Tuesday, April 03, 2007

Rizq - In Depth

The following is a draft translation from Arabic.

As for the issue of rizq, most of the ayaat, of definite meaning, do not leave any scope for any body that believes in Qur’an but to believe that rizq is in the Hand of Allah, where He gives to whom He wants. The issue of rizq is different from the issue of al-qadar (knowledge of Allah). This is because al-qadar is that Allah knows so and so matter will happen before it happened, so it would have been written and ordained. As for the rizq, it is not only Allah knew so and so person will be given rizq, so the rizq would then be written and ordained, but beside the fact He ordained the rizq is that Allah (swt) is the Razzaq (Sustainer) and not the servant. This is what the ayaat indicated.

Allah (swt) says:

وَأْمُرْ أَهْلَكَ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَاصْطَبِرْ عَلَيْهَا لَا نَسْأَلُكَ رِزْقًا نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُكَ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلتَّقْوَى

“We ask not of you provision. We provide for you, and the end is for taqwa(righteousness).” [Taha: 132]

وَكُلُواْ مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللّهُ حَلاَلاً طَيِّبًا وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ الَّذِيَ أَنتُم بِهِ مُؤْمِنُونَ

“And eat of the things which Allah (swt) has provided for you, as lawful and good, and keep your duty to Allah in Whom you believe.” [Al-Ma’idah: 88]

للَّهُ لَطِيفٌ بِعِبَادِهِ يَرْزُقُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَهُوَ الْقَوِيُّ الْعَزِيزُ

“Allah is gracious to his servants. He provides for whom He will, and He is the Strong, the Mighty.” [Ash-Shura: 19]

وَمِنَ الأَنْعَامِ حَمُولَةً وَفَرْشًا كُلُواْ مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللّهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعُواْ خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ

“Eat of what Allah has bestowed upon you, and don’t follow the footsteps of the devil. Lo! Allah does not love the prodigals.” [Al-An’am: 142]

فَكُلُواْ مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللّهُ حَلالاً طَيِّبًا وَاشْكُرُواْ نِعْمَتَ اللّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ

“So eat of the lawful and good food that Allah has provided for you, and thank the bounty of Allah if it is Him you worship.” [An-Nahl: 114]

لِيَجْزِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنَ مَا عَمِلُوا وَيَزِيدَهُم مِّن فَضْلِهِ وَاللَّهُ يَرْزُقُ مَن يَشَاء بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ

“And Allah provides without stint to whom He will.”
[An-Noor: 38]

فَتَقَبَّلَهَا رَبُّهَا بِقَبُولٍ حَسَنٍ وَأَنبَتَهَا نَبَاتًا حَسَنًا وَكَفَّلَهَا زَكَرِيَّا كُلَّمَا دَخَلَ عَلَيْهَا زَكَرِيَّا الْمِحْرَابَ وَجَدَ عِندَهَا رِزْقاً قَالَ يَا مَرْيَمُ أَنَّى لَكِ هَـذَا قَالَتْ هُوَ مِنْ عِندِ اللّهِ إنَّ اللّهَ يَرْزُقُ مَن يَشَاء بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ

“Verily, Allah provides without stint to whom He will.”
[Aali-‘Imran: 37]

تُولِجُ اللَّيْلَ فِي الْنَّهَارِ وَتُولِجُ النَّهَارَ فِي اللَّيْلِ وَتُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَتُخْرِجُ الَمَيَّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَتَرْزُقُ مَن تَشَاء بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ

“And You provide without stint to whom You will.”
[Aali-‘Imran: 27]

فَإِذَا بَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ فَارِقُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ وَأَشْهِدُوا ذَوَيْ عَدْلٍ مِّنكُمْ وَأَقِيمُوا الشَّهَادَةَ لِلَّهِ ذَلِكُمْ يُوعَظُ بِهِ مَن كَانَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَمَن يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يَجْعَل لَّهُ مَخْرَجًا

وَيَرْزُقْهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَحْتَسِبُ وَمَن يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَهُوَ حَسْبُهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بَالِغُ أَمْرِهِ قَدْ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدْرًا

“And whosoever keeps his duty to Allah, Allah will make a way out for him. And He will provide for him from where he has no expectation.” [At-Talaq: 2-3]

وَكَأَيِّن مِن دَابَّةٍ لَا تَحْمِلُ رِزْقَهَا اللَّهُ يَرْزُقُهَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

