Friday, September 14, 2012

Love of Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saw)

The following is the translation of a chapter of the book 'The Essential Elements of the Islamic Disposition (Nafsiyah)' issued by Hizb ut Tahrir and published in Beirut, Lebanon in 1425 AH.


Al-Azhari said: “A servant’s love for Allah سبحانه وتعالى and His Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم means obeying them and following their command.” Al-Baydaawi said: “Love is the will to obey.” Ibn ‘Arafah said: “Love in the language of Arabs means willing a thing uprightly.” Az-Zajjaaj said: “Man’s love for Allah سبحانه وتعالى and His Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم is to obey them and to accept what Allah سبحانه وتعالى has commanded and the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم has brought.”
Allah’s سبحانه وتعالى love for His servant means forgiveness, acceptance and reward. Al-Baydaawi said: “He loves you and that he will forgive you means, He will be pleased with you.” Al-Azhari said: “Love of Allah, for His servant, is His blessing of his servant with forgiveness.” He سبحانه وتعالى said:
]فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ الْكَافِرِينَ[
“Allah does not love the disbelievers.” [TMQ Aali ‘Imrān: 32]
i.e. He will not forgive them. Sufyan b. ‘Unaynah said: “He loves you means, He will be close to you. Love is closeness. Allah سبحانه وتعالى does not love the Kafirīn means He سبحانه وتعالى will not bring the Kafirīn close (to Him).” Al-Baghawi said: “Love of Allah سبحانه وتعالى for the believers means His سبحانه وتعالى commendation, reward and forgiveness for them.” Az-Zajjaaj said: “Love of Allah سبحانه وتعالى for His سبحانه وتعالى Creation means His سبحانه وتعالى forgiveness for them and His سبحانه وتعالى blessings, mercy, forgiveness and good commendation of them.”
However what concerns us here is the servant’s love for Allah سبحانه وتعالى and His Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم. This love in the above meaning is obligatory. Since love is an inclination (mayl) which shapes the behavioural disposition (nafsiyyah) of man. These inclinations can either be instinctive (ghareezi) having no relationship to a concept, such as man’s inclination towards ownership, love for survival, justice, family and children etc. They might also be motives linked to concepts, which then define the type of inclination. The American Indians did not like the immigrants who came from Europe whilst the Ansar loved those who migrated to them. The love of Allah سبحانه وتعالى and His Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم is the type Allah سبحانه وتعالى has linked to a Sharī’ah concept thereby making it obligatory. The evidence for this is the Book of Allah سبحانه وتعالى:
He سبحانه وتعالى said:
]وَمِنْ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ أَندَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِلَّهِ[
“And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah. But those who believe, love Allah more (than anything else).” [TMQ Al-Baqarah: 165]
It means the believers’ love of Allah سبحانه وتعالى is more than Mushriks’ love to the rivals of Allah سبحانه وتعالى.
He سبحانه وتعالى said:
]قُلْ إِنْ كَانَ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ وَإِخْوَانُكُمْ وَأَزْوَاجُكُمْ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ وَأَمْوَالٌ اقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا وَتِجَارَةٌ تَخْشَوْنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَاكِنُ تَرْضَوْنَهَا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنْ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَجِهَادٍ فِي سَبِيلِهِ فَتَرَبَّصُوا حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ وَاللَّهُ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ[
“Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you have delight in are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger, and striving hard and fighting in His Cause, then wait until Allah brings about His Decision (torment). And Allah guides not the people who are Al-Fasiqun (the rebellious, disobedient to Allah).” [TMQ At-Tawbah: 24]
As for the evidences from the Sunnah they are the following:
Anas (ra) narrated:

}أن رجلاً سأل النبي r عن الساعة، فقال: متى الساعة؟ قال: وماذا أعددت لها؟ قال: لا شيء، إلا أني أحب الله ورسوله، فقال أنت مع من أحببت. قال أنس فما فرحنا بشيء فرحنا بقول النبي r أنت مع من أحببت. قال أنس فأنا أحب النبي r وأبا بكر وعمر وأرجو أن أكون معهم بحبي إياهم، وإن لم أعمل بمثل أعمالهم. {
 “That a man asked the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم about the final Hour. He asked: when is the final hour? He said: What have you prepared for it? He said: nothing, but I love Allah and His Messenger. He said: you will be with the one you love. Anas said: nothing made us so overjoyed more than when we heard the Prophet saying you will be with the one you love. Anas said: I love the Prophet, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and I wish to join them because of my love for them even though I have not done as many good deeds as them.”
