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Humbleness towards the believers and sternness towards the disbelievers

The following is the translation of a chapter of the book 'The Essential Elements of the Islamic Disposition (Nafsiyah)' issued by Hizb ut Tahrir and published in Beirut, Lebanon in 1425 AH. 

Humility towards the believers and being stern towards the disbelievers is obligatory due to the saying of Allah سبحانه وتعالى:
]يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَنْ يَرْتَدَّ مِنْكُمْ عَنْ دِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِي اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ يُحِبُّهُمْ وَيُحِبُّونَهُ أَذِلَّةٍ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَعِزَّةٍ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ يُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَلاَ يَخَافُونَ لَوْمَةَ لاَئِمٍ ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ. [
“O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his religion (Islam), Allah will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him; humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers, fighting in the Way of Allah, and never afraid of the blame of the blamers. That is the Grace of Allah, which He bestows on whom He wills. And Allah is All­-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All­-Knower.” [TMQ Al-Mā’idah:54] the word humility (zillah) here means mercy, compassion and leniency and should not be confused with the word zull which means disgrace and humiliation. The word ‘izzah means sternness, harshness, enmity and defeat. It is said that the expression ‘azzahu means he defeated him. The land which is ‘izaaz is the firm and rigid land due to His سبحانه وتعالى saying:
]مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ. [
“Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and those who are with him are severe agains disbelievers.” [TMQ Al-Fath:29] Also, Allah سبحانه وتعالى ordered his Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم to make himself gentle (lower his wings) to the believers. He سبحانه وتعالى says:
]وَاخْفِضْ جَنَاحَكَ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ. [
“And make yourself gentle for the believers.” [TMQ Al-Hijr:88]
In another ayah He سبحانه وتعالى said:
]وَاخْفِضْ جَنَاحَكَ لِمَنْ اتَّبَعَكَ مِنْ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ. [
“And be kind and humble to the believers who follow you.” [TMQ ash-Shu’arā’:215]
i.e. be lenient towards them and show kindness.
He سبحانه وتعالى forbade him to be harsh with them when He said:
]فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِنْ اللَّهِ لِنْتَ لَهُمْ وَلَوْ كُنْتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لاَنْفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ وَشَاوِرْهُمْ فِي الأَمْرِ فَإِذَا عَزَمْتَ فَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَوَكِّلِينَ. [
“And by the Mercy of Allah, you dealt with them gently. And had you been severe and harsh­hearted, they would have broken away from about you; so pass over (their faults), and ask (Allah’s) Forgiveness for them; and consult them in the affairs. Then when you have taken a decision, put your trust in Allah, certainly, Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him).” [TMQ Aali ‘Imrān:159]
While He سبحانه وتعالى orders His Messenger to be compassionate and lenient and forbids him from being stern towards the believers at the same time He orders the Messenger to be harsh towards the Kuffar and the hypocrites:
]يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ. [
“O Prophet (Muhammad)! Strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and be harsh against them, their abode is Hell, - and worst indeed is that destination.” [TMQ at-Tawbah:73]
The address (khitāb) to the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم is an address to his Ummah as long is there is no evidence of specification. The believer is obliged to be compassionate, show mercy and leniency and and make himself gentle to the believers and be stern, harsh, hostile and defeating to the Kuffar. He سبحانه وتعالى says:
]يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ يَلُونَكُمْ مِنْ الْكُفَّارِ وَلْيَجِدُوا فِيكُمْ غِلْظَةً وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ. [
“O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are close to you, and let them find harshness in you, and know that Allah is with those who are the al-Muttaqun (the pious).” [TMQ at-Tawbah:123]
The Sunnah has confirming this issue. Thus, in the hadīth of an-Nu’man b. Basheer (ra) it is narrated that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم says:
}مثل المؤمنين في توادهم وتراحمهم وتعاطفهم مثل الجسد، إذا اشتكى منه عضو تداعى له سائر الجسد بالسهر والحمى. {
“The example of the believers in their mutual love, compassion and empathy is like that of a body. If one part is hurt then the rest of the body calls out in sleeplessness and fever.”
