr is considered to disclose or reveal the condition of the Ummah, the army and the group, because these three are not met by defeat at all if they fulfill the condition of Allah. That means that it is possible to pass judgment upon them in respect to them definitely being upon good as long as they continue to be victorious and not in a condition of defeat. As such the concept of Nasr has to functions: The motivation to surmount or breach the difficulties and to reveal the condition (of an entity) in respect to its soundness or well-being (on one hand), or its corruption (on the other).

The concept of Nasr is from the concepts of sensitivity which much be understood completely as it is. That is because any intellectual perception for it which the person constructs himself without a Daleel, would make him subject to Fitnah. That could be for example when a particular Zaid from among the people is convinced of the Ummah’s victory whilst she is in a condition of corruption, and then the opposite occurs, leading perhaps to him being exposed to Fitnah in respect to his Deen.

The Nasr does not come from other than Allah alone. He Ta’Aalaa said:

وَمَا جَعَلَهُ اللَّـهُ إِلَّا بُشْرَىٰ لَكُمْ وَلِتَطْمَئِنَّ قُلُوبُكُم بِهِ ۗ وَمَا النَّصْرُ إِلَّا مِنْ عِندِ اللَّـهِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَكِيمِ
And Allah made it not except as [a sign of] good tidings for you and to reassure your hearts thereby. And victory is not except from Allah, the Exalted in Might, the Wise (Aali ‘Imraan: 126).

And Allah Ta’Aalaa said:

وَمَا جَعَلَهُ اللَّـهُ إِلَّا بُشْرَىٰ وَلِتَطْمَئِنَّ بِهِ قُلُوبُكُمْ ۚ وَمَا النَّصْرُ إِلَّا مِنْ عِندِ اللَّـهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
And Allah made it not but good tidings and so that your hearts would be assured thereby. And victory is not but from Allah. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise (Al-Anfaal: 10).

And He Ta’Aalaa said:

قُلِ اللَّـهُمَّ مَالِكَ الْمُلْكِ تُؤْتِي الْمُلْكَ مَن تَشَاءُ وَتَنزِعُ الْمُلْكَ مِمَّن تَشَاءُ وَتُعِزُّ مَن تَشَاءُ وَتُذِلُّ مَن تَشَاءُ ۖ بِيَدِكَ الْخَيْرُ ۖ إِنَّكَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
Say, "O Allah, Owner of Sovereignty, You give sovereignty to whom You will and You take sovereignty away from whom You will. You honour whom You will and You humble whom You will. In Your hand is [all] good. Indeed, You are over all things competent (Aali ‘Imraan: 26).

Therefore, these Aayaat and those like them are Qat’iyah (definite) in their indicated meaning that the Nasr (victory) is from Allah alone, and this is a matter in which there is no room for debate.

The victory can be for the Ummah, Jamaa’aat, the army and the individual. From among its manifestations for the Ummah is security, prosperity, honour and protection. Allah Ta’Aalaa said:

لَقَدْ كَانَ لِسَبَإٍ فِي مَسْكَنِهِمْ آيَةٌ ۖ جَنَّتَانِ عَن يَمِينٍ وَشِمَالٍ ۖ كُلُوا مِن رِّزْقِ رَبِّكُمْ وَاشْكُرُوا لَهُ ۚ بَلْدَةٌ طَيِّبَةٌ وَرَبٌّ غَفُورٌ
There was for [the tribe of] Saba' in their dwelling place a sign: two [fields of] gardens on the right and on the left. [They were told], “Eat from the provisions of your Lord and be grateful to Him. A good land [have you], and a forgiving Lord” (Saba’: 15).

And He Ta’Aalaa said:

وَلَوْ أَنَّ أَهْلَ الْقُرَىٰ آمَنُوا وَاتَّقَوْا لَفَتَحْنَا عَلَيْهِم بَرَكَاتٍ مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَلَـٰكِن كَذَّبُوا فَأَخَذْنَاهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ
And if only the people of the cities had believed and feared Allah, We would have opened upon them blessings from the heaven and the earth; but they denied [the messengers], so We seized them for what they were earning (Al-A’araaf: 96).

