Friday, June 09, 2006

The Great Game in Somalia

The following is a good political analysis article by a brother regarding the current situation in Somalia.

The Great Game in Somalia

By Abid Mustafa

June 3, 2006

The recent upsurge in fighting between the various factions in Somalia is a typical example of wars being fought throughout the African continent where the real benefactor is neither the people nor local governments, but major powers. Somalia is another country that has been caught up in a vicious struggle between great powers competing against each other to control the Horn of Africa.

The reason for this interference in Somalia’s internal affairs is simple. Somalia is replete with abundance of natural resources. Uranium deposits, oil and natural gas can be found in Somalia. Oil seeps were discovered in the colonial era by both British and Italian geologists. Later, French and American oil companies competed with British and Italian oil companies for concession rights to the exploration of oil. In the years to follow Somalia became a battle ground between Europe and America for the right to control Somalia’s oil wealth. Europe led by Britain fought America through supporting local militias and surrogate countries like Kenya, Uganda and Djibouti, while America supported her militiamen through countries like Ethiopia and Sudan. The power struggle between Europe and America contributed to decades of civil war, secessionist movements and break away states.

In the late 80s, under the leadership of Somalia's pro-U.S. President Mohamed Siad Barre nearly two-thirds of Somalia was allocated to the American oil giants Conoco, Amoco, Chevron and Phillips. Siad Barre was inconveniently deposed just as Conoco reportedly hit black gold with nine exploratory wells, confirmed by World Bank geologists at the time. During the coup, US envoy to Somalia, Robert Oakley took refuge at Conco headquarters. The removal of Baree prompted Bush senior to dispatch 20,000 US troops in 1992 to restore US rule and thereby secure valuable oil concessions granted to US oil companies. The military intervention was touted as a humanitarian intervention designed to save the starving Somalian souls from famine. The military action resulted in defeat for the US as she was unable to accomplish her mission and pulled out.

Nonetheless, America made sure that her retreat would not encourage the Europeans to exert control, and a bitter struggle ensued between these powers via their agents in Somalia and the neighbouring countries. These powers did not allow any stable government to form and encouraged a number of secessionist states such as Puntland, Somaliland and Jubaland to cede from Somalia or at least demand greater autonomy.

Despite the civil war, foreign countries were able to oil sign treaties with the transitional Somalia government. Oil companies from France, the UK, the UAE, and China attained exploration rights granted by the Transitional National Government, the Somaliland government, and the Puntland government respectively. TotalFinaElf, which has been operating in the port of Berbera throughout the civil war, signed an exploration deal with the TNG in early 2001 off the Somali coast during which the government would provide security for TotalFinalElf employees. Rovagold of the UK, Dubai-based Zarara, and two Chinese firms signed exploration deals with the Somaliland government. Chinese firms are reportedly conducting exploration activities in Puntland.

It was not until the events of September 11 that America began take a renewed interest in Somalia. This time America used the pretext of fighting terrorism to pursue her oil interests in the country. Somalia, like other energy rich countries features heavily as part of America’s grand plan to control the energy reserves of the world for the next fifty years. However, due to her awful occupation of Iraq, America was unable to give due attention to Somalia until now.
But this time America is supporting both the warlords and the Islamists to manufacture a pretext to invade the country. A top US diplomat in Africa, Jendayi Frazer, acknowledged that the White House would work with those who can help "prevent Somalia becoming a safe haven for terrorists". The statement was in reference to assisting the warlords against the Islamists.
America has been equipping the warlords with weapons. These are the very same warlords who have been accommodated in Yusuf’s government as part of a power sharing agreement. These warlords include those who hold the portfolios of security, trade, religion, disarmament and reconstruction. Furthermore the US has also subverted any attempt to interrupt the supply of weapons to both sides. A United Nations report called for a tighter arms embargo on Somalia but this was rejected by the Security Council. The report stated that an unnamed country had been flouting the weapons ban to help local groups fight the Islamic militants. It said that Ethiopia was supplying weapons to Mr Yusuf's interim government, while Eritrea was arming the Islamists
The American plan is to fragment the country into regions and then encourage the energy laden areas to cede and fall in line with US interests. This bears strong resemblance to America’s plan to divide Sudan.