“And how many there is an animal that bears not its own provision! Allah provides for it and for you. He is the Hearer, the Knower.” [Al-‘Ankaboot: 60]

اللَّهُ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَن يَشَاء مِنْ عِبَادِهِ وَيَقْدِرُ لَهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

“Allah makes the provision wide for whom He will of His bondmen, and straitens it for whom (he will). Lo1 Allah is aware of all things.” [Al-‘Ankaboot: 62]

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ هَلْ مِنْ خَالِقٍ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ يَرْزُقُكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاء وَالْأَرْضِ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَأَنَّى تُؤْفَكُونَ

“O mankind! Remember Allah’s grace toward you! Is there any creator other than Allah Who provides for you from the sky and the earth? There is no God save Him; how then you turn away?” [Fatir: 3]

أَمَّنْ هَذَا الَّذِي يَرْزُقُكُمْ إِنْ أَمْسَكَ رِزْقَهُ بَل لَّجُّوا فِي عُتُوٍّ وَنُفُورٍ

“Or who is he that will provide for you if He should withhold His providence? No, but they are set in pride and forwardness.” [Al-Mulk: 21]

قُلْ تَعَالَوْاْ أَتْلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ أَلاَّ تُشْرِكُواْ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَلاَ تَقْتُلُواْ أَوْلاَدَكُم مِّنْ إمْلاَقٍ نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُكُمْ وَإِيَّاهُمْ وَلاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَلاَ تَقْتُلُواْ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللّهُ إِلاَّ بِالْحَقِّ ذَلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُمْ بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

“And do not slay your children because of penury/poverty. We provide for you and for them.” [Al-An’am: 151]

وَلاَ تَقْتُلُواْ أَوْلادَكُمْ خَشْيَةَ إِمْلاقٍ نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُهُمْ وَإِيَّاكُم إنَّ قَتْلَهُمْ كَانَ خِطْءًا كَبِيرًا

“And do not slay your children, feraing a fall to poverty. We shall provide for thm and for you.” [Al-Israa’: 31]

وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللّهِ مَا لاَ يَمْلِكُ لَهُمْ رِزْقًا مِّنَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ شَيْئًا وَلاَ يَسْتَطِيعُونَ

“And they worship beside Allah that which owns no provision whatsoever for them from the heavens or the earth, no have they any power.” [An-Nahl: 73]

ضَرَبَ اللّهُ مَثَلاً عَبْدًا مَّمْلُوكًا لاَّ يَقْدِرُ عَلَى شَيْءٍ وَمَن رَّزَقْنَاهُ مِنَّا رِزْقًا حَسَنًا فَهُوَ يُنفِقُ مِنْهُ سِرًّا وَجَهْرًا هَلْ يَسْتَوُونَ الْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ

“Allah coins a similitude: (on the one hand) a (mere) chattel slave who has control of nothing, and (on the other hand) one on whom We have bestowed a fair provision from Us, and he spends from it secretly and openly. Are yhey equal? Praise is to Allah! But most of them do not know.” [An-Nahl: 75]

وَلَوْ بَسَطَ اللَّهُ الرِّزْقَ لِعِبَادِهِ لَبَغَوْا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَكِنْ يُنَزِّلُ بِقَدَرٍ مَا يَشَاءُ إِنَّهُ بِعِبَادِهِ خَبِيرٌ بَصِيرٌ

“And if Allah were to enlarge the provision for his servants they would surely rebel in the earth, but He sends down by measure as He wills. Lo! He is Aquainted, a Seer of His bondmen.” [Ash-Shura: 27]

وَأَمَّا إِذَا مَا ابْتَلَاهُ فَقَدَرَ عَلَيْهِ رِزْقَهُ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّي أَهَانَنِ

“But when He tries him by straitening his means of life, he says: My Lord despises me.” [Al-Fajr: 16]

وَمَا مِن دَآبَّةٍ فِي الأَرْضِ إِلاَّ عَلَى اللّهِ رِزْقُهَا وَيَعْلَمُ مُسْتَقَرَّهَا وَمُسْتَوْدَعَهَا كُلٌّ فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ

“And there is not a beast on earth but its provision is due on Allah. He knows its habitation and its repository. All is in a clear record.” [Hood: 6]

إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِينُ

“Lo! Allah is that who gives livelihood, the Lord of unbreakable might.” [Adh-Dhariyaat: 58]

These ayaat are of definite indication that Allah is the Razzaq (Provider), He provides to whom He will, and He is the one who expands the rizq to whom He will, and straitens it. In all these ayaat the rizq is ascribed to Allah, and there is no Raziq other than Him. This indicates that Allah is the one who provides, and ascribtion of rizq to Him is real, which means the action of giving rizq rather than creation of rizq. This is because ascribtion in origin is real, and it is not diverted to metaphoric except with the presence of a concatenation (qareenah); and there is no a concatenation to allow that. Thus, the ascribtion of rizq to Allah is real. Furthermore, it was not mentioned that rizq is ascribed to man, where he provides rizq for himself, neither in an ayah or a hadeeth. Rather, in all the texts, the ascribtion of rizq came to Allah (swt). As regards of ascribtion of rizq to man, where he gives (rizq) to another, it means handing to them the funds and not the action of (giving) rizq. As an example to this is His (swt) saying:
وَلاَ تُؤْتُواْ السُّفَهَاء أَمْوَالَكُمُ الَّتِي جَعَلَ اللّهُ لَكُمْ قِيَاماً وَارْزُقُوهُمْ فِيهَا وَاكْسُوهُمْ وَقُولُواْ لَهُمْ قَوْلاً مَّعْرُوفًا

“Do not give to the foolish (what is in) your (keeping of their) wealth, which Allah has given you to maintain; but feed and clothe them from it.” [An-Nisaa’: 5]

وَإِذَا حَضَرَ الْقِسْمَةَ أُوْلُواْ الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينُ فَارْزُقُوهُم مِّنْهُ وَقُولُواْ لَهُمْ قَوْلاً مَّعْرُوفًا

“And when kinsfolk and orphans and the needy are present at the division (of the heritage) bestow on them from it.” [An-Nisaa’: 8]

What the first ayah means is to hand over food to them, and the second ayah means to hand to them from the rizq that you got. So in both verses, it is an order to give to them from the rizq, and there is no ascribtion of rizq to them. Ascribtion of rizq, in the sense of doing the rizq, did not come except to Allah (swt). You find that in the verses that say:

قُلْ تَعَالَوْاْ أَتْلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ أَلاَّ تُشْرِكُواْ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَلاَ تَقْتُلُواْ أَوْلاَدَكُم مِّنْ إمْلاَقٍ نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُكُمْ وَإِيَّاهُمْ وَلاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَلاَ تَقْتُلُواْ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللّهُ إِلاَّ بِالْحَقِّ ذَلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُمْ بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

“We provide for you”, [Al-An’aam: 151]

وَلَا تَمُدَّنَّ عَيْنَيْكَ إِلَى مَا مَتَّعْنَا بِهِ أَزْوَاجًا مِّنْهُمْ زَهْرَةَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنيَا لِنَفْتِنَهُمْ فِيهِ وَرِزْقُ رَبِّكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَبْقَى

“ The provision of your Lord”, [Taha: 131]

وَإِذِ اسْتَسْقَى مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ فَقُلْنَا اضْرِب بِّعَصَاكَ الْحَجَرَ فَانفَجَرَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْناً قَدْ عَلِمَ كُلُّ أُنَاسٍ مَّشْرَبَهُمْ كُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ مِن رِّزْقِ اللَّهِ وَلاَ تَعْثَوْاْ فِي الأَرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ

“Eat an drink from the rizq of Allah”. [Al-baqarah: 60]

In all of these ayaat, rizq is ascribed and attributed to Allah; and this gives the meaning that does need interpretation that Allah alone is the Razzaq, and that rizq is in his Hand.

Therefore, it is obliged to believe that Allah is that Who provides to the creatures, because the evidence is definite in proof and definite in meaning. So, belief in it is fard, and disbelief in it is kufr. Thus, whoever does not believe that Allah is the Razzaq would have disbelieved, good forbids.