From among its manifestations for the Jamaa’aat is the provision of refuge, consolidation, security, support of the people and living after constraint or hardship. Allah Ta’Aalaa said:

وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ أَنتُمْ قَلِيلٌ مُّسْتَضْعَفُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ تَخَافُونَ أَن يَتَخَطَّفَكُمُ النَّاسُ فَآوَاكُمْ وَأَيَّدَكُم بِنَصْرِهِ وَرَزَقَكُم مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
And remember when you were few and oppressed in the land, fearing that people might abduct you, but He sheltered you, supported you with His victory, and provided you with good things - that you might be grateful (Al-Anfaal: 26).

And He Ta’Aalaa said:

وَعَدَ اللَّـهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِينَهُمُ الَّذِي ارْتَضَىٰ لَهُمْ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُم مِّن بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ أَمْنًا ۚ يَعْبُدُونَنِي لَا يُشْرِكُونَ بِي شَيْئًا
Allah has promised those who have believed among you and done righteous deeds that He will surely grant them succession [to authority] upon the earth just as He granted it to those before them and that He will surely establish for them [therein] their religion which He has preferred for them and that He will surely substitute for them, after their fear, security, [for] they worship Me, not associating anything with Me (An-Noor: 55).

And from its manifested forms in respect to the army, is prevailing over and defeating the enemy when meeting them in battle. Allah Ta’Aalaa said:

كَم مِّن فِئَةٍ قَلِيلَةٍ غَلَبَتْ فِئَةً كَثِيرَةً بِإِذْنِ اللَّـهِ
How many a small company has overcome a large company by permission of Allah (Al-Baqarah: 249).

And He Ta’Aalaa said:

فَإِن يَكُن مِّنكُم مِّائَةٌ صَابِرَةٌ يَغْلِبُوا مِائَتَيْنِ ۚ وَإِن يَكُن مِّنكُمْ أَلْفٌ يَغْلِبُوا أَلْفَيْنِ بِإِذْنِ اللَّـهِ
So if there are from you one hundred [who are] steadfast, they will overcome two hundred. And if there are among you a thousand, they will overcome two thousand by permission of Allah (Al-Anfaal: 66).

From its manifested forms in relation to the individual, is his prevailing over oppression against him and being saved from his enemy. Allah Ta’Aalaa said:

وَكَذَٰلِكَ مَكَّنَّا لِيُوسُفَ فِي الْأَرْضِ يَتَبَوَّأُ مِنْهَا حَيْثُ يَشَاءُ ۚ نُصِيبُ بِرَحْمَتِنَا مَن نَّشَاءُ ۖ وَلَا نُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ
And thus We established Yousuf in the land to settle therein wherever he willed. We touch with Our mercy whom We will, and We do not allow to be lost the reward of those who do good (Yousuf: 56).

However, the individual could be tried and put to test by way of defeat and not be supported against the one who oppresses him, to make his rewards and recompense for that in the hereafter. Allah Ta’Aalaa said:

وَمَن قُتِلَ مَظْلُومًا فَقَدْ جَعَلْنَا لِوَلِيِّهِ سُلْطَانًا فَلَا يُسْرِف فِّي الْقَتْلِ ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ مَنصُورًا
And whoever is killed unjustly - We have given his heir authority, but let him not exceed limits in [the matter of] taking life. Indeed, he has been supported [by the law] (Al-Israa’: 33).

The Imaan and undertaking the best action represents a cause from which arises the Nasr from Him inevitably, and it does not lag behind with the Ummah, the army and the Jamaa’aat, whilst it represents a Shart (condition) for the individual and not a Sabab (cause), as explained above.

As for why the Imaan and the best action represents a cause from which arises the Nasr from him inevitably, then that is because Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla said:

O you who have believed, if you support Allah, He will support you and plant firmly your feet (Muhammad: 7).

And He Ta’Aalaa said:

إِن يَنصُرْكُمُ اللَّـهُ فَلَا غَالِبَ لَكُمْ
If Allah should aid you, no one can overcome you (Aali ‘Imraan: 160).

And He says Subhaanahu:
وَكَانَ حَقًّا عَلَيْنَا نَصْرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ
… And incumbent upon Us is the provision of support (Nasr) to the believers (Ar-Room: 47).