The chances of US success depend upon how she is able to counter threats from other powers. In Sudan countries like France, Britain, China and Russia have made it complicated for America to realise her goal and in Somalia this too may prove to be difficult.

Abid Mustafa is a political commentator who specialises in Muslim affairs

1 comment:

Abu Ismael al-Beirawi said...

The following is some political analysis written in 2000 which is useful to understand the background of the situation in Somalia:

On Tuesday, 2nd May 2000, in the outskirts of Djibouti the 12th conference entitled ‘Conference of Somali and National Conciliation’ was held.
Ismael Omar Guelleh- the ruler of Djibouti- with these words inaugurated the conference:
“You have assembled today so that you may accomplish your historic task. Even if that continues for a month or even more, it is incumbent on you to build a permanent governmental system to free yourselves from the dictatorship of tribes and clans and from the ambitions of a short-sighted elite who have private interests in the capital”. He also said: “The international community expects you to arrive at results and resolutions which are based on establishing the Somali state. Perhaps this conference is the last opportunity before you.” It has been reported about the conference that the number of participants was not more than 250 though the invitations greatly exceeded this number. The most distinguished of those who attended was Ali Mahdi Muhammad. As for the rest of the leaders of the military squadron/platoon they refused to attend. Only a few participated by sending a delegate. And taking part in the conference were representatives of all the states of IGAD, Arab League and the UN and as well the Ethiopia minister of economic cooperation. It is worth mentioning that Guelleh considered this conference as the first stage of his plan which he presented in his address before the annual session of the General Assembly of the United Nations last year in order to solve the Somali crisis by forming a transitional government, an address which he gave in 22nd September 1999.

To know the objective behind holding the conference, what happened in it and what it might lead to in terms of results and resolutions we must know the reality of Somalia first and its relationship to the regional situation and its place in international politics and its relationship with the big powers who hold influence.

As for the reality of Somalia, in addition to its important strategic position situated on the Gulf of Aden and close to the straits of Bab-al-Madab and the length of its shores on the Indian Ocean. The presence of huge resources has been discovered on its territory. Oil and uranium has been discovered as well as natural gas in its regional waters that indicates the presence of oil also. Huge American oil companies: Conoco, Amoco, Chevron, have obtained franchises covering a third of the Somali lands in recent years due to their agent Zayyad Barri, that is why Conoco - which began exploration work in Somalia since 1952 - worked for an agreement with the president of the temporary government after Barri who is Ali Mahdi. As well, it has opened its main offices in Mogadishu - which have continued to operate despite the civil war - to American delegates and employees and provided them with all the facilities as a substitute for their embassies that were plundered and destroyed in 1991 during the popular uprising against Barri. Conoco is also presenting important facilities to the American forces which operated there.

Somalia has been subjected, like other African countries, to long period of domination by the colonialist states. Since Britain controlled north-western part of Somali for more than seventy years, it was called British Somalia. And Italy controlled its south for more than 50 years and it was called Italian Somalia and France controlled what known today as the Republic of Djibouti. As well the neighbouring countries, in agreement with the colonialist countries especially Britain, have seized large parts of its territory. Thus, Ethiopia - previously Abyssinia, seized the region of Ogadin and Kenya seized extensive lands in the south.