This is the issue of rizq regarding the belief, and the evidence. However, Allah (swt), beside that He commanded the belief in that He is the razzaq, He ordered man to strive to obtain this rizq. He (swt) says:

هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ ذَلُولًا فَامْشُوا فِي مَنَاكِبِهَا وَكُلُوا مِن رِّزْقِهِ وَإِلَيْهِ النُّشُورُ

“He it is Who has made the earth subservient to you, so walk in its paths and eat of His providence.” [Al-Mulk: 15]

فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلَاةُ فَانتَشِرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَابْتَغُوا مِن فَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

“And when the prayer is ended, then disperse in the land and seek of Allah’s bounty.” [Al-Jumu’ah: 10]

He (swt) ordered, in these two verses, the strife for earning the rizq. If this order of strife for earning the rizq is linked with the ayaat that state Allah is the Razzaq, then the meaning of that Allah is the Razzaq becomes clear, and the meaning of belief in that Allah is the Razzaq is explained. The first ayaat, all of them decide firmly that Allah is the Razzaq, ie He is the One Who gives the rizq, and not man. While these two verses command the work to earn the rizq of Allah.

Accordingly, the meaning of that Allah is the Razzaq is that He alone gives the rizq, and nobody else. However, the way of earning this rizq is that people walk in the paths of the land, and spread in it, ie they work to earn this rizq. Thus, Allah is the Razzaq, and He is the One Who gives the rizq to that who strives for it. This is because He said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِينُ

“Lo! Allah is the Razzaq.”
[Ath-Thariyat: 58}

هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ ذَلُولًا فَامْشُوا فِي مَنَاكِبِهَا وَكُلُوا مِن رِّزْقِهِ وَإِلَيْهِ النُّشُورُ

“Aso walk in its paths and eat of His rizq.”
[Al-Mulk: 15]

And He as well said:

فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلَاةُ فَانتَشِرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَابْتَغُوا مِن فَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

“then disperse in the land and seek of Allah’s bounty.”
[Al-Jumu’ah: 10]

Thus, the two verses explain and manifest the meaning of the fact that Allah is the Razzaq; and accordingly, the meaning of Allah is the Razzaq is that rizq is in the hand of Allah, but the way of obtaing it is the strive.

Thus, the issue includes two matters: The rizq, and the way of obtaining it. The matter that is obliged to believe in is the rizq, and not the way of obtaining it. What is commanded to strive for is the way of obtaining the rizq, and not the rizq itself. Therefore, the belief in that Allah is the Razzaq does not mean that He pursues supplying the rizq to the creatures so as to earn from it. It rather means that the rizq, which the creatures btain, they earn it from Allah, and not from anybody else. So, they do not provide to themselves, in terms of originating the rizq for themselves, but rather Allah alone is the One Who generated it to them, and He is the One Who provided to them. They only undertook the way by which they obtained their rizq from Allah. So, when the businessman pursues trading and obtains wealth, he would have undertook the way by which rizq is obtained. As regards the rizq, which is the profit, he did not originate it; he rather undertook the way by which he can reach to it, while the one who gave him the profit is Allah (swt).

This is what is indicated by the ayaat of Qur’an, which are dfinite in proof and definite in meaning. They are ayaat regarding belief (in rizq) and ayaat of work. They are ayaat in which Allah commanded us to believe that He is te Razzaq, and there is no at all a Razzaq other than him; and other ayaat in which He commanded us to obtain His rizq by walking in the paths of land and spread in it, ie to strive.

Thus, He showed us that there is rizq, and there is a way to obtain it; so the rizq is from Allah, and the way to obtain it is that man stives. What is commanded to believe in is that rizq is from Allah, which is from the ‘aqaa’id. The fact that the way to obtain it is that man strives is not commanded to believe in; it is rather commanded to undertake, for it is from the ahkaam shar’iyyah and not from the ‘aqaa’id. Since belief (iman) is the decisive conviction that agrees with reality and based on evidence, the issue of rizq became confused to many people. This is because they did not distinguish between the rizq and the way of its earning, and also because they observed, from the reality of the rizq, that it does not come except through the strife for it. Therefore, the proper understanding of the issue became confused to them. Consequently, Muslims who believe that rizq is from Allah only submitted with that, so they believed in it the same way they believe in the Day of Judgment, being one of the unssen/transcendental matters (mughayyabat). So, they could not comprehend the reality of rizq being in the hand of Allah, and not in the hand of man. Instead, they had the reality of rizq being in the hand of man; so they rejected this reality, and believed in what the ayaat indicate.

