Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatahu,
Have the Khulafa' al-Rashidun reportedly raised the banner (Rayat al-Uqab) and the flag (Al-Liwa') of Islam? Is this stated in the sources? Barakallahu feekum.
From Al-Wathiq Bi Nasrillah (The one confident in the victory from Allah)
Wa Alaikum Assalaam wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatahu,
Yes, my brother, the Khulafa' al-Rashidun used the banner and the flag of Islam. The evidence for that is what was narrated from the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم, that his banner was al-Uqab and his flag was white. From this evidence is the following:
1. An-Nasa'i reported in his Sunan al-Kubra, and al-Tirmidhi from Jabir, that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم:
«دَخَلَ مَكَّةَ وَلِوَاؤُهُ أَبْيَضُ»
"He entered Mecca and his banner was white."
Ibn Abi Shaybah in his work reported from 'Amrah, who said:
«كَانَ لِوَاءُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَبْيَضَ»
"The flag of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم was white."
2. It is reported by Ahmad, Abu Dawood, and An-Nasa'i in his Sunan al-Kubra from Yunus Bin 'Obaid, whose master was Mohammed Bin al-Qasim, who said: "Muhammad Bin al-Qasim sent me to Al-Bara' Bin 'Azib to ask him what the banner of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم is. He said:
«كَانَتْ سَوْدَاءَ مُرَبَّعَةً مِنْ نَمِرَةٍ»
"It was a black square of fabric."
3. At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah reported from Ibn Abbas, who said:
«كَانَتْ رَايَةُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ سَوْدَاءَ، وَلِوَاؤُهُ أَبْيَضَ»
"The banner of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم was black and his flag was white."
4. Ibn Abi Shaybah reported in his work from al-Hassan, who said:
«كَانَتْ رَايَةُ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ سَوْدَاءَ تُسَمَّى الْعُقَابَ»
"The banner of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was black and called 'al-Uqab'."
This suffices as evidence to show that the Khulafa' al-Rashidun followed the example of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم with the banner and the flag. They would not leave a matter announced by the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم except that they would abide by it. There is no need for further research on the banner and flag under the reign of the Kulafa' al-Rashidun, for two reasons:
First: Because the Hukm Shar'i is taken from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم.
Second: The Khulafa' al-Rashidun did not leave a remarkable act done by the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم such as the banner and the flag.
Ata Bin Khalil Abu Al-Rashtah
15th Rajab 1434 AH
25th May 2013 CE