One of the consequences of the policy followed by America after the second world war to take the place of European colonialism, which is the liberation of colonies - in name only...!! which was accompanied by the fierce campaign waged by the former Soviet Union against colonialism was that Britain and Italy were compelled to give up the colonisation of Somalia. So British Somalia was annexed with Italian Somalia in 1/7/1960 under the name ‘Republic of Somalia’. As for the French part, France granted it fake independence in 1977 under the name Republic of Djibouti. Kenya and Ethiopia still occupy territory. As for the domestic situation Somali society is torn up by tribal life. There are more than a hundred tribes but the most important are six and they are: Darod, Deer, Ishaq, Hawiyyeh (they amount to 70% of the population, they live off the raising of livestock, sheep and camels), Dijeel, Rahanuwayn (they form 20% of the population and they live on agriculture). Despite attempts to do away with tribal and clan chauvinism especially during the rule of Barri, it did not succeed and the daily life of people continued to revolve round tribalism, it was the dominant element in the relationship amongst the tribes. Therefore, all the parties, fronts and associations have been tainted by this tribalism. You will not find in the east or the west a single party or group which speaks in the name of all the people of Somalia except that it is tribalistic. All of them have emerged on a tribal basis and they have preserved this origin. It is obvious for anyone to see despite the attempts of certain movement to hide it. Thus, Somalia in its current situation is a poor and torn country, living on outside help and afflicted, in addition to the colonialism, by unjust rulers who have squandered its wealth with wars, canals and corrupt administration. Furthermore, it has been afflicted by years of drought and scarce rain. So famine has appeared and hunger has become widespread and hundred and thousands of people died and their animals perished and their agriculture destroyed.

As for the regional situation, the countries surrounding Somalia still occupy vast tracts of its territory inhabited by Somalis whose numbers are declining in terms of their Somali origins. So Ethiopia still occupies Ogaden and Kenya still occupies the (Kenya) north eastern province from the south. As for Djibouti its people are Somali contrary to results of a false count/census that has been propagated. The consequences of these circumstances used to appear time to time as sincere calls or otherwise having political objectives to reclaim these regions and return them to the motherland. The highest point came during the rule of Barri who was unable to stand still before the public opinion that wanted to liberate the occupied areas. Thus, the land was fertile for the manoeuvres of big powers that incited civil wars that destroyed everything. These are the conditions and circumstances which made the neighbouring countries to intervene in the internal affairs of Somalia that has complicated matters. Sometimes they intervene in secret and sometimes they do it publicly. They buy up agents from the leaders of tribes, clans and families and supply them with money and weapons and support them with their influence. They are striving very fast to hold reconciliation meeting on its territory to insure their interests when settlements are made and to relax from this unbearable nightmare. It is observed that the most active in this is Ethiopia that has the greatest regional interest.

In addition to the neighbouring countries, the most active of the regional states and the most effective are Egypt and Libya. The rulers of Egypt are striving to preserve their African role that has been entrusted to them by America. They role is not restricted just to holding peace conferences, presenting proposals and settlements and promoting American plans and supporting agents using the umbrella of the Arab League. As for Gaddafi - the source of African corruption - his role is the most dangerous of regional roles where he undertakes the marketing of British plans and pursues the undermining/thwarting of protection and purchase of agents from the leaders of warring tribes and families and support them with enormous funds and by both Mubarak and Gaddafi’s desire to please their masters first before anything else.

The international situation: The relationship of Somalia to the ambitions of big powers.
The establishment of the Republic of Somalia was declared in 1/7/1960 by the annexation of British and Italian Somalia. After declaration of both Britain and Italy of their relinquishment of their colonisation Britain continued secretly behind the scenes as the big power which had influence in it and she continued to control the reigns of power and the fate of the country. She did this via the “Party of Somalian Youth’ which she took as a tool and cover which continued to dominate ruling after the nominal independence through false and forged elections from 1960 to 1969. This ‘Party of the Somali Youth’ is the same party established by the English in 1943 to rule the country though it after the termination of their mandate as set by the United Nations. This party worked in a legal/legitimate manner inside Italian Somalia which to maintain British interests. It name was changed to ‘the Party of Youth’ in 1947.