As for the Muslims that belief did not penetrate deep in their hearts, they pretended to have submitted that rizq is in the hand of Allah. However, their conduct indicated they believe that they bring the rizq, for they could not comprehend the reality of rizq being in the hand of Allah, and not in the hand of man. They were rather firmly convinced that the reality, which they have, confirms that man is the one who provides himself. Thus, the issue of iman in rizq lacked the comprehension of reality that must be convinced of it decisively, whether with the believers (mu’minoon) or with Muslims. That led to this mixing and confusion in understanding the meaning of rizq being in the hand of Allah, and consequently to the mixing and confusion in the iman in rizq.

What made the people not understand the reality of rizq being in the hand of Allah is that they did not understand the reality of the way of obtaining rizq. This led to not understanding the reality of the fact that Allah (swt) is the Razzaq. They have observed by themselves, and touched by their hands, that strife for rizq is the one that brings the rizq, and without strife (sa’y) for rizq there would be no rizq. So, they thought strife for rizq is the cause (sabab) of rizq. Since the cause produces the effect (musabbab), then rizq comes from strife for it, and not from Allah. This is what they witness, and this is what they concluded through observation and sensation. Therefore, they believed in that, because it agrees with the reality. Their belief in that Allah is the Razzaq remained theoretical, because they witnessed the reality is different to it. All of this is because they thought that strife (sa’y) for earning the rizq is the cause (sabab) of the rizq. This is the reason of the mixing and confusion in the people’s understanding of the meaning that the Razzaq is Allah, and consequently this is the reason of mixing and confusion in the iman in rizq.

In reality, the strife (sa’y) is not the cause of the rizq. This is because the cause (sabab) produces the effect (musabbab) definitely; and the effect (musabbab) does not result except from its cause (sabab). So, the knife is the cause of cutting, for it is the one that cuts. Similarly, fire is the cause of burning, for it is the one that makes fire. Thus, there would be no cutting without a knife, ie a sharp tool, and there would be no burning with a fire, ie a material that makes burning. This is the cause (sabab). If the strife (sa’y) for earning the rizq were the same, then it would have been the cause (sabab) of rizq, and the reality would have shown that strife is the one that bring rizq, the same as the knife makes cutting and the fire makes burning. However, strife for obtaining rizq is not like that. In other words, strife for rizq is not like the knife in relation to cutting, and nor like the fire in relation to making burning. This is because there might be strife for obtaining rizq, but rizqdoes not come; and rizq might come without strife for obtaining it. In other words, the cause might happen, but the effect does not; and the effect might happen, but from other than its cause, even without any cause. This definitely indicates that strife (sa’y) is not the cause (sabab) of the rizq.

There are abundant examples in life that indicate this. A businessman might strive for profit, but his trade might lose or do not profit. Here there was strife, but there was no rizq, ie there was a cause, but it did not produce the effect. Since it did not produce, then it is not a cause, because the cause produces the effect definitely. Likewise, an industrialist might build a factory to earn wealth, but his goods might become unsalable in the market, so he either loses or does not profit. This is a strife that did not produce rizq. If the stife were the cause of the rizq, then it would have produced rizq, because the cause produces the effect definitely. An oil exploration company might drill for oil for many years, and spend huge funds, but does not find oil, or does not find it in commercial quantity; so it does not produce oil, and its strife fails. This is a strife that did not produce rizq. Thus, there are many examples in which the strife did not produce rizq. Therefore, strife for rizq is not cause for rizq, because the cause produces the effect, and it does not fail to do so at all; if it failed to produce the effect, even for once, then it is not cause.

On the other hand, an inheritor would have rizq without striving for it. If stife were the cause of rizq, then rizq would have not come without strife, because the effect does not result except from the cause that produces it. So, production of wealth by inheritance, and without strife, is evidence that strife is not the cause of rizq, for rizq happened without strife. Similarly, the person who takes the luqtah (article found in the road), the gift, the zakah or the charity, he got rizq without strife. Likewise, the one who gets a verdict of nafaqah (financial maintenance) to his advantage against whom is responsible about the nafaqah, and he collects it, would have rizq without strife. This is the same case of the disabled, infirmed and decrepit people, when the State looks after them; or those whom the State grants land. All such people obtained rizq without strife. There are more examples, where rizq happened without stife.

This proves in a definite way that strife for rizq is not cause of rizq, ie it is not the one that brought rizq. This is because it is not like the knife, which is the one that made the cutting, and nor like the fire, which was the one that made burning. Therefore, strife is not the one that brought rizq, because it is not its cause.