Muslim reported on the authority of ‘Iyaad b. Himaar  (ra) who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم say:
}أهل الجنة ثلاثة: ذو سلطان مقسط متصدق موفق، ورجل رحيم رقيق القلب لكل ذي قربى ومسلم، وعفيف متعفف ذو عيال. {
“The people of Jannah are three; a ruler who is just, gives alms and brings reconciliation, a man who is soft hearted and compassionate to his relatives and all Muslims, and a man who is chaste and virtuous having lot of children but with little means.”
In the hadīth of Jabir b. ‘Abd Allah it is narrated that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:
}من لا يرحم لا يرحم. {
“The one who shows no compassion will not be shown any compassion.”
Being deprived of compassion i.e. the compassion of Allah is an indication that compassion towards the believers is obligatory.
Also indicating the obligation of mutual compassion is the hadīth narrated by Ibn Hibbaan in his Sahīh on the authority of Abu Hurayrah who said: I heard Abul Qasim, the honest and trustworthy, say:
}إن الرحمة لا تنـزع إلا من شقي. {
“Mercy is not taken away except from one who is wretched and nasty.”
Also what Muslim narrated on the authority of ‘Ayisha who said; I heard the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم say in my house:
}اللهم من ولي من أمر أمتي شيئاً فشق عليهم فاشقق عليه ومن ولي من أمر أمتي شيئاً فرفق بهم فارفق به. {
“O Allah whoever has been given authority over the affaires of my Ummah and was harsh with them, then be harsh with him. And whoever has been given authority over the affaires of my Ummah and was kind with them, then show him kindness.”
If someone claims that the request for mercy has come in the general form and it includes all people whether they be Muslim, Kaafir, hypocrite, obedient or disobedient due to the hadīth of Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported by Muslim where the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:
}لا يرحم الله من لا يرحم الناس. {
“Allah will not show compassion to the one that does not show compassion to the people.”
It is correct that the expression ‘people’ is general (‘aam) but it is a general expression from which the specific is intended such as in His سبحانه وتعالى saying:
]الَّذِينَ قَالَ لَهُمْ النَّاسُ إِنَّ النَّاسَ قَدْ جَمَعُوا لَكُمْ. [
“Those (i.e. believers) unto whom the people (hypocrites) said, ‘Verily, the people (pagans) have gathered against you (a great army)’.” [TMQ 3:173]
Narrations about the Messenger’s صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم mercy for the believers can be seen in what the two Shaykhs reported on the authority of ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Umar (ra) who said:
}اشتكى سعد بن عبادة شكوى له، فأتى رسول الله يعوده مع عبد الرحمن بن عوف وسعد بن أبي وقاص وعبد الله بن مسعود، فلما دخل عليه وجده في غشية، فقال: أقد قضى؟ قالوا لا يا رسول فبكى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ، فلما رأى القوم بكاء رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم بكوا، فقال: ألا تسمعون؟ إن الله لا يعذب بدمع العين، ولا بحزن القلب، ولكن يعذب بهذا -وأشار إلى لسانه- أو يرحم. {
Sa’d b. ‘Ubaadah became sick and the Prophet along with ‘Abd ar-Rahman b. ‘Awf, sa’d b. Abi Waqqas and ‘Abdullah b. Mas’ud visited him to inquire about his health. When he came to him, he found him surrounded by his household and he asked: “Has he died?” They said, “No, O Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم.” Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم wept and when the people saw the weeping of Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم they all wept. He said: “Will you not listen? Allah does not punish for shedding tears, nor for the grief of the heart but He punishes or bestows His Mercy because of this, he pointed to his tongue.”
Also the hadīth reported by at-Tirmidhi, which he said is hasan sahīh, on the authority of ‘Ayisha
}أن النبي قبّل عثمان بن مظعون، وهو ميت، وهو يبكي، أو قال عيناه تذرفان.{
“The Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم kissed ‘Uthman b. Maż’un when he died. He wept (or the narrator said his eyes were flowing with tears).”