In 15/10/1969 the elected Somali president Abd al-Rashid Ali Sheermak was assassinated at the hand of one of his own personal bodyguards. The Prime Minister Muhammad Ibraheem Aqqal - the current president of what is called the Republic of Somaliland - was outside the country which plunged the state in a situation where there was a political vacuum and chaos in ruling. And on 21/10/1969 Zayad Barri - an army leader - executed a military overthrow that took him to power. He punished the political medium severely and sentenced Aqqal to prison for 30 years charged for embezzling the state funds and conspiring against the state. He was not released until 1982. In this manner he eliminated the agents of the English from power and purified the political medium of their presence. He had sole authority and he rules the country. In this manner the country moved from British colonialist rule to the American colonialist rule.

Britain did not give up/surrender to her colonialist interests vanishing. She did not stop conspiring against Somalia and return it under her colonisation but by using evil covert ways i.e. by ruling the country and controlling it by trying to place agents in authority and supporting them. The most prominent style used to realise this objective is the attempt to change the ruling system and to out tribal leaders, parties and movements and in doing so using her agents from the neighbouring countries. She was behind the first failed overthrow/coup in 1971 under the name of the Supreme Revolutionary Council. And she was behind the second failed overthrow in 9/4/78 which was led by the military leader Muhammad Shaykh Uthman - from the powerful tribe of Majiteen - he was executed with 16 other solders and those whose involvement wa proven were imprisoned. And in 1981 the Somali Salvation Front supported by Libya attempted the third failed overthrow. In the same year Barri cut relations with Libya claiming that Gaddafi is assisting both the Somali National Movement and the Somali democratic Salvation Front. And the Salvation Front has been established - before it merged with other fronts - by Major Abdullah Yusuf Ahmad - one of those who succeeded in the attempted overthrow of 1978 - now he is the president of what is knows the Republic of Buntiland which is situation north east of the country and depends on the Majireteen tribe.

On 6/4/1981 the Somali Nationalist Movement was established on the immediately after a packed meeting which attended by more than 400 Somalian emigrants from the Ishaq tribe in a Marlboro cafe in London. They formed the movement under the slogan ‘rid the country of the rule of Barri’. This movement is the same ruling party headed by Muhammad Ibraheem Aqqal the president of the Republic of Somaliland. It is one of the strongest movements that rose up against Barri with the force of weapons. It undertook its first armed action in north eastern part of the country in 2/1/1982, it is supported and financed by Libya. When it achieved a certain degree of strength it occupied cities and villages and occupied the northern capital in the days of Barri. It used to provide political and military support to all movements opposing the rule of Barri. He used to wage strong campaign against them and sometimes strike their strongholds using the air force.

The Democratic Somalian Salvation Front began political and military action against the rule of Bari in 1978, and it depends on the two strong Darod and Majareteen tribes, it operates in Buntiland in the north east of the country under the leadership of the President of Buntiland Major Abdullah Yusuf Ahmad and the second, Muhammad Abasheer Musa, the former chief of police in the Somalian republic after independence. He was sentenced to prison immediately after 1969 overthrow/revolution and he was not released until 1982.

One of the important and active movements in the south of the country is the Somalian National Movement that relies on Darod and Ogaden. It came to the fore in March 1989 under the leadership of Umar Jass immediately after the break away of a group of officers from the Barri army. Its current leader is General Muhammad Sayyid Hayrs Murjan called General Murjan, it is supported vigorously by the Northern Somalian Nationalist Movement (the English). It undertook the work of an independent administration in the south of the country which it called Jubaland.

On 8/12/1999 autonomy was formed for both regions of Bih and Bakul in the middle of the country.

Generally speaking the active tribal parties and movements are more than twenty in view of the large number of tribes, clans and families, which increases the disagreement between them and makes reconciliation a difficult matter. This is with the tens of tribes and clans and hundreds of leaderships which make it a easy prey for outside regional and international intervention.