That is why it appeared to the people that strife is what brought rizq when they have observed in many incidents that strife produced rizq, and they observed there would be no rizq without strife; so they thought the strife is the cause of rizq. Hoever, the fact of the matter, there are many incidents in which there was strife, but there was no rizq from it; and there are many incidents in which rizq happened without strife. This definitely indicates that strife is not the cause of rizq, and accordingly it is not the one that brought rizq. This fact removes the obscurity, and the doubt ceases, because it was proved by the definite evidence that strife is not the cause of rizq. Once strife is negated from being the cause of rizq, then it is disproved that it brought it, and becomes understood that stife is not what brought the rizq.

Two questions arise: Firstly: If strife is not the cause of rizq, though it was observed from most of life incidents that strife produces rizq, and without strife there would have been no rizq, then what does stife represent? Secondly: If strife is not the one that produced rizq, and rizq does not come by itself, then who brought it?

The answer to the first question is that strife is one of the cases in which rizq comes; rizq might come through it or might not. Thus, they are circumstances and situations in which rizq happens, but it does not definitely happen. They are situations, the one who undertakes them usually obtain rizq, but they do not produce rizq definitely. The case might take place, but the rizq does no result; and the rizq might come without the occurrence of any of the cases in which rizq happens. It is like the army regarding taking of power, it is one of the cases in which power is siezed. However, the army could give the power but the power does not exist; and the power could be obtained without an army. Another example is when the weak seeks the help of the powerful; this is one of the cases by which the weak obtains his need. However, he might seek the help of the powerful but his need is not fulfilled, and his need might be fulfilled without seeking the help of the powerful. Superiority of the force of an army over another in war is one of the cases in which victory is reached; however there might be superiority (in force), but victory does not take place; victory might even be for the less powerful army. As Allah (swt) says:

فَلَمَّا فَصَلَ طَالُوتُ بِالْجُنُودِ قَالَ إِنَّ اللّهَ مُبْتَلِيكُم بِنَهَرٍ فَمَن شَرِبَ مِنْهُ فَلَيْسَ مِنِّي وَمَن لَّمْ يَطْعَمْهُ فَإِنَّهُ مِنِّي إِلاَّ مَنِ اغْتَرَفَ غُرْفَةً بِيَدِهِ فَشَرِبُواْ مِنْهُ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً مِّنْهُمْ فَلَمَّا جَاوَزَهُ هُوَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ مَعَهُ قَالُواْ لاَ طَاقَةَ لَنَا الْيَوْمَ بِجَالُوتَ وَجُنودِهِ قَالَ الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُم مُّلاَقُو اللّهِ كَم مِّن فِئَةٍ قَلِيلَةٍ غَلَبَتْ فِئَةً كَثِيرَةً بِإِذْنِ اللّهِ وَاللّهُ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ

“How often a small group has defeated a mighty group by Allah’s leave.” [Al-Baqarah: 249]

This applies to all cases, which are situations and circumstances that are made available to achieve a matter; but because they are not causes, they might be obtained but the matter is not achieved; even the matter could be achieved without obtaining such cases. So, these cases are not the cause of the matter, therefore they are not what brought the matter and executed it.

Stife for earning rizq is one of the cases, and not a cause. Observation focused on one of the incidents, but judgment was on all incidents, so it was wrong. This is because, in reality, there are many incidents in which strife did not produc erizq, and there are incidents in which rizq results without strife. This constitutes evidence on the error of the judgment that comes from incomplete observation.

Therefore, the proper understanding of the reality of the way of obtaing rizq, which is the strife, is that this way is not the cause of rizq; it is rather one of the cases of (obtaining) rizq. This is the reality of the way of obtaining rizq, ie the reality of strife for rizq.

The answer to the second question is that, from the following and examination of all the types of the cases in which strife produced rizq, the cases in which the srife did not produce rizq, and the cases in which rizq occurred without strife, it is observed that there is behind these cases some one other than these cases that controls the rizq, because these cases are not the causes. Thus, the one that controls the rizq is that which gives rizq and prevernts it.

The existence of the one that controls the rizq is realised by sensation, from the existence of its effect. This is like the realisation of the existence of Allah from the existence of His creatures. Control in rizq is sensed and observed in the difference of results despite the presence of the same cases. This is like strife for obtaining the rizq, and the occurrence of rizq without strife, which is sensed and observed. Thus, the results of obtaing rizq by strife, not obtaining it by strife, and obtaining it without strife, all of this is obvious control of the rizq; therefore, the control (of rizq) is sensed through observation and realisation.