Muslim reported on the authority of Anas (ra):
}أن النبي كان لا يدخل على أحد من النساء إلا على أزواجه إلا أم سليم، فإنه كان يدخل عليها فقيل له في ذلك فقال: إني أرحمها، قتل أخوها معي. {
“The Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم did not enter the presence of any women except his wives and except Umm Saleem. He used to enter her presence, and when asked about it he said: ‘I have compassion for her, her brother was killed with me (whilst in battle).”
An example of his leniency towards the believers is what al-Bukharī reported from ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Umar (ra) who said:
}حاصر النبي أهل الطائف فلم يفتحها، فقال إنا قافلون غداً إن شاء الله، فقال المسلمون: نقفل ولم تفتح؟ قال: فاغدوا على القتال، فغدوا فأصابتهم جراحات قال النبي إنا قافلون غداً إن شاء الله، فكأن ذلك أعجبهم فتبسم رسول الله. {
“The Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم besieged the Taa’if but was not able to open it. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said: “We are returning home tomorrow, if Allah wills. The Muslims said: ‘do we return? But we have not opened Taa’if?” He said: Be ready in the morning to fight.’ They were ready to fight the next morning but they sustained many injuries. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said: “We are returning home tomorrow, if Allah wills.” This seemed to please the Sahabah, Allah’s Messenger smiled.
An example of his kindness for the believers is what Muslim reported on the authority of Mu’awiyyah b. al-Hakam as-Salami who said:
}بينا أنا أصلي مع رسول الله ، إذ عطس رجل من القوم، فقلت يرحمك الله، فرماني القوم بأبصارهم، فقلت: واثكل أمياه! ما شأنكم تنظرون إليّ؟ فجعلوا يضربون بأيديهم على أفخاذهم، فلما رأيتهم يصمتونني لكني سكت، فلما صلى رسول الله ، فبأبي هو وأمي، ما رأيت معلماً قبله وبعده أحسن تعليماً منه، فوالله ما كهرني ولا ضربني ولا شتمني، قال: إن هذه الصلاة لا يصلح فيها شيء من كلام الناس، إنما هو التسبيح والتكبير وقراءة القرآن. {
“I was praying behind the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and someone in the congregation sneezed. I said [to him]: ‘May Allah سبحانه وتعالى have mercy upon you.’ The people then stared at me, showing their disapproval of my act. I said: ‘Woe to me, why do you stare at me so?’ They started to strike their hands on their thighs and when I saw that they wanted me to become silent, I was angered but said nothing. When the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم finished the prayer - and may my father and mother be ransomed for him, I found no teacher better than him either before or after him - he did not scold, beat, or revile me but he simply said: ‘Talking to others is not seemly during the salah, for the salah is for glorifying Allah سبحانه وتعالى, extolling His Greatness, and reciting the Qur’ān.’”
Also the hadīth reported by al-Bukharī on the authority of Anas (ra) who said:
}كنت أمشي مع رسول الله وعليه برد نجراني غليظ الحاشية، فأدركه أعرابي، فجذبه جذبة حتى رأيت صفح أو صفحة عنق رسول الله قد أثرت بها حاشية البرد من شدة جذبه، فقال يا محمد أعطني من مال الله الذي عندك، فالتفت إليه فضحك ثم أمر له بعطاء. {
“While I was walking with the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم who was wearing a Najrani outer garment with a thick hem, a bedouin came upon the Prophet and pulled his garment so violently that I could see the impression of the hem of the garment on his shoulder, caused by the violence of his pull. Then the bedouin said, “Order for me something from Allah’s fortune which you have.” The Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم turned to him and smiled, and ordered that a gift be given to him.”
To give a picture of compassion of the Sahabah had for each other we have the hadīth reported by Muslim on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas who said: ‘when ‘Umar was stabbed Suhayb entered and began to cry. He kept saying: ‘Oh my brother, oh my companion.’