وَلَقَدْ سَبَقَتْ كَلِمَتُنَا لِعِبَادِنَا الْمُرْسَلِينَ ﴿١٧١﴾ إِنَّهُمْ لَهُمُ الْمَنصُورُونَ
And Our word has already preceded for Our servants, the Messengers. [That] indeed, they would be those given victory (As-Saaffaat: 172-173).

These Aayaat and those similar to them represent an explicit text indicating that Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla gives support or victory to those who support him from the nations, and the support of the servants of Allah, as is known, is only by Imaan and the best actions, i.e. by adherence to that which emanates from the Islamic Aqeedah in terms of Ahkaam, following Imaan. The Nasr (victory or support) of Allah to them is only manifested in one of the previous forms or all of them.

The indicating meaning of the texts that the victory (Nasr) of Allah for the Ummah, army or group undertaking work, is Qat’iyah (definite) and not Zhanniyah (indefinite), and there is nothing within them which indicates linguistically to the possibility of the Nasr not coming. They include the promise of Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla, and the promise of Allah absolutely never falls back from being delivered or fulfilled. The promise is to the one who fulfilled the condition (Shart) of Allah Ta’Aalaa and not to his children or his children’s children. That is because if it did not come to him himself, then that would lead to making the promise of Allah hold no value to anyone who is addressed, which is impossible, as this clearly represents the linguistic indication.

The meaning of this speech is that any Ummah which fulfils the condition that Allah has stipulated upon it, He will grant it Nasr inevitably. And consequently, any Ummah which is not victorious or supported (Mansoorah), then the meaning of that is that it is not fulfilling the condition which Allah Ta’Aalaa had stipulated upon it. The Ummah’s fulfilment of the Shart (condition) of Allah Ta’Aalaa dictates its Nasr and the Nasr of its army; indeed, the Nasr (victory) of the Jamaa’ah working within the Ummah. However, the defeat of the army in a battle or the group not reaching or accomplishing its objective, does not necessarily mean the defeat of the Ummah if it was compliant to the command of Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla.

That is because the Muslims were defeated at the battle of Uhud but the Ummah was not defeated, their army was defeated at Mu’tah but the Ummah was not, and the Mu’tazilah failed but the Ummah was not defeated. The Ummah has lived this reality throughout its history and victory was its ally in every age and good was in it most of the time. And it also lived the opposite to it when it became distanced from Islaam. The defeat did not stay back from her when the Sharr (evil and bad) was prevalent amongst her and this matter is manifested in the Mantooq (explicit expressed meaning) of the Qawl of Allah Ta’Aalaa:

إِن تَنصُرُوا اللَّـهَ يَنصُرْكُمْ
If you support Allah, He will support you (Muhammad: 7).

In addition to the Mafhoom (implicitly understood meaning) of the same Aayah which is that: “If you do not support Allah, He will not support you”.

It is true that Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla says:

نَبْلُوكُم بِالشَّرِّ وَالْخَيْرِ فِتْنَةً ۖ وَإِلَيْنَا تُرْجَعُونَ
And We test you with evil and with good as trial; and to Us you will be returned (Mu’minoon: 35).

If this speech is taken upon its generality, then it can be understood to mean that Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla tests the people by defeat whilst they are upon good as a Fitnah (trial) for them. However, this is not compatible here in respect to the issue of Nasr with the Ummah, but rather only applies upon individuals. That is because there is not one single text in which Allah has returned the defeat to the trial and being tested alone, as Allah has returned all of the defeats of the Muslims to spuriousness (or faults) in respect to the Muslims.

The fact that Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla, explained the reason or cause for the defeat and addressed it represents a definite evidence (Daleel Qat’iy) for the correctness of what the Muslims believe, in respect to the victory (Nasr) being their ally or that it must always be their ally. As such, if the issue of the trial and being tested was possible, then the defeat would not have needed an explanation in respect to its cause. If, for the sake of argument, we were to suppose the possibility of the occurrence of the trial and test in relation to defeat in relation to the case of the Ummah, then a characteristic of the trial (Al-Ibtilaa’) is that it is extraneous and not permanent; temporary and not continuous. However, when we see generations being born, living and dying upon defeat, then that definitely is not reflective of a trial (Ibtilaa’) but rather a punishment that the people deserve.