The British plan drawn up for Somalia, after it failed to return it to its colonisation, is to break up the country either into tribal statelets united by a federal unity, and a weak central federal government or into independent states that are recognised internationally when the international circumstances permit. This idea is adopted by Europe at the forefront of which is Italy - which has interests there- and it is adopted by the agents of Britain at the head of which is Gaddafi from the outside, and from the inside a large group from the leaders of clans and tribes and at their head are the leaders of the ‘Republic of Somaliland’ and the leaders of Joubaland and Bountiland, the region of Bih and Bakul, and whoever accepts partition and independence. Time is going in favour of implanting the British plan and the formation of tribal statelets. That is why the British agents are striving to circulate and establish the idea of separation and they are striving to destroy and foil any conference calling for peace and unity of the nation even if they pretend to be against it. That is why it is not surprising that the number of the Djibouti conference is the twelfth in a series of failed conferences. Since its failure is embarrassing like other conferences whose resolutions remained as just ink on paper. There can be nothing more far from the reality of what has been publicised that Gaddafi asked Guelleh to abandon the idea of forming a temporary transitional government in the conference. The agents of Britain in the republic of Somaliland refuse to attend any conference calling for the unity of the country. This and the process of foiling the conferences is easy given the great many delegates and variety of approaches and the many tribes, clans and families participating usually and the ease of people who seek their interests and the opposition to slip into the conference. The most dangerous part of the conspiracy is the infiltration of the idea of tribal entities in peace conferences. It happened that it infiltrated the Shadeer conference that was held in Ethiopia in 1996 and in Cairo conference that was held in December 1997. The idea infiltrated the conference as being a more befitting phase in forming the temporary government and its dependent territories.

Despite the styles of oppression and tyranny employed by Barri in ruling the country. However this rule enjoyed relative stability since 1969 until 1977. In this year America got Barri to enter the war to liberate the Ogaden province from Ethiopia. And that was to absorb the angry public opinion against him due to his failure to deliver this dream and to preoccupy the Ethiopian people through outside aggression/hostility in order to protect their overthrow of Hilasilasi 1974 where Mangisto Marayam became their agent confronting a strong internal opposition that shook his rule. So under strong popular pressure and being pushed by America Barri in 1977 launched a full-scale war against Ethiopia to liberate Ogaden. In the space of a few weeks Ethiopia was defeated and he was able to liberate at least 60% of the region and he continued the war gaining victory as heroes until he had liberated 90% but the alignment of Soviets who were linked by treaty to the Ethiopian side - by an agreement with America in the age of wafaq (gladsnost?) and supported them with fighting forces and the support to Somalia stopped and Ethiopia gained the upper hand and turned the course of the battle to its advantage. Thus, the Somlian army was utterly defeated as a consequence of which it lost a third of its fighting force, three quarters of its tank units, half the air force which made it announce on 9/3/1978 of a halt ion the fighting and an acceptance to withdraw from the region.

This war with this shocking defeat was the beginning of the end of Barri’s rule. It was a mortal blow. America was not able to rectify what it had done and save its agent from the resentment of the army that was humiliated and defeated and protect him from the vehement wrath of the people. So the English and their agents exploited this situation, thus they established and supported armed movements to oppose Barri like ‘the Somali Nationalist Movements’ in the north and ‘the Somali homeland Movement’ in the south, and the Somali Salvation Front and other various military movements in order to weaken Barri’s rule and strip it off him by the force of weapons. With the continuation of inflammatory propaganda and armed attacks by these movements, the grievances became widespread in all parts of the country and the disturbed internal circumstances came to warn of a change and removal of Barri. Meanwhile America began to search for an alternative to prevent these movements from coming to power and to insure its continued influence. In order to realise this objective her agent Ali Mahdi Muhammad established ‘the United Somalian Congress’ in 1989 which depends on the powerful Hawiyyeh tribe in the area of the capital Mogedishu and its outskirts. It began to work to oppose the rule with the force of weapons as did other English movements like it.