                                                                              (Agreed upon)
Anas (ra) narrated that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:
}ثلاث من كن فيه، وجد حلاوة الإيمان: من كان الله ورسوله أحب إليه مما سواهما، وأن يحب المرء لا يحبه إلا لله، وأن يكره أن يعود في الكفر كما يكره أن يقذف في النار. {
“There are three things whoever obtains them he will experience the sweetness of belief — that Allah and His Messenger are more beloved to him than anything else; that he loves a man only for the sake of Allah; and that he dislikes the thought of reverting to disbelief as much as he would dislike being cast into the Fire.” (Agreed upon)
Anas (ra) narrated that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:
}لا يؤمن عبد حتى أكون أحب إليه من أهله وماله والناس أجمعين. {
“None of you would be considered a believer until I become more beloved to him than his family, wealth and all the people.” (Agreed upon)
The companions of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم were very much concerned about the application of this duty. They used to compete in attaining this honour hoping that they would be the ones that Allah سبحانه وتعالى and His Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم love. Anas (ra) narrated that on the day of the battle of Uhud:
}لما كان يوم أحد، انهزم الناس عن النبي، وأبو طلحة بين يدي النبي مجوّب به عليه بحجفة له، وكان أبو طلحة رجلاً رامياً شديد القِدّ، يكسر يومئذ قوسين أو ثلاثاً، وكان الرجل يمر، معه الجعبة من النبل، فيقول انشرها لأبي طلحة. فأشرف النبي ينظر إلى القوم، فيقول أبو طلحة: يا نبي الله بأبي أنت وأمي، لا تشرف يصيبك سهم من سهام القوم، نحري دون نحرك .... {
That the people ran away, leaving the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم, but Abu- Talha was shielding the Prophet with his shield in front of him. Abu Talha was a strong, experienced archer who used to keep his arrow bow strong and well stretched. On that day he broke two or three arrow bows. If any man passed by carrying a quiver full of arrows, the Prophet would say to him, “Empty it in front of Abu Talha.” When the Prophet started looking at the enemy by raising his head, Abu Talha said, “O Allah’s Prophet! Let my parents be sacrificed for your sake! Please don’t raise your head and make it visible, lest an arrow of the enemy should hit you. Let my neck and chest be wounded instead of yours.” (Agreed upon)
It was narrated that Qays said:
}رأيت يد طلحة شلاء وقى بها النبي يوم أحد. {
“I saw Talha’s hand paralysed, the one which he had protected the Prophet (from an arrow).”       Reported by al-Bukharī
In a long hadīth narrated by Ka’b b. Malik about the three who stayed behind from the expedition of Tabuk Ka’b he says:
}... حتى إذا طال علي ذلك من جفوة الناس، مشيت حتى تسورت جدار حائط أبي قتادة، وهو ابن عمي، وأحب الناس إلي، فسلمت عليه، فوالله ما رد علي السلام، فقلت: يا أبا قتادة، أنشدك بالله، هل تعلمني أحب الله ورسوله؟ فسكت فعدت له فنشدته، فسكت، فعدت له فنشدته، فقال: الله ورسوله أعلم، ففاضت عيناي، وتوليت حتى تسورت الجدار. {
“When this period of estrangement lengthened, I set out to walk until I climbed upon the wall of Abu Qatadah’s garden. He was my cousin and amongst the most beloved of people to me. I conveyed the greeting upon him, and by Allah -he did not reciprocate the greeting upon me. Hence, I said: “O Abu Qatadah: I implore you by Allah, are you aware that I love Allah and His Messenger?” He remained silent. I appealed to him by Allah a second time, however he remained silent. I appealed to him a third time. Then he responded: “Allah and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) know better .” Thereupon tears flowed from my eyes, I turned away and climbed over the wall.” (Agreed upon)
Sahl b. Sa’d narrated that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said on the day of Khaybar:
}حدّثنا قتيبة بن سعيد حدّثنا يعقوب بن عبد الرحمن عن أبي حازم قال أخبرني سهل بن سعد رضي الله عنه أنّ رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم قال يوم خيبر لأُعْطِيَنَّ هَذِهِ الرَّايَةَ غَدًا رَجُلاً يَفْتَحُ اللَّهُ عَلَى يَدَيْهِ يُحِبُّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيُحِبُّهُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ قَالَ فَبَاتَ النَّاسُ يَدُوكُونَ لَيْلَتَهُمْ أَيُّهُمْ يُعْطَاهَا فَلَمَّا أَصْبَحَ النَّاسُ غَدَوْا عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كُلُّهُمْ يَرْجُو أَنْ يُعْطَاهَا فَقَالَ أَيْنَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ فَقِيلَ هُوَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ يَشْتَكِي عَيْنَيْهِ قَالَ فَأَرْسَلُوا إِلَيْهِ فَأُتِيَ بِهِ فَبَصَقَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي عَيْنَيْهِ وَدَعَا لَهُ فَبَرَأَ حَتَّى كَأَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ بِهِ وَجَعٌ فَأَعْطَاهُ الرَّايَةَ فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أُقَاتِلُهُمْ حَتَّى يَكُونُوا مِثْلَنَا فَقَالَ انْفُذْ عَلَى رِسْلِكَ حَتَّى تَنْزِلَ بِسَاحَتِهِمْ ثُمَّ ادْعُهُمْ إِلَى الإسْلامِ وَأَخْبِرْهُمْ بِمَا يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ حَقِّ اللَّهِ فِيهِ فَوَاللَّهِ لأنْ يَهْدِيَ اللَّهُ بِكَ رَجُلاً وَاحِدًا خَيْرٌ لَكَ مِنْ أَنْ يَكُونَ لَكَ حُمْرُ النَّعَمِ. {
“Qutaybah bin Said informed us, Ya’qūb bin Abdur-Rahman informed us from Aby Haazim, he said Sahl bin Sa’d (ra) told me that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said on the day of Khayber: I shall give this banner to a man who loves Allah and His Messenger and they (Allah and His Messenger) love him.” All the Muslims came forward in the following morning hoping to be granted the honour of carrying the banner. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم called for ‘Ali bin Abi Talib. He was told, O Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم, his eyes hurt. He said, call for him. He was brought to him, and the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم spat in his eyes and made du’aa’ for him, so he was cured as if he had no pain before. Then he handed the banner to him. ‘Ali, on his part, pledged he would fight the enemies until they embraced Islam. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم answered him saying: “Take things easy and invite them to accept Islam and brief them on their duties towards Allah. I swear by Allah that if only one person should be guided at your hands, that would surely outweigh the best of our camels.”         (Agreed upon)
Ibn Hibban reported in his Sahīh:
}... فرجع عروة بن مسعود إلى أصحابه، فقال: أي قوم، والله لقد وفدت إلى الملوك، ووفدت إلى كسرى وقيصر والنجاشي، والله ما رأيت ملكاً قط يعظمه أصحابه، ما يعظم أصحاب محمد محمداً، ووالله، إن يتنخم نخامة إلا وقعت في كف رجل منهم، فدلك بها وجهه وجلده، وإذا أمرهم ابتدروا أمره، وإذا توضأ اقتتلوا على وضوئه، وإذا تكلم خفضوا أصواتهم عنده، وما يحدون إليه النظر تعظيماً له ... {
“…When Urwah went back to the Quraysh, he said, I have been to the courts of the kings and have seen the splendor of the Caesar and the Chosroes and the Negus. But never have I seen any king being so revered as Muhammad صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم by his companions. By Allah, had he spat out mucus and it just fell on the hands of one of his companionshe would have rubbed it on his face and skin. When he ordered them with something they rushed to carry it out and if he made ablution they would fight for the used water. When he spoke they lowered their voices and they did not look sharp at him, as sign of reverence to him …”
Muhammad b. Sirīn said:
}تذاكر رجال على عهد عمر ، فكأنهم فضلوا عمر على أبي بكر رضي الله عنهما، قال فبلغ ذلك عمر بن الخطاب (رضي الله عنه)، فقال: والله لليلة من أبي بكر خير من آل عمر، لقد خرج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم لينطلق إلى الغار، ومعه أبو بكر، فجعل يمشي ساعة بين يديه، وساعة خلفه، حتى فطن له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم، فقال: يا أبا بكر مالك تمشي ساعة بين يدي وساعة خلفي: فقال: يا رسول الله أذكر الطلب فأمشي خلفك، ثم أذكر الرصد فأمشي بين يديك، فقال: يا أبا بكر لو كان شيء أحببتَ أن يكون بك دوني؟ قال: نعم، والذي بعثك بالحق، ما كانت لتكون من ملمة إلا أحببتُ أن تكون بي دونك، فلما انتهيا إلى الغار، قال أبو بكر: مكانك يا رسول الله، حتى استبرئ لك الغار، فدخل واستبرأه، حتى إذا كان في أعلاه، ذكر أنه لم يستبرئ الجحر، فقال: مكانك يا رسول الله، حتى استبرئ الجحر، فدخل واستبرأه، ثم قال: انزل يا رسول الله، فنـزل، فقال عمر: والذي نفسي بيده، لتلك الليلة خير من آل عمر. {