At-Tirmidhi reported a hadīth, which he said is hasan sahīh, on the authority of Waaqid b. ‘Amr b. Sa’d b. Mu’adh who said: Anas b. Malik came so I went to see him. He said: who are you? I said I am Waaqid b. Sa’d b. Mu’adh. He began to cry. He said: You look like Sa’d.
Muslim reported on the authority of Anas (ra) who said that after the death of Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم Abu Bakr (ra) said to ‘Umar (ra): come, let us visit Umm Ayman as the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم used to visit her. When we reached her place she began to weep. They said: what makes you cry? What Allah سبحانه وتعالى has is better for His Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم. She said: I am not crying because I do not know that what Allah سبحانه وتعالى has is better for His Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم. I am crying because the revelation from the heavens has come to an end. Her words moved them so much that both of them began to weep with her.
Muslim reported a long hadīth on the authority of ‘Umar b. al-Khattab (ra) regarding the ransoming of the prisoners of Badr: the next day I came while the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and Abu Bakr (ra) were sitting and crying. I said: O Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم, tell me what is making you and your friend to weep. If I find a reason to cry then I will cry and if I don’t find a reason then I will pretend to cry with you…’
}وروى ابن عبد البر، في الاستيعاب عن جنادة بن أبي أمية، أن عبادة بن الصامت كان على قتال الاسكندرية، وكان منعهم من القتال فقاتلوا، فقال أدرك الناس يا جنادة، فذهبت ثم رجعت إليه فقال: أقُتل أحد؟ فقلت لا، فقال: الحمد لله أن لم يُقْـتَل منهم أحدٌ عاصياً. {
Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr reported in al-Istee’aab on the authority of Janaadah b. Abi Umayyah that ‘Ubaadah b. Saamit was in charge of fighting at Alexandria, and he had prevented them from fighting but they fought. So he called upon me and said: O Junadah, reach the people. So I went there and returned back to him. He asked: Has any body been killed? I said: No. He said: Praise is to Allah سبحانه وتعالى that not one of them was killed while being disobedient.
Here we need to clarify the distinction between showing mercy, leniency and compassion amongst Muslims and being firm and strong with them. What must be apparent is that there is no mercy, compassion or leniency in the application of the Sharī’ah rule and matters of harm to the Muslims. Here one must be strong and firm in applying the rules and preventing any harm to the Muslims.
The following is a clarification of that which relates to the application of the Sharī’ah rule:
The above hadīth of Abu Hurayrah (ra) as reported by Ahmad in which the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:
}اضربوه ثم يقول: قولوا رحمك الله. {
“Beat him,” and then afterwards he would say: “say may Allah have mercy on you.”
In Hudaybiyyah he صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم went against their opinion because the issues relates to a Sharī’ah rule. The hadīth in this regard is known. He صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم did know show any compassion in order to avoid putting them in difficulty i.e. under the pretext of having mercy, compassion and leniency like those who go agent his command.
In the hadīth of ‘Ayisha (ra) it is narrated that she said:
}إن قريشاً أهمهم شأن المرأة المخزومية التي سرقت، فقالوا من يكلم فيها رسول الله ، فقالوا: من يجترئ عليه إلا أسامة حب رسول الله ، فكلمه أسامة، فقال رسول الله: أتشفع في حد من حدود الله ثم قام فاختطب فقال: أيها الناس إنما هلك الذين قبلكم أنهم كانوا إذا سرق فيهم الشريف تركوه وإذا سرق فيهم الضعيف أقاموا عليه الحد وأيم الله لو أن فاطمة بنت محمد سرقت لقطعت يدها. {
Quraysh were concerned about a woman from Banu Makhzūm who had stolen something. They said who will speak Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم about her. They said: “who can dare to do this except Usāmah (ra) the one that Allah’s Messenger loves.” So Usāmah (ra) spoke to him. The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said to him: “are you interceding for a Hadd of Allah سبحانه وتعالى ?” Then he stood and addressed the people: “O people, those before you were destroyed because when the noble amongst them stole they left him but when the poor amongst them stole they applied the Hadd upon him. By Allah! Had Faatimah the daughter of Muhammad stole then I would have cut her hand off.”