It may be that there is nothing more clear and evident in Islaam than this issue. Look at the His Qawl Ta’Aalaa:

 أَوَلَمَّا أَصَابَتْكُم مُّصِيبَةٌ قَدْ أَصَبْتُم مِّثْلَيْهَا قُلْتُمْ أَنَّىٰ هَـٰذَا ۖ قُلْ هُوَ مِنْ عِندِ أَنفُسِكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
Why [is it that] when a [single] disaster struck you [on the day of Uhud], although you had struck [the enemy in the battle of Badr] with one twice as great, you said, “From where is this?” Say, “It is from yourselves”. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent (Aali ‘Imraan: 165).

The Muslims were astonished by the defeat and couldn’t comprehend it. They asked how could defeat afflict them whilst they were fighting in the way of Allah and promised with His victory? And then Allah’s answer came to them: “Say: It is from yourselves” and that was due to the archers violating the command of the Messenger of Allah . Allah did not condemn them due to their belief that victory would be attained or their belief that His victory was for them at their hands. He made the defeat return to the flaw within them as its cause, whilst He did not mention to them a matter named “Al-Ibtilaa’” (trial or test) in a situation or context that was in the utmost need of such an explanation.

And look at His Qawl Ta’Aalaa:

لَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللَّـهُ فِي مَوَاطِنَ كَثِيرَةٍ ۙ وَيَوْمَ حُنَيْنٍ ۙ إِذْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ كَثْرَتُكُمْ فَلَمْ تُغْنِ عَنكُمْ شَيْئًا وَضَاقَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْأَرْضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتْ ثُمَّ وَلَّيْتُم مُّدْبِرِينَ
Allah has already given you victory in many places and [even] on the day of Hunain, when your great number pleased you, but it did not avail you at all, and the earth was confining for you with its vastness; then you turned back, fleeing (At-Taubah: 25).

Allah Ta’Aalaa mentioned the victory he provided to the Muslims on many occasions or places, at the beginning of the Aayah, so as to make clear to them the correctness of Allah being their Naasir (the one who provides victory) and that He had realised His promise to them upon the ground reality, so that there doesn’t remain the least amount of doubt within them in respect to the promise of Allah. He then explained to them the reason for the defeat at the beginning of the battle (of Hunain) was only due to their statement: “We will never be defeated today due to having a small number” and so they had Tawakkaul (reliance) upon their ownselves and werer heedless, and if only for a moment, from their reliance upon Allah, a matter which went against the conditions of the attainment of Allah’s victory, and as such they were defeated at the beginning of the matter (i.e. battle of Hunain).

And it is clear that Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla returned their defeat to the fault within them whilst He ‘Azza Wa Jalla did not mention the matter of the Ibtilaa’ (trial and test) in relation to the defeat or victory, not explicitly or implicitly, which indicates to the correctness of the belief of the Muslims in the necessity of victory being their ally (that accompanies them) from one perspective, and that it applies to those being addressed in themselves, from another perspective and not upon the generations that follow them, as long as they are fulfilling the condition of Allah, stipulated upon them, in terms of Imaan and undertaking the action in the best way or as it should be undertaken.

As for the army, then the same applies to it as applies to the Ummah in respect to the Nasr (victory) and its Nasr is not examined far detached from the Nasr of the Ummah, as Allah does not give victory to an army of an Ummah which is not fulfilling the condition Allah has stipulated upon them. However, Allah has stipulated an extra condition upon it and upon the Ummah which prepares it, so that the victory is assured for it. That is for its strength of force (Quwwah) to be equal to a tenth of the power of the disbelievers as a minimum in the case or situation of the weakness of the Muslims and half the strength or force of the army of the disbelievers in the situation of the Muslim’s strength. Allah Ta’Aalaa said:

إِن يَكُن مِّنكُمْ عِشْرُونَ صَابِرُونَ يَغْلِبُوا مِائَتَيْنِ ۚ وَإِن يَكُن مِّنكُم مِّائَةٌ يَغْلِبُوا أَلْفًا مِّنَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ ﴿٦٥﴾ الْآنَ خَفَّفَ اللَّـهُ عَنكُمْ وَعَلِمَ أَنَّ فِيكُمْ ضَعْفًا ۚ فَإِن يَكُن مِّنكُم مِّائَةٌ صَابِرَةٌ يَغْلِبُوا مِائَتَيْنِ ۚ وَإِن يَكُن مِّنكُمْ أَلْفٌ يَغْلِبُوا أَلْفَيْنِ بِإِذْنِ اللَّـهِ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ

If there are among you twenty [who are] steadfast, they will overcome two hundred. And if there are among you one hundred [who are] steadfast, they will overcome a thousand of those who have disbelieved because they are a people who do not understand. Now, Allah has lightened [the hardship] for you, and He knows that among you is weakness. So, if there are from you one hundred [who are] steadfast, they will overcome two hundred. And if there are among you a thousand, they will overcome two thousand by permission of Allah. And Allah is with the steadfast.  (Al-Anfaal: 65-66).

Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla has therefore made it obligatory upon the Muslims to stand steadfast or firm in the face of the disbelievers is their Quwaah (strength or force) was equal to a tenth of the strength or force (Quwwah) of the disbelievers, in the situation of their weakness, and guaranteed victory upon them. Then He lightened from them for when their force is strengthened and made it obligatory upon them to stand steadfast and firm in the face of the disbelievers if their strength or force was equal to half the strength or force of the disbelievers’ army, guaranteeing the victory for them.

The Mafhoom (implied understanding) is worked with by the scholars of Usool and the Mafhoom of the Aayaat obliging the steadfastness, indicates that it is not obligatory upon the Muslims to stand firm or steadfast in the face of the disbelievers, if their Quwwah (strength or force) was less than a tenth of that of the disbelievers in the situation of their weakness, and it indicates at the same time to the obligation of the Muslims working and striving to realise and obtain the tenth of the power of the strength of the disbelievers, when they do not possess that.

Consequently, if the army of the Muslims meets the army of the disbelievers and its force or strength was equal to a tenth of their force or strength, and the Islamic Ummah on behalf of which the army is fighting has fulfilled the condition of the victory, then the victory of the Muslim army is inevitable, because Allah has guaranteed that. If defeat befalls them, then that means either the presence of a flaw in the army in respect to its Deen or in relation to the strength of the disbelievers, or a flaw in its Ummah, or in both.

It is worth noting here that the Mafhoom (implicit understanding) of the number, in addition to that being linguistic and employed by the people of Usool, it is also employed or applied intellectually as well, and it is impossible for it not to be employed as such. That is because when Allah addresses the numbers themselves and a specific proportion, and affirms it and guarantees the victory with it, and then, after that, those numbers and that proportion have no value, the  that would lead to attributing pointlessness to Allah Ta’Aalaa in respect to having addressed those numbers and that proportion, and that is an impossible matter to attribute to Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla. That is because when He Ta’Aalaa says:

إِن يَكُن مِّنكُمْ عِشْرُونَ صَابِرُونَ يَغْلِبُوا مِائَتَيْنِ
If there are among you twenty [who are] steadfast, they will overcome two hundred (Al-Anfaal: 65).

Then that means that ten steadfast will definitely not overcome two hundred and at the same time it means that the Muslims must strive rapidly to attain the proportion of a tenth. Any other view in respect to this matter represents nothing more than heresies which hold no value, because it would lead to attributing pointlessness to what Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla has addressed regarding the defined or specified number and proportion.

As for the Jamaa’aat (groups) within the Ummah, then the Imaan and the perfection of action likewise represents the Sabab (cause) of the attainment or realisation of the victory for it. That is because Allah ‘Azza Wa Jallah has said in relation to them:

وَعَدَ اللَّـهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِينَهُمُ الَّذِي ارْتَضَىٰ لَهُمْ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُم مِّن بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ أَمْنًا ۚ يَعْبُدُونَنِي لَا يُشْرِكُونَ بِي شَيْئًا ۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ
Allah has promised those who have believed among you and done righteous deeds that He will surely grant them succession [to authority] upon the earth just as He granted it to those before them and that He will surely establish for them [therein] their religion which He has preferred for them and that He will surely substitute for them, after their fear, security, [for] they worship Me, not associating anything with Me. But whoever disbelieves after that - then those are the defiantly disobedient (An-Noor: 55).