With the beginning of 1991 the armed opposition to Barri’s rule came to a head when the Somalian nationalist Movement seized most of the north of the country which includes the northern capital of Hirgizia, and other major cities like Barbara, Burawa and others. The movement made great advances in subjecting the rest of the areas under its control. Likewise the Somali Homeland Movement overran - in the south - a number of government sites. On 16/1/1991 forces from the Abghal family/clan - the clan of Ali Mahdi Muhammad - which comes under the tribe of Hawiyyeh broke into the presidential palace in Mogadishu and Barri and his supporters were exiled to the south, then he fled to Kenya and from there he went to Nigeria where he died defeated in 1995.

In February 1991 the United Somalian Congress issued the declaration of forming a temporary government and appointing Ali Mahdi Muhammad as president and Umar Artah Ghalib - from the Ishaq tribe in the north - a prime minister. America had recognised this government a shortly after the declaration was made. However the rest of the movements and clans, especially those armed, and those which opposed the Barri’s rule with force of weapons and made sacrifices, and those which strove to gain the authority or to be a powerful partner which were regarded highly, refused these measures and did not recognise the temporary government and thought the United Somali Congress had ignored them and belittled their struggle against Barri, as if the Congress had stolen authority and taken the fruits of its work and long and serious opposition. So disagreement and division spread amongst the armed movements and various tribes, clans and families with others and amongst them,selves. Until even the United Somalian Congress itself divided into two sections, the fist under the leadership of Ali Mahdi and its is called the Somalian Salvation Alliance and the second under the leadership of Muhammad Farah Aydeed - from the Habir Jadir clan which comes under the tribe of Hawiyyeh - it is called the Somalian Nationalist Alliance. And on 18/5/1991 the Somalian Nationalist Front declared - which is active in the north of the country -the establishment of an independent state in the north west which they called the republic of Somaliland in the regions which were under the control of British colonialism ie in the former British Somalia. Abdur Rahman Ahmad Ali (Tur) was selected- he was the Fronts secretary at that time- as the President of the Republic and Hasan Isa Jama was appointed vice president with 17 others who were appointed as ministers to run the affairs of the state.

The temporary central government under the leadership of Ali Mahdi was not able to impose its control and establish a general presence in the country. And nor was it able to stop the deterioration of domestic circumstances or preserve the unity of the country.

With the beginning of the month of September 1991 the country entered a real fighting and civil war between the tribes, clans and families and different armed movements. The fighting became intense in November, so fighting took place in Kismayo, and the plundering and looting spread. The north began to work to consolidate its state. In 17/11/1991 there was intense fighting in Mogadishu between the group of Ali Mahdi Muhammad and the group of Muhammad Farah Aydeed that continued for 4 months leading to terrible loss of life and property. As well the country was afflicted by a wave of drought and famine which increased the calamity and pain which covered at least have the population of the country in terms of the dead, injured and those made to emigrate to Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibuti, Yemen and Europe whose numbers reaches no less than a million people.

With the beginning of 1991 the armed opposition to Barri’s rule came to a head when the Somalian nationalist Movement seized most of the north of the country which includes the northern capital of Hirgizia, and other major cities like Barbara, Burawa and others. The movement made great advances in subjecting the rest of the areas under its control. Likewise the Somali Homeland Movement overran - in the south - a number of government sites. On 16/1/1991forces from the Abghal family/clan - the clan of Ali Mahdi Muhammad - which comes under the tribe of Hawiyyeh broke into the presidential palace in Mogadishu and Barri and his supporters were exiled to the south, then he fled to Kenya and from there he went to Nigeria where he died defeated in 1995.