He was not lenient to the Quraysh, he did not show compassion to the woman from Banu Makhzūm and he rejected the intercession of Usāmah (ra). (Agreed upon)
Had the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم been merciful to anyone regarding the application of the Sharī’ah rule he would have done so with al-Hasan b. ‘Ali when he took a date allotted for charity. Abu Hurayrah (ra) narrated that ‘al-Hasan b. Ali took date from the sadaqah and put it in his mouth. The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:
}كخ كخ، إرم بها، أما علمت أنا لا نأكل الصدقة؟!{
Kakh, kakh, spit it out. Do you not know we do not eat Sadaqah?!’ (Agreed upon)
As for the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم resolve in repelling a harm this is clear from the Hadīth of Mu’adh reported by Muslim in the expedition of Tabuk: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:
}إنكم ستأتون غداً إن شاء الله عين تبوك، وإنكم لن تأتوها حتى يضحى النهار، فمن جاءها منكم فلا يمسّ من مائها شيئاً حتى آتي، فجئناها وقد سبقنا إليها رجلان، فتكون مثل الشراك تبض بشيء من ماء، قال: فسألهما رسول الله: هل مسستما من مائها شيئاً؟ قالا نعم فسبهما النبي ، وقال لهما ما شاء الله أن يقول ... {
“Tomorrow you will come, insha’-Allah, to the spring of Tabuk. But you will not get there until well into the morning. No one who arrives should touch any of its water until I come.’ We came to it and two men had got to it before us and the spring was dripping with a little water. The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم asked them, ‘Have you touched any of its water?’ They said, ‘Yes.’ The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم, May Allah سبحانه وتعالى bless him and grant him peace, reviled them and said what Allah سبحانه وتعالى wished him to say.”
Ibn Ishaaq reported the hadīth of Muhmmad b. Yahyah b. Hibbaan about the story of Bani Mustalaq and what the hypocrites did:
}... فسار رسول الله بالناس حتى أمسوا، وليلته حتى أصبحوا، وصدر يومه حتى اشتد الضحى، ثم نزل بالناس ليشغلهم عما كان من الحديث ... {
“Then the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم walked with the men all that day till nightfall, and through the night until morning and during the following day until the sun distressed them. Then he halted them to distract them from the subject”.
As for the resolve of the Sahabah (ra) the most prominent example is what Abu Bakr (ra) did in respect to fighting the Murtaddeen, sending the army of Usāmah (ra) against the wishes of all the Muslims. They acceded to his opinion, executed his command and then praised him.
If we excluded the application of the Sharī’ah which includes repelling the harm then one cay say: those people who are shown compassion are those who have been hit by a misfortune such as death, illness, loss of a loved one; as for the ignorant person he should be shown compassion and leniency whilst teaching him and being patient. In applying the mubaah one should choose the easiest option, prefer leniency to strictness as the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم did when he besieged Taa’if, as mentioned above in the hadīth of Ibn ‘Umar (ra) reported by al-Bukharī.
What remains now is to give a picture of the harshness of the Muslims for the Kuffar:

First: In battle:
A Hadīth of Wahshi reported by al-Bukharī in which he said: “When the people set out (for the battle of Uhud) in the year of ‘Ainain (‘Ainain is a mountain near the mountain of Uhud, and between it and Uhud there is a valley) I went out with the people for the battle. When the army aligned for the fight, Siba’ came out and said, ‘Is there any (Muslim) to accept my challenge to a duel?’ Hamza bin ‘Abdul Muttalib (ra) came out and said, ‘O Siba! O Ibn Um Anmar, the one who circumcises other ladies! Do you challenge Allah and His Messenger?’ Then Hamza attacked and killed him, causing him to be non-extant like the bygone yesterday…”
Stories of duels fought by Hamza, ‘Ali, al-Barraa, Khalid, ‘Amru b. Ma’di Karib, ‘Aamir, Juhayr b. Rafi’ and others are present in the books of Seerah and Maghaazi. One can refer to them for more about this because this book is not a book of Seerah or stories and hence just alluding to the subject fulfils the aim.