Therefore, Allah Ta’Aalaa has made it obligatory upon the Jamaa’ah to have Imaan and undertake the best action or perfect the action (Ihsaan ul-‘Amal) and made that a certain Sabab (cause) in respect to it being granted succession (Istikhlaaf). Even though the Aayah was revealed upon the Muslims after the Hijrah at a time when they were in a state of severe fear from the disbelievers, where they did not go to sleep or awake except with their weapons in their hands, the ‘Ibrah (significance or purport) is not in the specificity of the Sabab (cause). The Aayah in its generality is valid to be applied upon the Jamaa’ah, the Dawlah and the Ummah, whilst there is nothing to specify it to any of them.

As such, every Jamaa’ah which has made Ijtihaad in respect to that which is required from it according to a Saheeh (valid) Shar’iy Ijtihaad and undertakes that, then from the moment that it completes its Shar’iyah description as being a Jamaa’ah, the promise of Allah in relation to the provision of An-Nasr applies upon it. Then, if the members through whom the its Shar’iy description was fulfilled in respect to it being a Jamaa’ah die out without being provided the victory, that means the existence of flaws within the Jamaa’ah, which must be examined, investigated and revised. That is because the promise is not open until the Day of Judgement.

Making the promise not be restricted to an end point means that the promise has no value or worth because every generation in the Jamaa’ah will believe, in such a case, in the possibility of accomplishing the victory or its non-accomplishment (i.e. it could happen and could not happen), which makes the promise hold no value for every generation, in addition to that making the concept of victory and its role or purpose redundant. From the angle of motivation or incentive, it has no value, in the case where the individual of the group believes that the victory could be accomplished just as it may not be. And also from the angle of what it reveals, because it does not encourage the Jamaa’ah (group) to revise its flaws, in the case where the promise is deemed to be remain open until the Day of Judgement.

And so the Jamaa’aat were established and the members, through whom the groups Shar’iy description as being a Jamaa’ah was completed, have passed away, and they did not reach their objective and will never reach it and never be granted victory, unless they revise themselves and investigate the flaws which exist within them. What is meant here by flaws are those flaws related to the fundamentals of the Jamaa’ah. That is because the flaws in the branches do not prevent the reaching of the objective, but rather that it is only the flaws in the fundamentals which prevent the reaching of the objective.

The Nasr (victory) of the Jamaa’ah is not examined in isolation to the Nasr (victory) of the Ummah. That is because the manifestations of the victory and its forms cannot possibly be reflected upon the individuals of the group without also being reflected upon others from among the people. The ‘Izzah (might or honour), scrutiny, elevation and Mana’ah (protective force) are all manifestations reflected upon the place or area which the group is victorious in. And these are not manifestations which Allah sends in postal parcels to the people, where it is imagined that that this person is ‘Azeez (honoured) in his house because he is from the Da’wah carriers whilst his neighbour is not because he is not from the Da’wah carriers, that must never be imagined.

For that reason, the first of the manifestations of the victory of the group would be in the peoples’ support for it and their carrying of what they carry. If that happens then the group would have been supported (i.e. provided with Nasr) through the support of the people, and the people would have deserved the Nasr (support or victory) through their providing of it to the Jamaa’ah, and as such they would all be deserving of it. This represents the only angle for the Nasr (victory) of the Jamaa’ah (group) and this is what happened with the Nabi . That is because he and his Sahaabah who believed with him deserved the Nasr and so Allah provided it to him; as soon as the support of most of the people was provided to him, and so they all being deserving of the Nasr of Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla, and then the Islamic State was established for them.