This control did not definitely result from the cases, and nor it result from itself. This is because it is an action, so it needs a doer/actor. This doer of the control over the rizq is the one that gives rizq and prevents it. Accordingly, the reality of that which gives rizq is not the way of obtaining it; rather there is some one behind these cases that control of rizq.

As regards that which controls rizq, the ayaat of Qur’an, definite in proof and definite in meaning, state that the Razzaq is Allah (swt). This is the reality of the fact that the Razzaq is Allah (swt): It is sensed and observed there is control over rizq, that comes behind the cases in which rizq is obtained; and that which controls of rizq gives it and prevents it, who is Allah (swt), as indicated by the definite evidence. Thus, the belief in that Allah (swt) is the Razzaq is a decisive conviction, which agrees with reality, and based on evidence.

This is the issue of rizq, this is its reality, and this is its definite evidence. Belief in it must be in this manner. This belief is what broadens the vision regarding the rizq, and strengthens the resolve for obtaining it, without being tied up by any of the cases. A quick look at the reality of life shows that belief in that strife is what brings rizq has a great effect on the rizq, and it leads to narrowing the vision regarding it, and makes it scarce for those who have such belief. On the other hand, it shows that belief in that Allah (swt) is the Razzaq, and that stife is just one of the cases of (obtaining) rizq has a great effect on the rizq, and it leads to widening the vision regarding the rizq, and making it abundant for those who have such belief.

The employees are most of people who believe that strufe is what obtains rizq. This sort of belief makes them believe that if they left their jobs they would die out of hunger. Therefore, they live with narrow vision regarding the earning of wealth, and they live a striatened life irrespective of their high jobs.

While, on the other hand, the merchants, farmers, industrialists and their likes are most of the people who understand that their strife is just one of the cases by which rizq comes. Even if they did not believe in that the Razzaq is Allah (swt), they realise that, behind the cases by which they obtain the rizq, there is a power that controls their provisions. Therefore, we find them of broader in vision regarding the rizq. Regardless of their little means, we find them of better rizq than the employees and those who believe their strife is what brings rizq.

Therefore, existence of belief in that the Razzaq is Allah (swt), beside the work according the way that Allah explained for obtaining the rizq, would not call for laziness or complacence; on contrary it broadens the vision regarding the rizq, and makes wealth abundant in the hands of these believers.

11 comments:

Anonymous said...

Salam
I read this article and made me confused .In book Nizamul islam , we studied al qadar. The same issue we discussed undername of al qadar ie death and rizk in hand of allah .Allah knows about them ie where death occur or rizk will be obtained.
In discussion , it was mentioned that both rizk and death in hand of Allah, we have to follow hukum saving life and earning money .It was discussed under al qadar context .
Still same points have been mentioned in this article bringing more ayat but contents are same , then how can we say that this issue is different than al qadar .
of course, in sense of cause and effect , rizk is different from this angle because of effects . Cause will not enevitable produce rizk .
Although it is very good article give more depth on issue of rizk and bring out people form false conception including myself.
However I would like little explanation regarding"This is because al-qadar is that Allah knows so and so matter will happen before it happened, so it would have been written and ordained. As for the rizq, it is not only Allah knew so and so person will be given rizq, so the rizq would then be written and ordained, but beside the fact He ordained the rizq is that Allah (swt) is the Razzaq (Sustainer) and not the servant"
salam
Abumohammad

Abu Ismael al-Beirawi said...

The meaning of al-qadr here is not the meaning in the context of 'al-qada wal qadr', al-qadr has different meanings in the language, the context of al-qadr here means the knowledge of Allah (swt). Therefore there is no contradiction. Please check the following article which explains the different meanings of al-qadr and their utilisation in the text:

http://abuismael.blogspot.com/2006/07/understanding-subject-of-al-qada-wal.html

Anonymous said...

a few issues:

1)is the money i have in my bank my rizk or does it become my rizk when i spend it.

2) when i give the wealth in my possession to the needy have i given my rizk or was that never my rizk in the first place i.e. it was the needies rizk all along.

jazaks

Anonymous said...