In February 1991 the United Somalian Congress issued the declaration of forming a provisional government and appointing Ali Mahdi Muhammad as president and Umar Artah Ghalib - from the Ishaq tribe in the north - a prime minister. America had recognised this government a shortly after the declaration was made. However the rest of the movements and clans, especially those armed, and those which opposed the Barri’s rule with force of weapons and made sacrifices, and those which strove to gain the authority or to be a powerful partner which were regarded highly, refused these measures and did not recognise the provisional government and thought the United Somali Congress had ignored them and belittled their struggle against Barri, as if the Congress had stolen authority and taken the fruits of its work and long and serious opposition. So disagreement and division spread amongst the armed movements and various tribes, clans and families with others and amongst them,selves. Until even the United Somalian Congress itself divided into two sections, the first under the leadership of Ali Mahdi and its is called the Somalian Salvation Alliance and the second under the leadership of Muhammad Farah Aydeed - from the Habir Jadir clan which comes under the tribe of Hawiyyeh - it is called the Somalian Nationalist Alliance. And on 18/5/1991 the Somalian Nationalist Front declared - which is active in the north of the country -the establishment of an independent state in the north west which they called the republic of Somaliland in the regions which were under the control of British colonialism ie in the former British Somalia. Abdur Rahman Ahmad Ali (Tur) was selected- he was the Fronts secretary at that time- as the President of the Republic and Hasan Isa Jama was appointed vice president with 17 others who were appointed as ministers to run the affairs of the state.

The interim central government under the leadership of Ali Mahdi was not able to impose its control and establish a general presence in the country. And nor was it able to stop the deterioration of domestic circumstances or preserve the unity of the country. The army and the police became disbanded after the fall of Barri and these people became attached to their tribes, clans and families and the food and weapons depot were looted. Chaos became widespread in the country and the country came to the verge of civil war. So the fist peace conference was held in Djibuti on 5/6/1991. It was attended by ‘the United Somalian Congress’, the Somalian Democratic Salvation Front, the Somali homeland Movement and the Somali Democratic Movement. The second conference was held in Djibuti on 15/7/1991 and after it there was a string of peace conferences in Addis Ababa, Nairobi, Cairo and the most recent now, which is the present conference. This does not include the other regional and international conferences that took place.

With the beginning of the month of September 1991 the country entered a real fighting and civil war between the tribes, clans and families and different armed movements. The fighting became intense in November, so fighting took place in Kismayo, and the plundering and looting spread. The north began to work to consolidate its state. In 17/11/1991 there was intense fighting in Mogadishu between the group of Ali Mahdi Muhammad and the group of Muhammad Farah Aydeed that continued for 4 months leading to terrible loss of life and property. As well the country was afflicted by a wave of drought and famine which increased the calamity and pain which covered at least have the population of the country in terms of the dead, injured and those made to emigrate to Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibuti, Yemen and Europe whose numbers reaches no less than a million people.

Faced with this situation America hastened towards military mobilisation - after it was too late - in order to protect her colonial interests and began to move on the international level under the thick cover of humanitarian actions via the United Nations to get legitimacy for her forces to intervene directly. So 6 resolutions were passed in one year of the Security Council under the seventh article for the United Nations’ charter. Resolution 733 on 23/1/92 called for a stop to the hostile actions and banned the shipping of weapons. Revolution 746 on 17/3/92 calls for the dispatchment of experts, 751 on 24/4/92 called for the establishment of international forces (UNISOM 1) which is able to oversee the stoppage of fighting, resolution 767 on 27/7/92 called for operations areas in Barbara, Bosaso, Mogadishu, Kismayo and for the dispatchment of military units to Barabara and Kasamayo. Number 775 on 28/8/91 called for increasing the international forces to 3,500 soldiers but the situation continued to deteriorate continuously. So resolution 794 on 3/12/1992 was passed requesting countries in the world to put forward military and financial force and to form special united forces and assign its leadership to America and granted her the use of ‘all necessary measures’ for the success of the operation. So this force was formed of 28 thousand American soldiers and 17 thousand from Australia, Belgium, Botswana, Canada, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Kuwait, Morocco, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, United emirates, Britain and Zimbabwe. Immediately after this resolution - number 794 - in response to the request of the United Nation the American president Bush announced - and he was in the last days of his presidency - on 4/12/92 the ‘operation/process of re-establishing hope’ in an address directed to the people. Despite this strong mobilisation and the strong cover of the United Nations the situation could not be contained. The troops were not able to enter the northern regions and the south and middle remained in a state of turmoil. Therefore, the most important of the resolutions were passed which is number 814 on 26/3/93 to form new United Nations forces (UNISOM 2) which was granted extensive powers, the most significant of which was : to disarm the fighters, stop the actions of violence, monitor the warring clans and the heavy weapons of the organised clans, impose authority and return peace and stability, work for return of political life, realise national reconciliation and establish a democratic Somali government.