The Messenger and those with him were a Jamaa’ah (group) and the Nasr being provided to them was not delayed for generations. Most of those who carried the Da’wah alongside the Nabi lived the victory and witnessed it with their eyes. When they asked him to supplicate for them for the victory, he did not explain to them the issue of Al-Ibtilaa’ (being tried and tested), where there was need for it, but rather he reaffirmed and reiterated to them that the victory was coming. There would be no meaning to this reiteration and affirmation at all, if he had meant the victory of your children for instance or your grandchildren, and the Nafs (self) of those asking would not have found tranquillity apparat from as a result of what they knew in terms of that the victory was coming for them, themselves.

As for the individual, then the Nasr (victory) for him is not inevitable or definite, even if his reward is preserved with Allah. That is because Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla said:

وَاتَّقُوا فِتْنَةً لَّا تُصِيبَنَّ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مِنكُمْ خَاصَّةً
And fear a trial which will not strike those who have wronged among you exclusively (Al-Anfaal: 25).

Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla explains the possibility of a people being afflicted by a punishment where His punishment afflicts individuals who were not party to the sin. And the Messenger of Allah said: “The master of martyrs is Hamzah and a man who stood before the unjust Imaam, then commanded him and forbade him, and then he (the ruler) killed him”. The individual could be killed unjustly whilst not realising the Nasr of Allah and he could live in injustice or under oppression and not be granted Nasr from Allah, even though his reward is preserved to him in relation to all of that. That is because the evidences do not make clear the inevitability or definiteness of the provision of the Nasr to the individual. If He wills, He provides him with Nasr in the Dunyaa and if He wills he stores for him his reward until the Day of Judgement.

The early Muslims during the time of the Nabi and after that, comprehended the concept of An-Nasr according to its correct comprehension and it was clear in the minds with the clarity of the sun. With its role of providing motivation and revealing (i.e. the soundness of the work), this concept had the greatest impact upon their conduct. It transformed them from groups who had seen the greatest of accomplishments to be attacking or raiding others and taking possession of their properties, to a force which the whole people of the earth were incapable of stopping. That reached the extent that the Muslim army came to be known as the army which cannot be conquered. The concept of Nasr transformed them into a new creation through whom the greatest achievements in the entire history of humankind were accomplished, when they embraced it and worked in accordance to it.

At the same time, they had benefited from this concept and understanding, in relation to their discipline with the commands of Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla. That is because defeat did not befall them except that they would go off searching for the flaw in relation to their compliance to the Deen of Allah ‘Azza Wa Jalla. They did not used to feel that they were on the upright path unless they were being victorious against their enemies from the disbelievers. Their state of affairs remained as such until the Islamic Aqeedah weakened within them and this understanding or concept (related to the Nasr) weakened alongside that. They became distanced from Islaam and so Allah enabled their enemies against them.

The Nasr, like other Islamic concepts, has been exposed to vagueness in the minds of the Muslims, making it lose a lot its motivating and revealing role or purpose. The absence of these two roles or purposes had a great impact in respect to the decline of the resolve, shortcomings or neglect in respect to seeking the highest (aims) and seeking to beach the peaks of glory. As such the aims collapsed and the individuals and masses came to look no further than what lay between their feet. Its clarity, means amongst things, that at the time of defeat, that it is obligatory upon them to examine, first and before anything else, anything that is contrary to the command of Allah Ta’Aalaa and to then rid themselves of that.

However, the reality of matters proceeded upon the opposite of that in respect to them. So, they wanted to get rid of the occupation by penetrating the patriotic movements established upon other than the basis of Islaam, and to resort and refer back to the disbelieving international organisations, and as a result the occupation increased in strength and might. And they resorted to entering parliaments and democratic paths to rid themselves of the systems of disbelief, and as a result the ruling systems gained complete control over them … and so on … Therefore, instead of ridding themselves of the Haraam, at the time of being inflicted by defeat, they submerged themselves further into it, and as such the defeat was confounded and increased many times over.

Based upon the above, the effort to clarify the concept and understanding of the Nasr (victory) and generating it within the Nufoos (i.e. people) with its to purposes or roles of motivation and revealing or disclosure, is extremely essential and important. The carriers of the Da’wah must be attentive and alert to it, so that their Ummah quickly stands upon the right path that is obligatory for her to stand upon and before it loses who identity as an Ummah or Allah replaces her with others, and hence loses the Dunyaa and the Aakhirah.