People were reminiscing in the time of Umar (ra) as if they preferred Umar over Abu Bakr. When this news reached Umar b. al-Khattab (ra) he said: By Allah, a night with Abu Bakr is better than the family of ‘Umar. The Prophet went out with Abu Bakr towards the Cave of Thawr, Abu Bakr sometimes would go ahead of the Prophet and sometimes behind him. The Prophet saw his uneasiness. He asked Abu Bakr, “O Abu Bakr, What is the matter? Sometimes you are walking behind me and then sometimes you go ahead of me.” He replied, “O Messenger of Allah, when I think of the enemies that they might be pursuing you, I walk behind you, but when I think of some ambush I go in front of you.” So he said: O Abu Bakr! Do you wish that something happened to you rather than to me? He said, yes, by Him Who sent you with truth, I wish no hardship but occur to me rather than to you. It is also reported that when the two arrived at the cave of Thawr, Abu Bakr requested the Prophet to wait until he had searched and cleaned up the cave. He went in and searched it and came out after cleaning it up. Then he remembered that he had not properly searched one hole. He again requested the Prophet to wait a bit and went in to see it for the second time. After he was fully satisfied that the place was safe and had no harmful insects or reptiles he said: enter o Messenger of Allah. ‘Umar said: By the one in whose hands is my soul! That night was better than the family of ‘Umar.”
Reported by al-Hakim in his al-Mustadrak. He said the isnad is sound according to the condition of the two shaykhs ie. Al-Bukharī and Muslim, even though it is mursal. This mursal is of a type, which is accepted
Anas b. Malik (ra) narrated that:
}أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم أفرد يوم أحد في سبعة من الأنصار، ورجلين من قريش، فلما رهقوه قال: من يردهم عنا وله الجنة، أو هو رفيقي في الجنة، فتقدم رجل من الأنصار، فقاتل حتى قتل، ثم رهقوه أيضاً، فقال: من يردهم عنا وله الجنة، أو هو رفيقي في الجنة، فتقدم رجل من الأنصار، فقاتل حتى قتل، فلم يزل كذلك حتى قتل السبعة، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم لصاحبيه: ما أنصفنا أصحابنا. {
(When the enemy got the upper hand) on the day of the Battle of Uhud, the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم was left with only seven men from the Ansar and two men from the Quraysh. When the enemy advanced towards him and overwhelmed him, he said: Whoso turns them away from us will attain Paradise or will be my Companion in Paradise. A man from the Ansar came forward and fought (the enemy) until he was killed. The enemy advanced and overwhelmed him again and he repeated the words: Whoso turns them away, from us will attain Paradise or will be my Companion in Paradise. A man from the Ansar came forward and fought until he was killed. This state continued until the seven Ansar were killed (one after the other). Now, the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said to his two Companions: We have not done justice to our Companions.’ Reported by Muslim
‘Abdullah b. Hisham said:
}كنا مع النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم، وهو آخذ بيد عمر بن الخطاب، فقال له عمر: يا رسول الله لأنت أحب إلي من كل شيء إلا من نفسي، فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: لا، والذي نفسي بيده، حتى أكون أحب إليك من نفسك، فقال له عمر: فإنه الآن، والله لأنت أحب إلي من نفسي، فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: الآن يا عمر. {
We were with the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم when he took the hand of ‘Umar. Umar said: “I love you more than anything except my soul which is between my two sides.” The Prophet replied, “None of you will believe until I am dearer to him than his own soul.” ‘Umar said, “By the One who sent down the Book on you, I love you now more than my soul which is between my two sides.” The Prophet said, “‘Umar, now you have it!” Reported by al-Bukharī
An-Nawawi reported in his commentary (Sharh) of Sahīh Muslim the meaning of loving the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم on the authority of Sulayman al-Khattabi which states:
}... لا تصدُق في حبي حتى تفني في طاعتي نفسك، وتؤثر رضاي على هواك، وإن كان فيه هلاكك. {
“You will not be true in your love for me until you exhaust yourself in my obedience, until you prefer my pleasure over your whims even if it may lead to your death.”