Second: In negotiations:
The hadīth of al-Miswar and Marwaan reported by al-Bukharī which states: Urwa kept on talking to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and seizing the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم beard as he was talking while Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba was standing near the head of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم, holding a sword and wearing a helmet. Whenever Urwa stretched his hand towards the beard of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم, Al-Mughira would hit his hand with the handle of the sword and say (to Urwa),
“Remove your hand from the beard of Allah’s Messenger.”
In the previous hadīth of ‘Urwah said: “I do not see (with you) dignified people, but people from various tribes who would run away leaving you alone.” Hearing that, Abu Bakr (ra) abused him and said, “Do you say we would run and leave the Prophet (ra) alone?” The fact that the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم remained silent over the action of al-Mughirah and the saying of Abu Bakr (ra) indicates approval of their action.
Muhammad b. al-Hasan ash-Shaybaani mention in as-Siyar al-Kabīr said: Usaud b. Hudhayr (ra) came while ‘Uyaynah was extending his feet in the attendance of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم. Usayd (ra) said: O ‘Uyaynah, the evil, pull back your feet. Do you extend your feet in the presence of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم. Had not been for the sake of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم, I would have punched your two testicles with the spear. Since when did you desired this in us?
There are negotiations scattered within the pages of books undertaken by Thaabit b. Aqram b. al-‘Aas, Mugheerah b. Shu’bah, Qutaybah, Muhammad b. Muslim, al-Ma’moon and others. All of these are examples of honour and leadership for those engaged in the work.
Third; in dealing with those who broke their agreement:
He سبحانه وتعالى said:
]الَّذِينَ عَاهَدْتَ مِنْهُمْ ثُمَّ يَنقُضُونَ عَهْدَهُمْ فِي كُلِّ مَرَّةٍ وَهُمْ لاَ يَتَّقُونَ. فَإِمَّا تَثْقَفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْحَرْبِ فَشَرِّدْ بِهِمْ مَنْ خَلْفَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ. [
“They are those with whom you made a covenant, but they break their covenant every time and they do not fear Allah. So if you gain the mastery over them in war, punish them severely in order to disperse those who are behind them, so that they may learn a lesson.” [TMQ Al-Anfāl:56-57]
The hadīth of Abu Hurayrah (ra) reported by Muslim regarding the conquest of Makkah after Quraysh violated their treaty the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:
}يا معشر الأنصار، هل ترون أوباش قريش؟ قالوا نعم، قال انظروا إذا لقيتموهم غداً أن تحصدوهم حصداً، وأخفى بيده ووضع يمينه على شماله، وقال موعدكم الصفا، قال فما أشرف يومئذ لهم أحد إلا أناموه .... {
“O Assembly of Ansar; You see the ruffians and the (lowly) followers of the Quraysh. And he indicated by (striking) one of his hands over the other that they should be killed, and said: Meet me at as-Safa’. Then we went on (and) if any one of us wanted a certain person to be killed, he was killed..”
A Hadīth of Ibn ‘Umar (ra) which states: An-Nadir and Bani Quraiza fought (against the Prophet violating their peace treaty), so the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم exiled Bani An-Nadir and allowed Bani Quraiza to remain at their places (in Medina) taking nothing from them till they fought against the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم again. He then killed their men and distributed their women, children and property among the Muslims, but some of them came to the Prophet and he granted them safety, and they embraced Islam. He exiled all the Jews from Medina. They were the Jews of Bani Qainuqa’, the tribe of ‘Abdullah bin Salam and the Jews of Bani Haritha and all the other Jews of Medina.
English translation is available from here


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