Sheikh Abu Islam Yusuf Shaqeero, Palestine

Friday, September 21, 2018

Jewish Immigration to the Islamic State

Ever since the fall of Constantinople to the Muslims in 1453, Jewish refugees from all over Europe were encouraged to settle in the country and to take advantage of the liberal treatment accorded them by the Sultan. When the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid heard about the expulsion of the Jews from Spain by King Ferdinand, he said: “Can you call such a king wise and intelligent? He is impoverishing his country and enriching my kingdom.”

Moses Hamon, who after fleeing Spain with his father, became the physician for Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Caliph.

Hans Dernschwam, a travelling agent of the Fugger banking house, describes the Jews in Turkey in his travel diary:

In Turkey you will find in every town innumerable Jews of all countries and languages. And every Jewish group sticks together in accordance with its language. Wherever Jews have been expelled in any land they all come together in Turkey, as thick as vermin; speak German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Czechish, Polish, Greek, Turkish, Syriac, Chaldean and other languages besides these. As is their custom, everyone wears clothes in accordance with the language he speaks.
In Constantinople, the Jews are thick as ants. The Jews themselves say that they are very numerous. They live in the lower part of the city near the sea. Those Jews that are old, who have a little money, travel to the Holy Land, to Jerusalem, and still hope that they will one day all come together, from all countries, into their own native land and there secure hold of the government. The well-to-do Jews send money to Jerusalem to support them, for one cannot make any money there …
Many Marranos that is Jews who turned Christian, as in Spain or voluntarily became Christians in other places all come to Turkey and become Jews again. The Jews of Constantinople also have a printing press and print many rare books. They have goldsmiths, lapidaries, painters, tailors, butchers, druggists, physicians, surgeons, cloth-weavers, wound-surgeons, barbers, mirror-makers, dyers, silk-workers, gold-washers, refiners of ores, assayers, engravers …

The Jews do not allow any of their own to go about begging. They have collectors who go from house to house and collect into a common chest for the poor. This is used to support the poor and the hospital.

These actions of the Ottomans were part of the well-established Islamic values of treating non-Muslim citizens known as Dhimmi (people of covenant) with good treatment.

The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said: “He who harms a person under covenant, or charged him more than he can, I will argue against him on the Day of Judgement.” (Narrated by Yahya b. Adam in Al-Kharaaj)


Video: Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal and His Methodology in Fiqh

In this session, we will be taking a look into the historical context at the time of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal and his Usul. Presentation by: Iyad Hilal

Source: Al-Arqam Institute

Friday, September 14, 2018

Video: Studies in Usul ul Fiqh | Misapplications of Shari Maxims

As explained previously, maxims (related to Fiqh or Usul al-Fiqh) are important. It is known that there are differences among jurists regarding some maxims. This does not constitute any problem since differences among jurists do exist and it can be viewed as a feature in the general body of Fiqh. It adds diversity and dynamism to the Fiqh. However, there are times in which some misapplications for some maxims happen. This is despite the fact that previous jurists did not mean for these maxims to reach to the conclusions some started calling for utilizing wrongly these maxims. There are five maxims known as al-Qawaed al-Khams. They are the following as being translated by some: 1. Matters will be judged by their purposes. الأمور بمقاصدها 2. Certainty will not be overturned by doubt. اليقين لا يزول إلا بالشك 3. Harm must be removed. الضرر يزال 4. Hardship must be alleviated. المشقة تجلب التيسير 5. Custom has the weight of law. العادة محكمة Another sixth maxim can be added which is: Rules can be changed due to the time change. لا ينكر تغير الأحكام بتغير الأزمان We will address these maxims in the coming session and following sessions.

This is part of a video series by Sheikh Iyad Hilal.

Catch up on the Series! -Video #1 - An Introduction to the Address of the Law Giver: -Video #2 - An Introduction to Legal Maxims: -Video #3: Maxims Related to Actions:

Video: Imam Al Mahdi from the authentic Islamic texts

Professor Muhammad Al Massari discusses matters related to the prophecised Imam Al Mahdi from authentic Islamic texts, scrutinizes all evidences and assembles a chronology of events based on authentic narrations.

Part 1

Part 2