Ibn Sirīn said: I said to ‘Ubaydah:
}عندنا من شعر النبي، أصبناه من قبل أنس أو من قبل أهل أنس، فقال: لأن تكون عندي شعرة منه أحب إلي من الدنيا وما فيها. {
We have some hair of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم, which we came to acquire through Anas or the family of Anas (ra). He said: that I should have a strand of hair of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم is dearer to me than the world and what it contains.’ Reported by al-Bukharī
‘Ayisha narrated: that Abu Bakr (ra) said:
}والذي نفسي بيده، لقرابة رسول الله أحب إلي أن أصل، من قرابتي. {
‘By the one in whose hand is my soul, maintaining relations with the relatives of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم is more dear to me than maintaining relations with my own relatives.’             Reported by al-Bukharī
‘Aiysha (may Allah be pleased with her) said: Hind bint ‘Utbah came and said:
}جاءت هند بنت عتبة قالت: يا رسول الله ما كان على ظهر الأرض من أهل خباء أحب إلى أن يذلوا من أهل خبائك، ثم ما أصبح اليوم على ظهر الأرض أهل خباء أحب إلي أن يعزوا من أهل خبائك... {
“O Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم, there was no family on the surface of the earth, I wish to have degraded more than I did your family. But today there is no family whom I wish to have been honoured more than yours.” (Agreed upon)
Tariq b. Shihab narrated that he heard Ibn Mas’ud saying:
}شهدت مع المقداد بن الأسود مشهداً، لأن أكون صاحبه أحب إلي مما عدل به، أتى النبي وهو يدعو على المشركين، فقال: لا نقول كما قال قوم موسى:( اذهب انت وربك فقاتلا) ، ولكنا نقاتل عن يمينك، وعن شمالك، وبين يديك، وخلفك، فرأيت النبي أشرق وجهه وسره، يعني قوله. {
“I witnessed Al-Miqdad b. al-Aswad in an event, which would have been dearer to me than anything had I been the hero of that scene. He (i.e. al-Miqdad) came to the Prophet while the Prophet was imploring Allah’s anger against the pagans. Al-Miqdad said, “We will not say as the People of Musa said: Go you and your Lord and fight you two.” [TMQ Al-Mā’idah:27]. But we shall fight on your right and on your left and in front of you and behind you.” I saw the face of the Prophet getting bright with happiness, for that saying delighted him.” Reported by al-Bukharī
‘Aay’ish narrated that Sa’d said:
}اللهم إنك تعلم أنه ليس أحد أحب إلي أن أجاهدهم فيك، من قوم كذبوا رسولك صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم وأخرجوه .... {
“O Allah! You know that there is nothing more beloved to me than to fight in Your Cause against those who disbelieved Your Messenger and turned him out of (Makkah)” (Agreed upon)
Abu Hurayrah (ra) narrated that Thumamah b. Uthal said:
}يا محمد، والله، ما كان على الأرض وجه أبغض إلي من وجهك، فقد أصبح وجهك أحب الوجوه إلي. والله، ما كان من دين أبغض إلي من دينك، فأصبح دينك أحب الدين إلي، والله، ما كان من بلد أبغض إلي من بلدك، فأصبح بلدك أحب البلاد إلي .... {
O Muhammad. By Allah There was not a face more hated to me than your face but your face has become the most beloved. By Allah! There was no Dīn more hated to me than your Dīn but your Dīn has become the most beloved to me. By Allah! There was no country more hated to me than your country but your country has become the most beloved to me…” (Agreed upon) 

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