When the American and Untied Nations forces began to the weapons of militias re-establish political life, realise real stability and work to establish a central government which will return the country to the situation before the overthrow of Ali Barri, they clashed with violent opposition from different armed clans which includes the clans of her two agents Ali Mahdi and Muhammad Farah Aydeed. Some armed fighting took place which led to the killing of a number of Pakistani and American forces. There was an deliberate show of the dead American bodies and their ....in the streets of Mogadishu which incited the American public opinion so President Clinton wa forced to announce the withdrawal of American forces from Somalia on 31/3/94. The United nations forces were not able after this to control the situation and the General Secretary of the UN announced that the troops will withdraw on 1/3/1995. In his last report to the council he mentioned ; ‘that the Somalians themselves are the only ones able to establish stable peace that can survive and that the role of the international community is to continue their support to achieve this objective’.

In addition to this strong military mobilisation America motivated the regional organisations. So the Organisation of African Unity on 22/6/92 issued a special announcement regarding Somalia in its meeting in Dakkar. The ...countries sponsored number of peace conferences and the Arab league sponsored a peace conference which was held in December 1997, it was attended by 40 clans and but they all failed and no progress worth mentioning was realised.

Thus, America failed to re-establish the circumstances in Somalia as it was under the central government. It was not able to return it via its agent Ali Mahdi Muhammad who seized the presidential palace and appointed himself as a interim president and stood as an obstacle to the agents of the English from coming to power, he was not able to impose his control except in a part of the capital with the support of his family, the Abghal family. America tried to regain the situation via its second agent Muhammad Farah Aydeed when the United Somalian Congress in the third conference elected him held in Mogadishu in 5/7/91 as its president and he began to work to strengthen his influence and subjugate the country through military force. This is what made him clash with the family of Ali Mahdi and led to the vicious fighting that took place between them. She tried to employ Aydeed as a national hero. So he began to extend his influence outside the capital, so the city of but like his predecessor he clashed with great obstacles which prevented success. Then he disagreed with the American about the style of ...so they killed them and said he had died immediately after being shot in combat. As well she failed in moving her military forces under an international cover guise. And she failed to move the regional organisations. It is correct that America’s strategic need for Somalia has decreased from the days of the Cold War, especially after the demise of the Soviet Union and the great advances achieved in telecommunications and satellites. But she is currently working as a representative of the interests of the American capitalists/capital to exploit the huge resources of Somalia and preserve the investments and big franchises obtained by her giant companies towards the end of Barri’s rule. That is why she ha not given up and she still continues to return the situation as it was under a central government: she opposes division to stand as an obstacle to the entrance of the European states - especially Britain and Italy - into Somalia and their vying for the plundering of its tremendous resources. She is behind the Djibuti conference and every other peace conference, and Britain and her agents are behind the division and the failure of every peace conference, though the country is proceeding on the path of dismemberment/division and passing through a painful period that will take a long while before stability and normal life is achieved.

Saturday 23 Safar 1421 AH
27/5/2000