On sunnipath, http://qa.sunnipath.com/issue_view.asp?HD=1&ID=1933&CATE=95
it says that from ahadith "Service to parents results in increase in rizq (earning a livelihood) and in longer life." But I thought that the rizq and the ajal were fixed by Allah (swt) before we were born, written in the Lawh al Mahfooz. How does one interpret these ahadith?

Abu Ismael al-Beirawi said...

But in Shakhsiya Volume 1 by Sheikh Taqi ud-deen an-Nabhani in the section, "Rizq is in the hands of Allah (swt) only" it says:

"Does the provision for a person include everything he owns even if he has not made use of it, or is it limited to only that which he has made use of. The ayaat of the Qur'an suggest that the provision for human beings consists of everything man owns, whether he has derived benefit from it or not"

Regarding the ahadith about the increasing of rizq they don't contradict the issue of what is written in written in the al-Lawh al Mahfooz (the protected decree). As it is the expression of the knowledge of Allah (swt) and He (swt) knew what we are going to do by our own free will before we were born and thus knew whether we would give service to our parents or not and thus included that in the Lawh al Mahfooz.

Anonymous said...

By the way, was Al Lawh Al Mahfouz writtten before the creation of the Universe or is there one Lawah al Mahfouz for each human being that is created just before the creation of that human being?

Abu Ismael al-Beirawi said...

The Lawh al Mahfouz is the protected tablet that was written before the creation of the Universe as is mentioned in various texts. Please refer to the following article that mentions some of them:

http://abuismael.blogspot.com/2006/11/al-qadaria-al-ghaibiya-fatalism.html

Anonymous said...

Salam,

Interesting.

Please check for errors before publishing it.

I think an Arab wrote or translated it.

Anonymous said...

I need to understand something which is bothering me.

Allah (swt) is the cause of rizq.

So I'm working, ie. seeking my rizq, and after a month work my boss won't pay my salary and that particular month I don't get any rizq from anywhere, even though I have asked friends and family for help.

My question is this: How was Allah (swt) the cause behind this event?

"How" being the keyword.

It is not possible to sense the "how" directly in the reality so it must be from the issue of Al-Ghaib (the unseen matters) and if that is the case, then the "how" becomes impermissible to ask about maybe? But what is perhaps bothering me is that my boss clearly has a free will, so he was not forced to do this, so did Allah (swt) "implant" the idea in his mind or "how" does this work without affecting the free will?

Anonymous said...

"..and the cases in which rizq occurred without strife."

One could argue: "No such cases exists. Even in the examples mentioned above, like the person who inherits, or the person who receive financial support by social services, or the person who discovers a treasure. In all these cases strife do exist, only it is a very limited strife. Hence, some kind of movement must exist otherwise nothing will come to you."

One could argue that this is true with regard to children. You cannot get any children whatsoever without any strife.

However, the argument is flawed. A woman might get a child without any strife on her part. We know of one such example in the case of the mother of Jesus (asws). And also in some cases where women get impregnated against their will (rape for example) without their consent, effort, or any strife on their part. On the contrary strife is against it, yet pregnancy occurs. It even occurs, though extremely rare, against males.

One could argue that even a person on social service would not receive anything if he simply refuses to leave the house and lies down on the floor. Hence, strife is needed.

Again the argument is flawed. Cases do exist in which no strife and no movement exists whatsoever, yet the person receives rizq. One such example is a comatose person who wakes up after being comatized for many years. No movements or strife existed on his part whatsoever. The person might even wake up to realize that while in a coma he inherited a fortune from his uncle, the money is already present in his bank account, only waiting to be used.

Even though these cases are extreme, they do still prove that strife is not the cause of rizq and that we cannot state, that a person who doesn't strife don't get any rizq.

Islamic Revival said...

Salams, you are right to say the 'how' is beyond the ability of the mind to comprehend as it is to do with Allah (swt) who is beyond perception, therefore it is impossible to think about it.

However, we can easily appreciate that there are many possible means by which rizk could come to you in ways other than someone giving it to you. Remember what is imposed upon man is the rizk not the actions that others do by their free will, so in the example of your boss you are thinking how would that rizk come to me unless he gives it to me but in the reality there are numerous ways that it could come. Remember the example of Imam Abu Hanifah who said to the thief: "why are you stealing from your own rizk" explaining to him that the rizk would come to him in a halal way so there is no need for him to steal to receive it.